SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENTF W Taylor is recognized as the father ofscientific management, who attempted tointroduce a rational and systematicapproach to management.Emphasis is given to planning,standardising and improving humanefficiency at the different operation levels,in order to maximise output with minimuminput.
Principles / Elements of Scientific Management1. Scientific task setting2. Planning3. Study of the different works / activities4. Scientific selection and training of workers5. Standardising6. Differential piece-rate system of wages7. Functional organisation8. Mental revolution9. Cost accounting
1. Scientific task setting Standard task is the quantity of work which an average worker can perform under ideal standardised conditions in one day, generally called ‘a fair day’s work’, which for every worker should be fixed after a scientific study.
2. Planning Planning is the heart of Scientificmanagement as per Taylor. He wanted toset up a Planning Department for everyenterprise. Thus “what to do, when to do, where todo and how to do” is planned before thecommencement of the project.
3. Study of work It is the critical examination of all the factors governing the operational efficiency of any specific activity. Study is conducted regarding the movement of the worker, time taken, fatigue, etc. Thus the best method of doing a job and the standard time required for its completion is determined.
4. Scientific selection and training of workers A systematic way for the selection of workers is to be followed, depending upon the nature of work to be done. Every job must be entrusted to the best worker considering his skill, experience and trainings undergone. Before appointment the workers are to given an induction training. Proper trainings to update their knowledge in the latest techniques are also to be conducted when ever needed.
5. Standardisation Standardisation of performance, tools, equipments, materials, working conditions, etc. is necessary as per scientific management. Workers are to be provided with the required tools, materials and the environment, so that the works are executed with the optimum no. of workers, expenditure and time.
(1) Establishing standards Standards of performance are set upfor various operations at the planning stage,which serve as the basis for any control system. Establishment of standards in terms ofquality, quantity or time is necessary for effectivecontrol. Standards may be of physical naturelike units, men, hours, etc. or of monetary naturesuch as sales, revenue, expenses, etc. whichshould be precise, acceptable and workable.They should be flexible also, if circumstancesarises they are to be changed.
(2) Appraising performance This step involves measuringactual performance of various individuals,groups, or units and then comparing it withthe standards and investigate the causesof any deviation from the standards.
(3) Taking corrective measures If there is any deviation fromthe objectives of the enterprise,corrective actions are to be taken. Ifthe standards are found to bedefective, modifications are to bemade.
6. Differential piece-rate system of wages Financial incentives helps to ensure efficiency and speed of work done by the workers. A worker is to be rewarded depending upon the efforts put by him for the betterment of the enterprise. This will encourage each and every worker to be committed to the company.
7. Functional Organisation Planning and production activities are to be separated under different managers. Depending upon the functions the organisational set up is to divided.
8. Mental Revolution Scientific management aims at revolutionising the minds of both the workers and the management in such a way that the workers start feeling that the enterprise is their own and they put their heart and soul in the work assigned to them. Management and workers should have mutual respect and work in co- operation.
9. Cost Accounting It is a direct offspring of scientific management. Right from the first stage of production to the last stage, cost accounting enables the management to plan, organise and to direct the production and marketing of the products in a manner by which it helps in reducing the production and distribution cost and increasing the profit of the enterprise.
Weakness of Scientific ManagementScientific Management is confined to increasingthe production and profit of the enterprise andis devoid of human element, the health andwelfare of the workers.Sometimes it gives birth to the workers’ tradeunion movements.
Role of ComputersDatabase is created to be manipulated and presented as reports rather than asking data processing personnel to create new programs to manipulate specialised data.The decision maker can work with unprecedented speed and accuracy due to the introduction of computers.Inflation creates complications in the financial planning and which can be solved easily using computers. Tight control of financial aspects is required to make the project viable and profitable.
Project Management Programs Project management is the areawhere the application of computer systemis inevitable. Sophisticated commercialprograms are available like Harward TotalProject Manager, Prism, Instaplan,Promis, Success planned, PrimaveraProject Planning, Microsoft Project, etc.
MANAGEMENT OF A “CONSTRUCTION PROJECT” It aims at the completion of the project,with the optimum use of materials, manpower, time, finance, etc. withoutcompromising on the quality of work, withthe proper co-operation and co-ordinationamong the different wings of the project.
