Th Thomas Hardy Love Triangles


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A lengthy program that analyzes the use of "love triangles" through the novels of Thomas Hardy. Designed to facilitate the teaching of Thomas Hardy's novels to college students, it also outlines the plots and characters prevalent in all of Hardy's novels.

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Th Thomas Hardy Love Triangles

  1. 1. LOVE TRIANGLES IN THE NOVELS OF <br />THOMAS HARDY<br />Designed by Charles Henderson: <br />Dayspring Instructional Materials Inc.<br /> Ozark, Missouri <br />
  2. 2. The novels of Hardy are all based on a series of triangles, principally with a female at the apex and competing males at each base. Hardy’s genius is<br />founded in his ability to take a time-tested premise and reveal the many ways the “love triangle” can be plottedwhile retaining the reader’s interest.<br />
  3. 3. Hardy’s view of fatalism, however, rarely allows for the happy ending that we have learned to expect from Dickens’ novels. In fact, only four novels, <br />The Laodician,<br />Far From The Madding Crowd, <br />Desperate Remedies, and<br /> Under The Greenwood Tree,<br />end with what can be deemed happy endings.<br />
  4. 4. This study is designed to make the triangles more <br />apparent and facilitate an easy analysis for teaching<br />
  5. 5. DESPERATE<br />REMEDIES<br />
  6. 6. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />AMBROSE GRAYE: father of Owen and Cytherea, an<br /> architect who loved CythereaBradleigh<br /> to be known as Miss Aldclyffe.<br />OWEN GRAYE: an architect and brother to Cytherea. <br />EDWARD SPRINGROVE: a handsome young man who <br /> fell in love with CythereaGraye.<br />MISS ALDCLYFFE: widow of Captain Aldclyffe who <br /> loved Ambrose Graye but couldn’t marry him. Her<br /> real name is CythereaBradleigh.<br />EUNICE MANSTON: first wife of AneasManston<br />
  7. 7. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />ANEAS MANSTON: Illegitimate son of Miss Aldclyffe<br /> by a cousin. He was abandoned on a widow’s door <br /> as a baby.<br />ANNE SEAWAY: a woman of suspect reputation who<br /> consented to act as Manston’s wife for a time.<br />ADELAIDE HINTON: cousin of Edward Springrove to <br /> whom he had been engaged for sometime.<br />PARSON RAUNHAM: the bachelor rector of the <br /> church, a relative of Miss Aldclyffe by <br /> marriage who was instrumental in bringing<br /> out the details about Manston and his wife. <br />
  10. 10. ANEAS MUNSTON<br />ADELAIDE<br /> HINTON<br />CYTHEREA<br /> GRAYE<br />MRS. <br />MUNSTON<br />EDWARD<br />SPRINGROVE<br />FARMER<br />BOLLENS<br />
  12. 12. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li> Ambrose Graye fell in love with Cytherea</li></ul>Bradliegh who would not marry him because<br /> she had already had a child by her cousin, a<br /> military officer who was killed in India.<br /><ul><li> Ambrose dies on the job leaving his children,</li></ul> Owen and Cytherea without any money. <br /><ul><li> Owen has been trained as an architect but</li></ul> has difficulty supporting his sister. <br /><ul><li> She takes a job with the eccentric </li></ul> Miss Aldclyffe as an maid.<br />
  13. 13. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Cytherea meets Edward Springrove whom </li></ul> she loves immediately. But she also gets the<br /> attention of AneasManston, an older man.<br /><ul><li> The dynamics that drives Hardy’s plot and </li></ul> creates suspense because the reader doesn’t<br /> know the following facts:<br /><ul><li> Miss Aldclyffe is CythereaBradleigh.
