Linguistic Diversity and English in the Philippines by Curtis D. Mc FarlandReporter: MS. ANA-SOL B. REYES
Educational Implication: Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)
International studies:-Children learn best when, at an early age, they arebeing taught using their first language or mothertongue which they use at home.It makes learning more comfortable and allows themto conceptualize and think deeper.-Pupils who have learned to read and write in theirfirst language learn to speak, read and write in asecond and third language more quickly than thosewho are taught first in a second or third language.
DepEd Order 74 s. 2009-prescribes the use of more than twolanguages for literacy and instruction in basiceducation-policy to facilitate better learning amongbeginners-promotes MTB-MLE method of instructionfrom Pre-school to, at least, Grade 3
The Philippines possesses a great wealth of indigenous languages, and while these languages are related, the differences among them,are also extensive.
Importance of studyingdifferences:•Able to reach some tentativeconclusions about the prehistory ofPhilippine languages and makesubgrouping of the languages.•Hinders effective communication
Even with the coming ofindependence and the spread of Tagalogas the national language, Englishcontinues to occupy a dominant positionand is additionally a source of massiveborrowing into Tagalog and otherPhilippine languages.
Linguistic Diversity – over 100 Fourteen (14) Representative LanguagesEnglish (translation) I heard something there in the tree.1. Ivatan Taytu madngey ku du qatngeh naw nu kayuq.2. Ilokano Qadda nangngeg ku dita qayan ti ka:yu.3. Isnag Qatan nagiqna ku kitu:ne gayan tu ka:yu kitumi.4. Pangasinan Walay nangel ku ditad kiew.5. Kapampangan Qa:tin kung dindam king tanaman.6. Tagalog May narinig qako diyan sa punungkahoy.7. Bikol May nadangug aku diyan sa ka:huy.8. Samar-Leyte May nabatiqan qaku didaq hit ka:huy.9. Cebuano Du:na kuy nadunggan dihaq sa ka:huy.10. Hiligaynon May nabatiqan qaku diraq sa may ka:huy.11. Maranao Qana miyanug qakun sangkanan a kayu.12. Tausug Qawn kiyarungugan ku ha kahuy.13. Sama Niaq takaleku man naqan ma poqon kayu.14. Blaan Sebe nun lingegu deen di kayuq en.
Linguistic DiversityLexicon - Identical Major Language English salt drink eye ring (translation)Tagalog qasin qinom mata singsingBikol qasin qinum mata singsingHiligaynon qasin qinum mata singsingCebuano qasin qinum mata singsingKapampangan qasin qinum mata singsingPangasinan qasin qinum mata singsingIlokano qasin qinum mata singsing
Linguistic DiversityLexicon – Distinct forms Major Language English sleepy grass sibling ant (translation)Tagalog qantok damo kapatid langgamBikol pi:rut qa:wut tu:gang ta:ngaHiligaynon Pi:law hila:mun qu:tud subayCebuano Katulgun sagbut qigsu:qun qami:gasKapampangan makatukba dikut kapu:tul pa:nasPangasinan mantemeg dika qagi gila:taIlokano dungsa ru:qut kabsat kutun
Phonology-identical Vowels Major Similarities Difference LanguageTagalog /a/, /i/ , /u/ Acquired /e/ and /o/ /u/ and /o/ represent the same because of vowel Spanish and American influenceBikol Spelling convention places <o>Hiligaynon in the final syllable and <u> elsewhereCebuano /e/ and /o/ found in borrowed words
Phonology Vowels Major Vowels LanguageKapampangan /e/ and /o/ are distinct vowels having developed historically from /ai/ and /au/Pangasinan /e/ - back unrounded vowel /but/Ilokano-Benguet /e/ - back unrounded vowel-Ilocos Norte /e/ - mid front vowel /bet/
Phonology Vowels Major LanguageTagalog /ә/ merged with /i/Bikol /ә/ merged with /u/ in a final syllable and /a/ elsewhereHiligaynon /ә/ merged with /u/CebuanoKapampangan /ә/ merged with /a/Pangasinan /e/ represents regular developments from a vowelIlokano assumed to exist in Proto-Austronesian, the schwa /ә/
Consonants – generally the same set for the7 languages Major LanguageTagalog /7/ Proto-Austronesian - Proto-Austronesian – merged with /g/BikolHiligaynonCebuanoKapampangan /y/ final /ay/ became /e/ /au/ became /o/ /uy/ became /iq/ (mabsiq/Pangasinan /l/Ilokano /r/
Consonants – generally the same set for the 7languages Major LanguageEnglish medicine new root/vein satedTagalog gamot ba:go qugat busogBikol gamut Bagqu qugat basugHiligaynon gamut Bagqu qugat busugCebuano gamut Bagqu qugat busugKapampangan yamut ba:yu quyat mabsiqPangasinan lamut ba:lu qulat nakselIlokano ramut baru qurat nabsug
Syntax-differences in pronouns, verb inflections etc. 1. Deictic Pronouns Major Language Deictic PronounsEnglish This That (near) That (far) Here There There (near) (far)Tagalog qito qiyan qiyon di:to diyan doonBikol qi:ni qiyan qitu digdi diyan dumanHiligaynon qi:ni qinaq qamu diri di:ra didtuCebuano kiri/kini kanaq kadtu diri/dinhi dihaq didtuKapampangan qi:ni/qi:ti qiyan qita ke:ni ken karin/ke:taPangasinan sa:ya sa:tan sa:man diya ditan dimanIlokano daytuy dayta daydiay di:tuy dita qidiay
