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  1. 1. LEADERSHIP W hat's In It For Schools? Thomas J Sergiovanni RoutledgeFalmer, 2001
  2. 2. T homas Ser giovanni Thomas Sergiovanni is Professor of Education at Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas.
  3. 3. Overview “This book believes in leadership, but not leadership invested only in individuals or only in hierarchies. Leadership that will win for all of our children is based on ideas and is expressed as a function for which all are responsible. Every leadership act leads to more leadership helping the school to become a community of leaders.”
  4. 4. Pr oblem with simple theories Theories or to do lists can't always be generalized. Too rational, too scripted for messy world of education. Same things produce different results in different contexts. Leadership not about finding solutions but helping others understand the problems and how to live with them in an imperfect world.
  5. 5. “In this untidy world the choice we have is to live with leadership as a fantasy that looks good, sounds good but doesn't work, or as an admittedly complex and messy idea that once properly understood can energize both leaders and those they serve.” (pg.22)
  6. 6. 7 Principles of Good Chapter 1 Leader s Invert the rule Causes and consequences Amoeba Theory Sense and Meaning Build with Canvas Be humble in decision making Moral aspects
  7. 7. Invert the Rule Managerially loose, culturally tight NOT Managerially tight, culturally loose Teachers respond to culture (values, beliefs), NOT diktats and coercion If you don't invert rule, reforms will either be resisted or avoided, or won't work as intended (teachers will put on pretense of adoption)
  8. 8. Causes and Consequences Restructuring should be a consequence of improvements to learning. i.e. changes to structures, procedures, systems should support improvements to learning, not cause them Claims that restructuring will cause improvements to learning should be rejected as simplistic nonsense.
  9. 9. Think Amoeba Imagine a school as a giant, glob-like amoeba. The leader is the nucleus: brings order, direction and definition; helps others make sense of the big picture. The leader (nucleus) seeks to get everyone else (protoplasm) to the other side of the street (vision). It is not a linear, rational process that can be planned in advance with specific, expected outcomes, but a subtle, responsive process with a broad vision.
  10. 10. Amoeba v Railroad The traditional “railroad” model of leadership emphasises: ends (objectives) ways (strategy) means (resources, people, methods). The amoeba model emphasises means-ways-ends. In other words, get the people right first: develop them and get them working together with a shared vision.
  11. 11. Emphasise Sense and Meaning Transactional leadership - incentives motivate – what gets rewarded gets done - but if people don't believe in what's being done, they will only play along while the incentives are there. Sense and meaning, and a common purpose – satisfaction motivates - what is rewarding gets done
  12. 12. Build with Canvas (I think this is what Sergiovanni means!) The canvas is the policies, aims, curriculum, systems that give the school its public face. Having the right public face will actually give a school greater “freedom to interpret, decide and function in ways that make sense.” Externally imposed curricula or requirements can often be interpreted or implemented flexibly – schools should use this flexibility. eg ENC NC never that prescriptive, QCA schemes were always optional.
  13. 13. Form Follows Function (Part of building with canvas) Function (tasks) should determine the form (systems and structures). The form is there to support the function. In the absence of function/tasks (eg formative assessment), a form/system will fill the void (eg standardised assessment linked to computerized software). Then functions (eg tests, data recording, targets based on levels) will be created to serve the form (the system, the software). Also (my thought), if the Head is so disconnected from what teachers are doing that they are unaware of function, form will be imposed from the top regardless, and functions will be forced to change in order to serve the form, even if the old functions worked. This can create huge teacher resentment.
  14. 14. Be humble in decision making Humble Style Reasoned procrastination Uses trial and error Rambo Style Reflective Direct Decision staggering Decisive Slow, incremental change Persistent (low-key decisions) Consistent Uses feedback to check “Being consistent for the progress sake of consistency.”
  15. 15. Remember moral aspects Is the competence, wellbeing and independence of the follower being enhanced? Leadership isn't just about efficiency and effectiveness, but also about what is good, what is right, what makes sense and what is worth doing.
  16. 16. Chapter 2 Ideas Based Leader ship Lead through ideas – cognitive leadership Ideas (not policies, position, power or personality) should be the source of a leader's authority. Ideas give the leader substance and make him stand for something worth following. Ideas at the heart of the school culture.
  17. 17. Ideas Based Leader ship Ideas-based leadership indicates to teachers that they are respected, capable, autonomous professionals. Teachers share ideas, purpose, values, beliefs.
  18. 18. Sources of Authority Rules-Based Leadership Source of authority is bureaucracy (rules, hierarchies, mandates, standards, policies, job descriptions, contracts). Teachers must follow or face the consequences (often made to feel insecure, the odd-one-out or a disappointment). Personality-Based Leadership Source of authority is a leader's personality (charisma, motivational skills) Ideas-Based Leadership Source of authority is shared ideas. The leader is the symbol for the ideas.
  19. 19. Sources of Authority Traditional sources of leadership authority are: Expertise Experience Credentials Position Interpersonal style Useful, but not enough. Also needs SPIRIT: Values Beliefs Trust and honesty Character Symbolic leadership: being a role model
  20. 20. Shar ed Leader ship Leadership should be everywhere Leadership density Community of leaders Leadership increases in value if it is shared
  21. 21. Shar ed Follower ship Leader is the head follower. Teachers and leaders share ideas, purpose, values, beliefs.
  22. 22. Leader as Lead Follower The leader is the nucleus in the amoeba. Acts as a model for other followers, eg by supporting teachers, engaging in conversation, leading discussion, assisting meetings, presiding over ceremonies, use of language, displaying attitudes. The leader's actions symbolize the vision and help teachers and students make sense of it.
  23. 23. Leader as Lead Follower Leadership based on stewardship and service, not authority, rules or personality.
  24. 24. Conversation not Communication As head follower, the leader engages others in conversation. Conversation generates ideas. Other models have the leader engaging in one-way communication, issuing directives, reminders and reprimands. eg top-down email communication used to enforce top-down management
  26. 26. Pyramid Theory Relies on direct supervision through management hierarchy. Uses standardized policies and systems to ensure all managers think and act in the same way.
  27. 27. Railroad Theory Uses standardized practices which are monitored by managers (often using tick boxes or standardized tests). Examples: prescribed teaching methods (eg synthetic phonics), approved teaching programmes (eg NLS, NNS). Disempowers and deskills teachers and heads. Leads to instructional teaching methods, rather than exploratory or creative learning.
  28. 28. High Performance Theory Relies on measureable outcomes, stated as standardized standards. Teachers are free to use methods (though outcomes and related tests tend to determine these.) Standards and tests are set by distant authority (eg government)
  29. 29. All three models treat schools as formal organizations manufacturing standardized products. Does not suit the messy world of education. Students are not standardized. Gives little room for professional discretion or intuition. What is to be done and how is not decided by the people who actually do it (teachers and students), so meaning, purpose and emotional commitment is lost.
  30. 30. “Standardized practices lead to standardized results for a nonstandardized student body and a nonstandard world.”
  31. 31. Shared Purpose and Values Glues the amoeba together. Focuses attention on what's important. Teachers can do own thing as long as it embodies the shared purpose and shared values.
  32. 32. Thoughts Shared leadership isn't about giving lots of people leadership positions and titled. It's about leadership being part of the school culture.
  33. 33. Subject Leaders These were freely distributed to all at my last school, whether you liked it or not. But it turned into a to do list that focused on checking up on fellow teachers (eg planning and marking). They were a way for the Head to offload administrative tasks to teachers. What a subject leader should have been was a source of knowledge and example of good practice.
  34. 34. Communities of Chapter 4 Responsibility
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