  14. 14. She would not marry Ambrose Graye</li></ul> because she had a child by her cousin.<br /><ul><li> That child was Aneas whom she abandoned</li></ul> at the Manston door step. But she <br /> continued to provide for him during his life.<br />
  15. 15. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li> Miss Aldclyffe hires Aneas as her steward</li></ul> and sets out to have him marry Cytherea even<br /> though she did not love Manston.<br /><ul><li> Two developments helped Manston’s cause:</li></ul> (1) Owen Graye became seriously ill, could<br /> not work, and had poor medical help.<br /> (2) A fire destroyed Edward Springrove senior’s<br /> property which actually belonged to Miss<br />Aldcylffe and on which he had no insurance.<br /> (3) Aneas’ wife is allegedly burned to death<br /> in the fire.<br /><ul><li> Miss Aldclyffe told Cytherea about Edward’s </li></ul> engagement to Adelaide.<br />
  16. 16. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Aneasofferes to help Owen as a way to get</li></ul> her to feel good about him; also he presses<br /> her for marriage.<br /><ul><li> Miss Aldclyffe has Aneas inform Springrove</li></ul> Senior that she will not make him replace <br /> the destroyed buildings if he will discourage<br /> Edward with regard to Cytherea. <br /><ul><li> Eventually Cytherea agrees to marry Aneas, </li></ul> not knowing that Miss Aldclyffe has forged<br /> a love letter from Cytherea to Aneas<br /> and has shown it to Edward Springrove.<br />
  17. 17. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Cytherea and Aneas are married and leave</li></ul> on their honeymoon. But some information<br /> arose that Aneas’ wife didn’t die in the fire.<br /><ul><li> Owen and Edward manage to get to Cytherea</li></ul> and bring her back before the marriage is<br />consumated for a hearing.<br /><ul><li>Aneas advertises in the paper for his wife, who</li></ul> left, to come back to him, and she does.<br /><ul><li> Still, on moral grounds, Cytherea will not </li></ul> marry Edward or anyone.<br />
  18. 18. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li> With the help of the Parson Raunham, Owen </li></ul> and Edward investigate whether this “wife” <br /> is actually Aneas’ wife.<br /><ul><li> It is learned that the woman living with </li></ul>Aneas is Anne Seaway, a soiled woman, and<br /> the question arose: why did he do this? And <br /> not just to eventually marry Cytherea.<br /><ul><li> The story picks up with Ann Seaway who </li></ul> follows Aneas one night and finds him pulling<br /> his wife’s body out of a boarded up furnace.<br /><ul><li> Two other people, Miss Aldclyffe and a private</li></ul> detective hired by Parson Raunham<br /> also follow Aneas.<br />
  19. 19. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li> They watch him take her body to the woods</li></ul> and bury it where it will never be found. Miss<br />Aldclyffe, however, warns Aneas he is being <br /> watched and he escapes.<br /><ul><li> The men of the town learn of the entire intrigue</li></ul> and set they set about to capture Aneas.<br /><ul><li> He is finally caught when he tries to rape </li></ul>Cytherea.<br /><ul><li> In his cell he hangs himself and leaves a long </li></ul> letter explaining that he accidentally killed his<br /> when she turned her head as he tried to slap<br /> her because she enraged him. <br />
  20. 20. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Aneas revealed that he hired Ann because of</li></ul> speculation that he may have killed his wife, and<br /> he wanted to ally those ideas.<br /><ul><li> On her dying bed, Miss Aldclyffe fills in the </li></ul> details about Aneas’ birth and why she tried to <br /> help him marry Cytherea, the daughter of the<br /> man she truly loved.<br /><ul><li> She leaves part of her fortune to Cytherea and</li></ul> part to the Rector Raunham who is her relative.<br /><ul><li>Cytherea forces the Rector to take her share of</li></ul> the Aldclyffe fortune.<br /><ul><li> Owen secures a profitable position.
  21. 21. Cytherea and Edward are married, his fiance</li></ul> having married a local farmer.<br />
  22. 22. Novel’s Resolution<br />Marries<br />Edward Springrove<br />CythereaGraye<br />
  23. 23. UNDER <br />THE <br />GREENWOOD <br />TREE<br />
  24. 24. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Fancy Day: a frivolous, vain schoolmistress who is <br />easily infatuated, in fact with three men.<br />Dick Dewey: trustworthy and dependable young <br /> businessman who doesn’t give up on Fancy. His <br /> perseverance wins her.<br />Reuben Dewey: Dick’s father, a born leader and band <br /> organizer.<br />Mr. Maybold: intelligent vicar who falls in love with <br />Fancy but decides later that she is “less than an <br /> angel.”<br />Geoffrey Day: Fancy’s father who consents to her <br />marriage.<br />Frederick Shiner: a rich farmer in his thirties, a proud<br /> man and somewhat of a coward. Fancy had a<br /> temporary infatuation for him.<br />
  25. 25. FANCY DAY<br />FANCY DAY<br />Mr. Maybold<br />Dick Dewey<br />Frederic Shiner<br />Dick Dewey<br />
  26. 26. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li> The story is set around the Christmas </li></ul> season in which musical groups travel<br /> through the area entertaining their<br /> neighbors.<br /><ul><li> A very simple love story in which Fancy Day, </li></ul> a beautiful young girl, teases three men.<br /><ul><li> She eventually makes the right choice by </li></ul> choosing the industrious Dick Dewey.<br />
  27. 27. Novel’s Resolution<br />Marries<br />Dick Dewey<br />Fancy Day<br />
  28. 28. A PAIR OF<br /> BLUE EYES<br />
