Planning is the first managerial function and
it is concerned with deciding in advance what
is to be done, when, where, how and by
whom it is to be done.
Its involves detailed analysis of various
components of the project and means to
FIVE KEY PROJECT MANAGEMENT VARIABLES
It states what will and will not be included as
part of the project.
Scope provides a common understanding of
the project for all stakeholders by defining the
project‟s overall boundaries.
Scope is the overall definition of what the
project is supposed to accomplish.
In project management, scope of a project is
the sum total of all of its products and their
IMPORTANCE OF SCOPE
It establishes the boundaries of what the project
will and will not accomplish.
It eliminates any confusion that might still exist
after considering the project‟s goal, objectives
and high-level deliverables statements.
It is the foundation for defining a change
By change management process, changes to
scope can be managed, rejected, or deferred in
a disciplined manner.
1. Document the scope statement
o Project outcome and success criteria
o Expected services in order to achieve the project outcome
o functionality and data
o Technical structure
o Phases (what will be implemented first?)
2) Document the high level requirement of the proposed solution
3) Define the deliverables which will be associated with the project.
4) Determine if this project will impact any organizational units or
5) Develop a high level timeline for when major phases of the
project will occur.
According to H. JAMES HARRINGTON
“Quality is the meeting or exceeding customer
expectations at a cost that represents a
value to them.”
The project quality refers to things like
applying proper project management
practices to cost, resources, communications
etc. it covers managing changes within the
The aggregate amount expended to develop
the project is referred to as project cost.
Cost of doing the project is another important
variable that defines the project.
Cost is major consideration throughout the
project management life cycle.
A project schedule is a schedule wherein
activities are assigned duration and
sequenced in a logical order.
Effective project schedule management is of
critical importance to business and industry.
Scheduling is an important tool for
accomplishing a project where it can have a
major impact on the productivity of a
PEOPLE MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT
The human resources management includes
the process required to coordinate the
human resources on a project.
Development of human resources plan
Measuring the performance of staff
Release of staff at the end.
This gives us an idea about the progress of
Milestone represents earmarked phases
representing „deliverables‟ with dates.
The PERT suggest assessment of the project
progress at milestones. The deliverables
represents statistical data showing the
details of work performed as against the
budgeted to be performed as on the date of
the review and also the forecast for the
remaining work to complete the project
WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE(WBS)-(8M)
WBS- refers to the system of breaking a project into manageable units
so that one can identify all the work elements needed to complete the
Example: college fest, etc
• Partition the major project deliverables into smaller components to
improve the accuracy of cost estimates.
• Provides a mechanism for collecting and organizing actual costs
• Provide a mechanism for performance measurements and controls
• Defines the final and intermediate products of a project and their
• Uses a tree diagrams/structure diagram to show the resolution of
overall requirements into increasing levels of details.
HOW TO USE WBS
Identify the primary requirements or
Subdivide the requirements statements into
major secondary categories.
Break each major heading into greater
Review the WBS for logic and completeness.
PROJECT PLANNING CYCLE(15-MARKS)
1. Analysis of opportunities:
• SWOT Analysis
• Risk Analysis
2. Identifying the aim of the plan
• Vision statement
• Mission statement
3. Exploring options
4. Selecting the best option
• Gird Analysis
• Decision Analysis
5. Detailed planning
6. Evaluation of the plan and its impact
• Cost/benefit Analysis
• Force Field Analysis techniques in evaluating a plan
• Cash Flow Forecasts
7. Implementing changes
8. Closing the plan
A GOOD PLAN WILL:(8 MARKS)
State the current situation
Have a clear aim
Use the resources available
Detail the tasks to be carried out, whose responsibility they are, and
their priorities and deadlines.
Detail control mechanisms that will alert you to difficulties in achieving
Identifying risks, and plan for contingencies. This allows you to make a
rapid and effective response to crises, perhaps at a time when you are
confused following a setback.
Consider transitional arrangement- how will you keep things going while
you implement the plan?
CONTENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN:(8 MARKS)
1. Management summary
2. Management and organization section:
a) Project management and organization
b) Manpower requirement
c) Training and development
3. Technical section
The project schedule refers to the listing
down step by step in sequential order, the
jobs involved in the implementation of the
project. These steps should be well defined
along with the estimated time for each step.
Control is the process through which
standards for performance of people and
processes are set, communicated, and
applied. Effective control systems use
mechanisms to monitor activities and take
corrective action, if necessary.
Control process is a continuous flow between
measuring, comparing and action.
STEPS IN CONTROL PROCESS:(15 MARKS)
Establishing performance standards,
Measuring actual performance,
Comparing measured performance against established
Taking corrective action,
Operational control methods,
Statistical process control,
Management by exception
TECHNIQUES USED TO MEASURE COMPLETION
1) The Gantt Chart
2) Analysis of Cost and Labour Hours
3) Analysis of Time Schedules
4) Analysis of Milestones achieved.
PROJECT SCHEDULING AND NETWORK
Network planning consists of categorisation of the
activities involved in the project in a sequential manner
and schematic representation of all the activities
necessary for the projects.
It is done in three stages:
1) Identify each activity to be done in the project and
estimate how long it will take to complete each activity.
2) Determine the required sequence of activities.
3) With the help of above details, dram the diagram of
network of the activities which helps in understanding
the operational planning of the execution of the entire
Project planning: Identifying Strategic Project
“plan the work, then work the plan.”
Strategy in project management:
Strategy outlines the path to be followed in order to
achieve the objectives. Strategy can be classified in
terms of meaningful product differentiation. The
former approach is known as “corporate strategy” and
the latter “business strategy.”
Project planning: Statement of Work, Project