2. Case-marking Articles Major Case Marking Articles LanguageTagalog ang, ng,sa mgaBikol an,su,nin,kan,sa mgaHiligaynon ang,sing,sang,sa mgaCebuano ang,sa,ug (instead of ng) mgaKapampangan (ya)ing,(la)ing,ning,da+ding ding, haringPangasinan su,say,saray,na,na saray ed, ed sarayIlokano Virtually non-existent Iti, kadagiti dagiti, ti
3. Negation Major Negation LanguageTagalog hindi ayaw wala huwagBikol dai,bako habo mayo daiHiligaynon indi,wala indi wala diliCebuano dili,wala dili wala ayawKapampangan e,ali e ala ePangasinan ag,aliwa,andi ag anngapa agIlokano di,saan di, saan awan di, saan
I. Ivatan LanguagesII. Northern Philippine Languages A. Cordillera languages 1. Dumagat languages 2. Northern Cordilleran languages (IBANAG-15) 3. ILOKANO (3) 4. Central Cordillera languages 5. Southern Cordilleran languages (PANGASINAN – 6) B. ILONGOT C. Sambalic languages KAPAMPANGAN (7)
III. Meso-Philippine Languages A. North Mangyan languages B. South Mangyan languages C. Palawan languages 1. North Palawan languages 2. South Palawan languages D. Central Philippine languages 1. TAGALOG (2) 2. BIKOL LANGUAGES (5)
3. North Bisayan/Visayan languages a. West Bisayan/Visayan languages AKLANON (13) KINARAY-A (11) b. Central Bisayan languages HILIGAYNON MASBATE-NO (14) SAMAR-LEYTE (6) 4. South Bisayan languages CEBUANO (1) TAUSUG (12)
5. East Mindanao languagesIV. Southern Philippine languages A. Subanon languages B. Danao languages 1. MARANAO (9) 2. MAGINDANAO (10) 3. Manobo languagesV. Sama languagesVI. South Mindanao languagesVII. SANGIL
• Tagalog and Cebuano (25% each)• Spanish (2 %)• English became the language of thePhilippines, dominating education, media,government, and business•English was taught taught by no more than 2% Americans
Taglish and Philippine English• There is no single variety of Philippine English or Standard Philippine English; depends on speaker’s L1 (Tagalog English, Cebuano English or Ilocano English)
Taglish and Philippine English• Mixing of English and Tagalog (bilingual speakers)• Results depend on speakers competence in the 2 languages• Setting: all Filipino or mixed• Pure Tagalog/English is seldom heard• Taglish-usual order of the day• English insertions will be in Philippine English with Filipino features.
Borrowing from English• Study of 50 Tagalog mini-novels (corpus:1 M words) – 1,500 words and phrases of English origin which occurred 3x in Tagalog contexts (McFarland, 1998)• 2 Kinds of borrowing: 1. Cultural borrowing-involves the adoption of words from another culture , along w/ the corresponding items of culture such as products and ideas;occurs in any situation of intercultural contacts (usually commercial or economic) Ex: hamburger,sushi,computer,taxi
Borrowing from English2 Kinds of borrowing: 2. Intimate borrowing-involves the adoption of words which replace with words already in use in the borrowing language; occurs in a situation in which one society/linguistic group is dominated by another Ex: gusto instead of “ibig/nais” Mister instead of “Ginoo”
Borrowings1. English origin bag,boss,daddy,gate,hello,hi, ma’am, sir,sorry2. Changed spelling isyu,komiks,peke,kontak,pisikal3. Both Changed drayber/driver,plastik/plastic,sopa/sofa,wspelling and original eyter/waiterare used4. Shift in meaning; bilib ‘impressed’ (fr. believe)w/ or w/o change in mister ‘husband’spelling istambay ‘idler’ (fr. standby)5. Hard to understand ispelingin ‘figure out/understand’ (fr. spelling w/ suffix -in)
Borrowings6.Has acquired new Tutal, feel ko naman na talagang mahalsyntactic features to niya ako.adapt to Tagalog Parang enjoy na enjoy ang dalawa sagrammar kanilang ginagawa.7. From a range of break ‘end of relationship’meanings-one or few order ‘food order’are used chicks ‘girls’8. Abbreviations aircon, OA, CR, NPA9. Singular and plural sapatos s/p fr. Spanish zapato classmate/classmates10. Hisapanization of abnormal,words w/ English bakasyon,destinasyon,komfortableorigin
Borrowed PhrasesAs a single beerhouse,classroom,softdrinksunitTwo words boarding house,second floor,study tableCombined mag-cutting classes,naka-walking shorts,with Tagalog ma-high bloodaffixesUsing first first aid, first love, first year, in the first place(never theTagalogcounterpart)Using room class room, ladies’ room, operating room, waiting(instead of roomsilid)
Borrowed PhrasesWords and phrases that actually, at least, of course, well, so,fit loosely into Tagalog anywaywordsShort greetings Dear, good afternoon, happy birthday, hiWords attached as titles Attorney, Reverend, Sergeantattached to names of Avenue, Plaza, Collegepeople and places andnot as ordinary words