  29. 29. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Elfride Swancourt: Beautiful and naïve young <br />woman falls in love with Stephen Smith, a poor <br />but rising architect who comes to work on the <br />church her father pastors.<br />Stephen Smith: Aspiring young architect who falls <br />in love with Elfride while working for her father on <br />a restoration project.<br />Henry Knight: Intellectual and idealist friend of <br />Smith, he comes from noble heritage. Ironically he <br />meets and wins the heart of Elfride, who rejects <br />Smith. (continued)<br />
  30. 30. MAJOR Characters Continued<br />Spencer Luxellian: Wealthy widower whom Elfride marries on the rebound after being abandoned by Henry Knight.<br />ChristopherSwancourt: Father of Elride, a small town minister who refuses to allow Stephen Smith <br />to marry Elfride because he is not wealthy and does not have noble blood. It turns out later that he and his wife had adopted Elfride.<br />
  31. 31. ELFRIDE SWANCOURT<br />Henry Knight<br />Stephen Smith<br />ELFRIDE SWANCOURT<br />Secondary Triangle<br />Henry Knight<br />Spencer Hugo Luxellian<br />Stephen Smith<br />
  32. 32. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Elfride Swancourt almost marries Stephen Smith</li></ul> in secret.<br /><ul><li> At the last minute, she backs out but promises to </li></ul>marry him later, swearing that he is her “husband.<br /><ul><li> Coincidentally Smith’s older best friend, Hendry</li></ul>Knight shows up at Elfride’s home. <br /><ul><li> Through a series of circumstances, Elfride falls</li></ul>for Knight and promises to marry him, rejecting <br /> Smith very callously without any explanation.<br /><ul><li>Knight rejects Elfride, however, when he forces </li></ul> from her the admission that she had been kissed<br /> before and had even been “promised” to <br /> someone else.<br />
  33. 33. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li>Smith finds out that Knight is her fiancé and goes</li></ul> to India to live.<br /><ul><li>Knight leaves Elfride for a long time but Smith </li></ul> never knows this.<br /><ul><li> They meet by chance in London where Knight </li></ul> learns about Smith’s involvement with Elfride, and <br />Smith learns that Elfride and Knight had never <br />married.<br /><ul><li> They both leave for her hometown to individually </li></ul> court her again.<br /><ul><li> They learn that she had married the much older </li></ul> Lord Luxellian after Knight had left her.<br /><ul><li>They also learn that Elride has died and is being </li></ul> buried that very day.<br />
  34. 34. NOVEL’S RESOLUTION<br />Henry Knight<br />Stephen Smith<br />AND<br />BOTH LOSE<br />ELFRIDE SWANCOURT<br />(WHO IS DEAD)<br />
  35. 35. FAR FROM <br />THE MADDING CROWD<br />
  36. 36. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Bathsheba Everdene:A confused female who <br /> inherited a farm. She desired to be her own boss, <br /> but she consistently showed her heavy reliance on <br /> men. She marries characterless Frank Troy, looses <br /> him, and eventually marries Gabriel Oak.<br />Gabriel Oak:A sheep rancher who lost his farm <br /> due to the actions of a novice sheep dog. Early in <br /> the novel, he proposed to Bathsheba only to have <br /> her reject him for two other men in succession. <br /> Ironically, while working for Bathsheba, he saves<br /> her ranch on two occasions, yet she still marries <br /> Frank Troy. After Troy’s murder, he finally marries<br /> Bathsheba. (continued) <br />
  37. 37. MAJOR CHARACTERS CONTINUED<br />Frank Troy:A womanizing soldier who wins Bathsheba’s heart because of his experienced ability to deceive women. He is a man of poor character having already gotten another girl, Fanny Robin, pregnant. Later he is believed to have drowned only to show up and ruin the engagement of Bathsheba to farmer William Boldwood.<br />
  38. 38. MAJOR CHARACTERS CONTINUED<br />William Boldwood: A wealthy, older bachelor<br /> and owner of land adjacent to Bathsheba’s <br /> farm. Bathsheba, through a whimsical trick, <br /> causes Boldwood to fall in love with her. <br /> After Sgt. Troy “drowned,” he secures her <br /> promise of marriage, but Troy is not dead <br /> and shows up to ruin the impending <br /> marriage. Boldwood kills Troy in a jealous<br /> rage and is subsequently executed.<br />Fanny Robin: Jilted lover of Troy whose <br /> death reveals Troy’s real nature as well as<br /> real love.<br />
  39. 39. SERGEANT TROY<br />BATHSHEBA EVERDENE<br />1<br />2<br />Sgt. Francis Troy<br />Fanny Robin<br />Gabriel Oak<br />Bathsheba Everdene<br />BATHSHEBA EVERDENE<br />3<br />Secondary Triangle<br />Sgt. Francis Troy<br />William Boldwood<br />
  40. 40. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li> Gabriel Oak proposes crudely to Bathsheba; she</li></ul>rejects him.<br /><ul><li> Oak’s entire sheep herd is killed because of a </li></ul> novice sheep dog. <br /><ul><li> Oak pays his debts and leaves the area.
  41. 41. Bathsheba moves away to her uncle’s farm and </li></ul> eventually inherits it.<br /><ul><li>Oaksaves a farm, which turns out to be </li></ul> Bathsheba’s farm, from a terrible fire. <br /><ul><li> Oak is hired on as a farm worker.
  42. 42. Wealthy nearby bachelor farmer Boldwood falls</li></ul>in love with Bathsheba.<br />(continued)<br />
  43. 43. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> Sgt. Troy shows up and courts Bathsheba.
  44. 44. Fanny Robin is pregnant by Troy but no one </li></ul> else one knows this.<br /><ul><li> Troy marries Bathsheba and begins to gamble</li></ul> as well as being a bad manager.<br /><ul><li>Oak again saves the farm while Troy and the </li></ul> workers sleep in a drunken slumber.<br /><ul><li> Fanny Robin and her baby die.