The various steps involved are:-1. Establishment of the objectives of the project2. Administrative, financial and technical control3. Planning and designing4. Procurement of resources5. Recruitment and training of staff and labour6. Payment of wages and salaries7. Welfare of the staff and labour8. Establishment of round the clock communication
The different stages of a Construction Project 1. Conceptual or Initiation stage 2. Study and Evaluation Stage 3. Design, Drawing and Estimate preparation 4. Defining Specifications 5. Contractor Realisation 6. Procurement of materials 7. Construction stage 8. Utilisation and Maintenance
1. Conceptual or Initiation stage Due to the efforts of the individuals or groups or to satisfy the needs of the society, many construction projects take shape. The ideas conceived by them are to be analysed by the Engineer and the most economical project having the best utility, depending upon the necessities is to be taken up.
2. Study and Evaluation Stage The ideas put forward during the initiation stage are analysed with respect to its feasibility, social utility and “COST and BENEFIT”. For this preliminary survey is done and rough estimate is prepared. Once the project is accepted, an administrative approval is accorded and the budget provision is made.
3. Preparation of Design, Drawings and EstimatesThis is the most important stage of construction.Detailed investigations and surveys areconducted regarding the site and surroundingenvironment and the sources of materials, labour,infrastructural / communication facilities, power,etc. Land acquisition and approval of the localauthority are acquired. Design, Drawings andEstimates are prepared, the precision of whichaffects the economy of the whole project.
4. Specifications Standard Specifications are to be followed as far as possible. The Engineer should have practical common sense also, locally available materials and labour are to be made use of as far as possible.
5. Contractor RealisationGenerally large and medium projects are constructed by awarding a contract at suitable terms and conditions.This stage involves preparations for calling tenders, their evaluation and the final award of the work to a contractor, who has successfully executed similar works in the past.Medium and small works are carried out departmentally by the department engineers. In this case also internal orders are issued for authorised expenditure and execution of the work.
When two or more persons have acommon intension communicated to eachother to create some obligation betweenthem, then it is an “Agreement”.An agreement endorsed by law is called a“Contract”.
6. Procurement of materials The engineer should determine the required type and quantity of materials and procure them before starting the work or its regular supply be ensured without causing any wastage, storage problems or obstructions to the workers at site.
7. Utilisation and Maintenance After completion of the project the structure is handed over to the promoter for its use and operation. Its performance and the extend of maintenance or repair works needed as years pass by provides a valuable feed back and helps in creating better ways of construction and management of similar projects in future.
Preparatory Works of a Construction Project The requirements of the preparatory work can be assessed only after examining the nature of the work, magnitude of the work, execution period of the work, etc.The works include:-1) Access to the work site2) Acquisition of land3) Setting up of a construction camp4) A site service plant5) Provision of infrastructural facilities
(1) Access to the work siteThe most economical and practical mode of transportation system, road/rail/waterway, to the work site is to be determined.Roads must be constructed before the starting of the project, if necessary.
(2) Acquisition of landLand required for the site camp, service plant, work site etc. are to acquired by the owner of the project before the commencement of the project.
(3) Setting up of a construction campThe size and type of construction camp depends upon the type of work, magnitude of work, duration of work and the fund available for the purpose.Planning of a construction camp should depend upon certain principles.They are:-1. Store should be located near the access2. Temporary/permanent quarters for the workers are to be provided near to the work site.3. All basic needs are to be provided, health clinic, primary school, recreation club, etc.
(4) A site service plant The service plant requires a great deal of study, as the smooth flow of different activities depend on the design and functioning of the service camp. The general requirements include:-1) Main office for the Engineers2) Time office for time keepers and pay roll clerks3) First aid facilities in case of emergency4) Testing laboratories for the testing of the building materials5) Warehouses for storage of electrical equipment, tools, etc.6) Garages7) Various shops like carpenters’, electricians’, machine, etc.8) Reinforcing steel yard- for placing and working with steel9) Storage yard- open yard for sand, stone, bricks, pipes, timber and enclosed yards for cement, lime, paints, etc.10) Power plant- for generating electric power11) Pump house- for fire fighting, water supply12) Weigh Bridge- for weighing materials13) Check-post and security post.
(5) Provision of infrastructural facilities The necessary infrastructural facilities are to be provided in the construction camp, site office, quarters, service plant, etc.
THE CONSTRUCTION TEAM1. The Owner2. The Engineer3. The Contractor or the Builder