  45. 45. Bathsheba learns Robin was pregnant by Troy
  46. 46. Troy finally runs away after Fanny Robin’s </li></ul> death and is reported dead in a suicide attempt. <br /><ul><li> Troy has admitted to Bathsheba that he really </li></ul>only lovedFanny Robin.<br />(continued)<br />
  47. 47. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li>Oak saves the sheep herd, and the farm, for a </li></ul>third time and is made manager.<br /><ul><li> Boldwood gets a commitment from Bathsheba</li></ul> to marry him in a few years.<br /><ul><li> On the night of their engagement party, Troy</li></ul> suddenly appears.<br /><ul><li> He had not drowned and had been working</li></ul> as an actor in a traveling carnival.<br /><ul><li> Boldwood kills Troy in rage in Bathsheba’s</li></ul> house and is subsequently executed.<br /><ul><li> Oak and Bathsheba are finally married.</li></li></ul><li>THENOVEL’S RESOLUTION<br />The following characters are dead:<br /><ul><li> Francis Troy
  48. 48. Fanny Robin and her baby
  49. 49. William Boldwood</li></ul>Marries<br />GABRIEL OAK<br />BATHSHEBA EVERDENE<br />
  51. 51. THE RETURN <br />OF <br />THE NATIVE<br />
  52. 52. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Eustacia Vye: A bright young woman who desires<br />to escape from her mundane existence in the <br />county. She unwisely marries Clym Yeobright; hates<br />her life; and dies with Damon Wildeve when they fall<br />in a swollen creek the night they run away.<br />Clym Yeobright: An astute scholar who returns to<br />his home town after studying and living in the big<br />cities. He marries Eustacia who thinks he will take <br />her to live in Paris. When this doesn’t happen, she<br />tries to run away with a former boy friend, <br />Damon Wildeve, and drowns. Clym spends the rest <br />of his life as a preacher.<br /> (continued)<br />
  53. 53. MAJOR Characters Continued<br />Damon Wildeve: A womanizer who decieves Thomasin Yeobright. He runs away with Eustacia; and causes both their deaths during a rain storm.<br />Thomasin Yeobright: Cousin to Clym, she is used by Wildeve who later rejects her. She eventually marries Deggory Venn an itinerate farm salesman.<br />Deggory Vern: Itinerate farm salesman who loves Thomasin and eventually marries her. Venn is a stolid, noble person of integrity.<br />
  54. 54. EUSTACIA VYE<br />Damon Wildeve<br />Clym Yeobright<br />THOMASIN YEOBRIGHT<br />Secondary Triangle<br />Damon Wildeve<br />Deggory Venn<br />
  55. 55. PLOT SUMMARY<br /><ul><li> Clym Yeobright, a product of the local country, </li></ul>returns home after years of living in big cities.<br /><ul><li> He wins the attention of the beautiful Eustaica Vye.
  56. 56. She unwisely marries him hoping that he will</li></ul> grow tired of the country and take her to Paris.<br /><ul><li> When this doesn’t happen, she turns to Damon</li></ul>Wildeve, meeting him clandestinely at night.<br /><ul><li> They plan to run away and attempt to do so.
  57. 57. But on the night they leave, there is a rain storm.
  58. 58. Their wagon falls into a swollen creek and both </li></ul> drown.<br /><ul><li> Yeobright spends the rest of his life as a preacher.
  59. 59. Diggory Venn finally marries Clym’s cousin</li></ul> Thomasin.<br />
  60. 60. NOVEL’S RESOLUTION<br />At the end of the novel:<br /><ul><li> Eustacia Vye and Damon Wildeve are dead
  61. 61. Clym Yeobright is an itinerant preacher</li></ul>Marries<br />Deggory Venn<br />Thomasin Yeobright<br />
  62. 62. THE <br />TRUMPET <br />MAJOR<br />
  63. 63. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Anne Garland: Beautiful young woman who<br /> rejects John Loveday for his brother <br /> Robert.<br />John Loveday: Loves Anne exclusively to <br /> his downfall. When he thinks he has won <br /> her heart, his brother shows up after a <br /> long absence only to have Anne go back <br /> to him.<br />Robert Loveday: Two timing brother of John<br /> who jilts Anne only to show up in time to <br /> ruin John’s chances with her.<br />
  64. 64. ANNE GARLAND<br />John Loveday<br />Robert Loveday<br />
  65. 65. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>John Loveday, a military trumpet major, loves</li></ul>Anne Garland.<br /><ul><li> However, she prefers his brother Robert.
  66. 66. Robert jilts Anne many times, but she always </li></ul> accepts him back.<br /><ul><li>John saves Anne from being raped one night.
  67. 67. Finally, when Robert has been gone some </li></ul> years, John persuades Anne to marry him.<br /><ul><li> Just before the wedding, Robert shows up.
  68. 68. Anne promptly takes him back.
  69. 69. John leaves for a remote military outpost </li></ul> and is subsequently killed. <br />
  71. 71. A LAODICEAN<br />
  72. 72. Major Characters<br />Paula Power:Current owner of the de Stancey <br />estate, her father was a self-made industrialist, a<br />“new money” person without nobility. She wants to <br />be from nobility and befriends Charlotte de Stancy, <br />daughter of the disenfranchised Sir William de <br />Stancy. She hires George Somerset to restore the <br />de Stancy castle.She also grows to love George.<br />George Somerset:Aspiring architect who is hired by <br />Paula Power to rebuild the de Stancy property. He is<br />very trustworthy and a man of high values. He falls<br />in love with Paula only to have Captain de Stancy, <br />with the help of William Dare, attempt to defraud him.<br /> (continued)<br />
  73. 73. Major Characters Continued<br />Captain de Stancy:Son of Sir William de Stancy and lacking character, he is pushed into trying to win Paula’s hand through deceitful plans originated by <br />his bastard son, William Dare. He loses face at the end of the novel.<br />Charlotte de Stancy:Daughter of Sir William de Stancy, she is a person of high character and friend of Paula. Her selfless confession revealing the trickery of her brother and nephew restores Somerset’s reputation and his relationship with Paula.<br /> (continued)<br />
  74. 74. Major Characters Continued<br /> William Dare:Bastard son of Captain de Stancy.<br /> He poses as a photographer but lives off money <br /> he gets from his father. He is a person of low <br />character and works to have his father marry<br /> Paula in order to secure his future.<br />
  75. 75. PAULA POWER<br />Captain de Stancy<br />George Somerset<br />GEORGE SOMERSET<br />Secondary Triangle<br />Charlotte de Stancy<br />Paula Power<br />
  76. 76. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li> The Power family, a “new money” family without </li></ul> nobility bought the lost de Stancy property.<br /><ul><li>George Somerset, an aspiring architect, arrives to </li></ul> to study the features of de Stancy Castle.<br /><ul><li>He is struck with Paula Power, and she with him.
  77. 77. Paula solicits George to restore the castle.
  78. 78. He refuses unless a rival, the previous family</li></ul> architect, is also allowed to bid.<br /><ul><li> William Dare enables the rival to steal George’s</li></ul>plans and both men tie in the bidding process.<br /><ul><li> Will de Stancy (Dare), illegitimate son of Captain </li></ul> de Stancy, tries to install his father as the suitor<br /> of Paula Power, defrauding Somerset.<br /> (continued)<br />. <br />
  79. 79. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> Will de Stancy (Dare), illegitimate son of Captain </li></ul> de Stancy, tries to install his father as the suitor<br /> of Paula Power defrauding Somerset.<br /><ul><li>Later, Paula’s brother works with Dare to have the</li></ul> Captain win Paula’s heart.<br /><ul><li> They arrange for Paula to go overseas while</li></ul> George works on the Castle.<br /><ul><li> George finally follows Paula to Europe.
  80. 80. Dare and his uncle plot to demean George before</li></ul> Paula and they are successful.<br /><ul><li>George leaves Europe and resigns as Paula’s </li></ul> architect.<br /> (continued)<br />
  81. 81. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> Paula sadly agrees to marry Captain de Stancy.
  82. 82. On the morning of the wedding, Charlotte de</li></ul> Stancy selflessly reveals the scheme to Paula<br /> when she finds out what has been done.<br /><ul><li>Both Dare and the Captain are publicly demeaned</li></ul> and are forced to leave in shame.<br /><ul><li> However, in typical character, Dare sets fire to </li></ul> de Stancy castle before he leaves.<br /><ul><li>Paula and George are married, but she admits</li></ul> that she still desires nobility.<br />
  83. 83. NOVEL’S RESOLUTION<br />Marries<br />GEORGE SOMERSET<br />PAULA POWER<br />
  84. 84. TWO <br />ON A TOWER<br />
  85. 85. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Viviette Constantine: Abandonded wife of a globe <br /> trotting nobleman and left almost penniless, she <br /> falls in love with St. Cleeve who is ten years<br /> younger.<br />Sir. Blount Constantine: Husband of viviette, he <br /> squanders his inheritance on world wide <br /> anthropological ventures.<br />Native Princess: Sir Blount marries her rather than<br /> come home to his wife. <br />Swithin St. Cleeve: Aspiring astronomer, he rents a <br /> nearby tower from Viviette. He falls in love with <br /> her, and they marry in secret.<br />Bishop of Melchester: A local vicar who had fallen in <br /> love with Viviette. Eventually he marries her.<br />
  86. 86. VIVIETTE CONSTANTINE<br />SIR BLONT CONSTANTINE<br />Sir Blount Constantine<br />Swithin St. Cleeve<br />Native Princess<br />Vivette Constantine<br />VIVIETTE CONSTANTINE<br />Secondary Triangle<br />Bishop C. Melchester<br />Swithin St. Cleeve<br />
  87. 87. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Viviette Constantine secretly marries the much </li></ul>younger St. Cleeve hoping to keep the marriage<br /> secret until he distinguishes himself as an <br /> astronomer.<br /><ul><li>Unfortunately, she later discovers that her</li></ul>husband, Blount, had not died as had been <br /> reported.<br /><ul><li>She sends St. Cleeve away; but, in a brief reunion,</li></ul> she gets she is pregnant by him.<br /> (continued)<br />
  88. 88. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> While St. Cleeve is gone, she finds out that her </li></ul> husband killed himself several months after her<br />marriage to St. Cleeve due to guilt over <br /> marrying a native princes.<br /><ul><li> In order to cover up her pregnancy, she marries </li></ul> Bishop Melchester.<br /><ul><li>Melchester, some years older than her, dies</li></ul> suddenly.<br /><ul><li>Viviette dies of a heart attack, the very minute St. </li></ul> Cleeve returns to her and his son.<br />
  89. 89. NOVEL’S RESOLUTION<br />At the end of this novel, <br />the following persons are dead:<br /><ul><li> Viviette Constantine
  90. 90. BlountConstantine
  91. 91. Bishop ofMelchester</li></li></ul><li>THE MAYOR <br />OF <br />CASTERBRIDGE<br />
  92. 92. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Michael Henchard: In a drunken stupor, he “sells” <br /> his wife to a sailor.<br />Susan Henchard: Wife of Michael who spitefully<br /> leaves with a sailor after he “sells” her in a <br /> mock auction.<br />Newson: Sailor who buys Henchard’s wife and<br /> takes her away.<br />Donald Farfrae: Scotsman who goes to work for <br /> the now successful Michael Henchard.<br />Lucetta Templeman: Beautiful woman who lives in<br /> Casterbridge. Henchard falls in love with her, <br /> but she rejects him for Farfrae.<br />
  93. 93. LUCETTA TEMPLEMAN<br />SecondaryTriangle<br />Michael Henchard<br />Donald Farfrae<br />SUSAN HENCHARD<br />Michael Henchard<br />Newson<br />
  94. 94. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Michael Henchard, in a drunken state, sells his wife</li></ul> Susan in a mock auction to a sailor, Newson.<br /><ul><li>Years later Henchard, who had forsworn liquor for</li></ul> 20 years, is found by his wife and daughter, <br /> Elizabeth-Jane, in Casterbridge where he is a<br /> successful businessman as well as the Mayor of <br /> the town.<br /><ul><li> Henchard takes Elizabeth-Jane and her mother in</li></ul> but Susan soon dies.<br /><ul><li>Henchard hires a Scotsman, Donald Farfrae, to run </li></ul> his business but becomes jealous of him and <br /> refuses to give his permission to Farfrae to marry<br /> Elizabeth.<br /> (continued)<br />
  95. 95. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li>He fires Farfrae who becomes a more successful </li></ul> businessman than Henchard.<br /><ul><li>Henchard falls in love with and courts Lucetta </li></ul>Templeman only to lose her to his nemesis <br /> Farfrae, who breaks his engagement to Elizabeth. <br /><ul><li>Henchard loses his business because of bad </li></ul> poor speculation on the weather.<br /><ul><li> He is also exposed in court one day as a man who </li></ul> sold his wife and child.<br /><ul><li>Farfrae marrys Templeman, but she dies when the </li></ul> town mocks them both.<br /><ul><li>Henchard then learns that Elizabeth is not his</li></ul>daughter but the offspring of Susan and Newson. <br /> (continued)<br />
  96. 96. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li>Rejected and broken, Henchard makes a number </li></ul> of personal choices that distances him from <br /> everyone.<br /><ul><li>He is finally found dead in an obscure grave,</li></ul> leaving a request that his name not be put on<br /> the grave and that no one is to remember his<br /> name or who he was at all.<br />
  97. 97. THE NOVEL’S RESOLUTION<br />At the end of this novel, the following <br />persons are dead:<br /><ul><li> Michael Henchard
  98. 98. Susan Henchard-Newson
  99. 99. Lucetta Templeman</li></li></ul><li>THE <br />WOODLANDERS<br />
  100. 100. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Grace Melbury: a beautiful young woman who was <br />sent off for formal education by her father. She was<br />more or less promised to Giles Winterbourne. She <br />causes Giles’ death in the winter when she runs <br />away from Fitzpiers on a cold night.<br />Giles Winterbourne: a local merchant who lost his <br />property due to negligence. He loves Grace but she <br />and her dad consider him lower than Grace because <br />he is a commoner and not as well education as her. <br />During bad weather, though sick, he sacrifices his <br />life to save her reputation when she is staying<br />in his hut.<br /> (continued)<br />
  101. 101. MAJOR Characters Continued<br />Eldred Fitzpiers: a doctor who falls for Grace and marries her; however, he falls for the older but beautiful Felice Charmond. He leaves Grace for her and returns to Grace when she leaves him for another man and dies.<br />Marty South: a local common girl who loves Giles but is never able to compete with Grace for Giles, who fails to notice her love for him.<br />Felice Charmond: an older, more experienced woman who steals Fitzpiers from Grace. They carry on a public and sordid affair. Fitzpiers leaves with her only to have her run off with another man. She eventually destroys her health and dies.<br />
  102. 102. GRACE MELBURY<br />ELDRED FITZPIERS<br />Felice Charmond<br />Giles Winterbourne<br />Eldred Fitzpiers<br />Grace Melbury<br />GILES WINTERBOURNE<br />Secondary Triangle<br />Grace Melbury<br />Marty South<br />
  103. 103. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Grace Melbury returns from a school where she </li></ul> has been educated beyond that of her peers.<br /><ul><li>She and Giles Winterbourne have been engaged</li></ul> for a long time.<br /><ul><li>A new doctor, Eldred Fitzpiers, falls in love with</li></ul>Grace and courts her.<br /><ul><li>Her father encourages this on the guise that Giles</li></ul> is not high class enough for her education.<br /><ul><li>She and Fitzpiers are married, but he proves to be</li></ul> a womanizer.<br /><ul><li>He becomes enamored of Felice Charmond, an </li></ul> older woman of the world.<br /> (continued)<br />
  104. 104. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> After he persues and leaves with Charmond, Grace</li></ul> decides that she made a mistake in not marrying <br /> Giles.<br /><ul><li>On a very cold night, Grace leaves home and finds </li></ul> a small cottage in the woods which, ironically, <br /> belongs to Giles.<br /><ul><li> Giles lets her stay in the cottage in the day and he </li></ul> sleeps outside to avoid compromising her <br /> reputation.<br /><ul><li>Grace doesn’t know that Giles is a sick man, and </li></ul> exposure to the harsh weather causes his death.<br /> (continued)<br />
  105. 105. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li>Fitzpiers comes back after Charmond dies.
  106. 106. Grace accepts him back.
  107. 107. But she had promised Marty South that</li></ul> she would attend to his Giles’ grave until <br /> her death. <br /><ul><li> Marty South, who always loved Giles, is left </li></ul> to attend to Giles’ grave.<br />
  108. 108. NOVEL’S RESOLUTION<br />At the end of the novel the following persons are dead:<br /><ul><li>Felice Charmond
  109. 109. Giles Winterbourne</li></ul>Grace and Eldred Fitzpiers are reconciled <br />Alone, Marty South lovingly attends the<br /> grave<br /> of Giles Winterbourne<br />
  110. 110. TESS<br />D’URBEYFIELD<br />
  111. 111. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Tess D’urbeyfield: Beautiful daughter of a lazy man <br /> who sends her to beg work from a family he has <br /> been led to believe he is related to.<br />Alec D’urberville: Nobleman who rapes Tess but <br /> later recants and marries her.<br />Angel Clare: First husband of Tess, he elicits a <br /> confession from her that she is not a virgin, even<br /> though he also is not. He rejects her on their<br /> wedding day when he learns of her past.<br />
  112. 112. TESS D’URBEYFIELD<br />Angel Clare<br />Alec d’Urberville<br />
  113. 113. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Tess’s father, a lazy moocher, learns that his</li></ul> family might be related to the noble family, <br /> d’urberville.<br /><ul><li> Since he has made the family indigent, he </li></ul>sends Tess to the noble family to beg for <br /> work based on the alleged family connection.<br /><ul><li> Ironically, this family only assumed the name</li></ul> when they moved into the area.<br /><ul><li>Tess is raped by Alex d’urberville and comes</li></ul> home in shame.<br /><ul><li> Eventually, she leaves and works at a number </li></ul> of menial, hard labor jobs.<br /> (continued)<br />
  114. 114. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> Working as a milk maid on a large farm, she</li></ul>meets, falls in love with, and marries the<br /> young, but promising workman, <br />Angel Clare.<br /><ul><li> On their wedding night, Clare solicits a </li></ul>confession from Tess that she has had<br /> carnal relations with another man.<br /><ul><li>Clare then abandons her even though he </li></ul> admits to past sins himself.<br /><ul><li> She is again forced to work at hard labor</li></ul> jobs.<br />(continued)<br />
  115. 115. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> While in this condition, she is rescued by a </li></ul>“changed” Alec who is now devoting himself to <br /> preaching in order to atone for his sins.<br /><ul><li>She lives with him, and he changes back to a man</li></ul> of the world.<br /><ul><li>Clare finally shows up indicating that he is willing </li></ul> to take Tess back.<br /><ul><li> In desperation, she kills Alec and lives a few days </li></ul> with Clare while running from the authorities, but <br /> they are apprehended at Stone Henge.<br /><ul><li> Clare and Tess’s younger sister, Liza Lu, witness </li></ul> the moment of Tess’s execution from a nearby <br /> hill top.<br />
  116. 116. THE <br />WELL-BELOVED<br />
  117. 117. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Jocelyn Pierston – sculptor who loved many women <br />Avice Caro- country girl and childhood friend of <br /> Jocelyn who he jilted for Marcia Bencomb.<br />Jim Caro- cousin of Avice who married her after<br /> Jocelyn jilted; also father of Ann Avice Caro<br />Marcia Bencomb – she agreed to marry Jocelyn; then<br /> rejected him before the wedding day. She married a<br /> Mr. Leverre; then Jocelyn in her old age.<br />Nichola Pine-Avon – lady who loved Jocelyn but for <br /> whom he had no affection. She married Somers.<br />Mr. Somers – artist and long time friend of Jocelyn who<br /> later married Nichola Pine-Avon<br />
  118. 118. MAJOR CHARACTERS CONTINUED<br />Ann Avice Caro – daughter of Avice Caro. She was also<br /> fickle. She would have accepted Jocelyn’s proposal,<br /> but she had recently been secretly married to Isaac<br />Isaac Pierston – distant relative of Jocelyn who married<br /> Ann Avice secretly. Jocelyn put him in business, but<br /> he later ‘ill-used’ Ann<br />Avice Pierston – daughter of Ann Avice. She agreed to <br /> marry Jocelyn, forth years her senior, to please her <br /> mother; but jilted him was had Ann and Marcia<br />Henri Leverre – son of Marcia Bencomb Leverre, he <br /> helped Avice III jilt Jocelyn by running off an marrying<br /> her<br />
  119. 119. JOCELYN PIERSTON<br />NO MARRIAGE<br />1<br />MARCIA BENCOMB<br />Marcia Bencomb<br />AVICE CARO<br />2<br />JOCELYN PIERSTON<br />MR. LEVERRE<br />
  121. 121. SecondaryTriangle<br />NICHOLA PINE-AVON<br />5<br />MR. SOMERS<br />JOCELYN PIERSTON<br />
  122. 122. PLOT SUMMARY<br />Jocelyn Pierston, a sculptor, believed in a perfect<br /> phantom spirit-woman, who inhabited the bodies of<br /> many women he saw, calling her “The Well-Beloved.<br />He came home and impetuously asked childhood friend<br />Avice Caro to marry him.<br />Because she didn’t meet him at a remote location as he<br /> had requested, he rejected her and asked Marcia<br />Bencomb to marry him although he had known her <br /> for only a few hours.<br />She agreed to marry him because she was running away<br /> from home but changed her mind and left him.<br />Avice marries her cousin, Jim Caro.<br />Twenty years pass and finds Pierston once again in the<br /> land of his childhood.<br />
  123. 123. PLOT SUMMARY CONTINUED<br />Avice has died, but she has a beautiful daughter,Ann<br /> who does menial housework for a living.<br />Pierston sets out to win her hand in marriage, but he <br /> finds that she also loves a perfect man/spirit that <br /> inhabits many men.<br />After hiring Ann Avice to housekeep for him in London,<br /> he learns that Ann is already married.<br />He sets up the man, Isaac Pierston, in a business and<br /> leaves the country for another twenty years.<br />At the age of sixty, Pierston is asked by Ann to come<br /> to see her and informs him that Isaac is dead and<br /> had not been a good husband to Ann.<br />
  124. 124. PLOT SUMMARY CONTINUED<br />Ann asked to see him because she wants him to marry<br /> her daughter, Avice, so that she will have a good,<br /> reliable, and wealthy husband.<br />Pierston agrees and sets out to win Avice’s hand in<br /> marriage who agrees to marry him even though his <br /> age is a negative issue.<br />But the night before the wedding, her real love, <br /> Henri Leverre, shows up, and he and Avice elope.<br />They are missing for some time and Ann dies suddenly<br /> because of the strain on her weak heart.<br />It turns out that Henri is the son of Marcia, the girl who<br /> had jilted him forty years prior.<br />Pierston eventually marries Marcia, completing a<br /> cycle that began forty years prior.<br />
  125. 125. At the end of this novel:<br /><ul><li> Avice Caro is dead
  126. 126. Jim Caro is dead
  127. 127. Ann Avice Caro Pierston is dead
  128. 128. Isaac Pierston is dead
  129. 129. Mr. Leverre is dead
  130. 130. Somers is married to Nichola Pine-Avon
  131. 131. Henri Leverre is married to Avice </li></ul> Pierston<br /><ul><li>Pierston is married to Marcia Bencomb </li></ul> Leverre<br />
  132. 132. Novel’s Resolution<br />Marries<br />JOCELYN PIERSTON<br />MARCIA BENCOMB-LEVERRE<br />
  133. 133. JUDE <br />THE <br />OBSCURE<br />
  134. 134. MAJOR CHARACTERS<br />Susanna Bridehead:Cousin of Jude, she marries<br /> the much older teacher, Richard Phillotson but<br /> later falls in love with Jude and runs off with<br /> him.<br />Jude Frawley:Poor stonemason who wants to be a<br /> scholarly minister.<br />Richard Phillostson:School teacher, much older<br />than Susanna, he marries her only to have her <br /> run away with Jude.<br />Arabella Donn:First wife of Jude, a sexually <br /> experienced farm maid who tricks Jude into <br /> marrying her; then leaves him because he is too<br /> boring.<br />
  135. 135. SUSANNA BRIDEHEAD<br />Richard Phillotson<br />Jude Frawley<br />JUDE FRAWLEY<br />Secondary Triangle<br />Susanna Bridehead<br />Arabella Donn<br />
  136. 136. Plot Summary<br /><ul><li>Jude, a stonemason, wants to become a scholar</li></ul> and minister.<br /><ul><li> Because of a lack of formal education, Jude </li></ul>cannot get into the ministerial college.<br /><ul><li> He is tricked by Arabella Donn who claims she is</li></ul> pregnant.<br /><ul><li> It turns out that she wasn’t pregnant and </li></ul> eventually leaves Jude because of his <br /> passive nature.<br /><ul><li>Jude falls in love with a cousin, Susanna </li></ul> Bridehead, but she marries an older school <br /> teacher, Richard Phillotson.<br /> (continued)<br />
  137. 137. Plot Summary Continued<br /><ul><li> Hating Pillotson, she leaves him to live with Jude.
  138. 138. Their life is very difficult, culminating in the death </li></ul> of their baby by their older son before he<br /> commits suicide. <br /><ul><li>Susanna, now stricken with grief, decides she</li></ul>cannot live in adultery and leaves Jude to go <br /> back to Phillotson.<br /><ul><li>Jude gets sick and eventually dies without any of </li></ul> his dreams being fulfilled.<br />
  139. 139. Novel’s Resolution<br />RETURNS TO<br />SUSANNA BRIDEHEAD<br />Richard Phillotson<br />
  140. 140. END OF PRESENTATION <br />