There have been numerous studies on attitudes of teachers and students towards CALL, anchoring itself on the principles of the Theory of Planned Behavior (. However, the attitude index is not always indicative of the future behavior; not all intentions manifest themselves as actions. Instead, this study aims to look at a sampling of the behavior as an indicator of future actions. This study looked at the online behavior of 275 college students in response to an online task. Response time behavior suggest that the students treat the task as a chore, rather than an extension of the activities they normally do when online. Number of responses also indicate that the majority of students are not yet receptive to online tasks in the classroom.
As tutor As stimulus As tool (Warschauer, 1996)
Arising from the development of the ability of computers to interface with each other in a network…CMC has enhanced the power of all other available communication technologies because CMC integrated the capacity to send and receive data with the ability to store and process information (Schrum & Berenfeld, 1997) “probably the single computer application to date with the greatest teaching impact on language teaching.” (Warschauer, 1996) (Warschauer, 1996)
Provides opportunities to promote interactive language learning Student empowerment and learner authority Promotes student motivation and interest in the social functional use of the target language Provide students with a less threatening environment Authentic use of the target language (Chun, 1994) Online components substantially increase communication between teachers and students (Schrum, 1997) As an avenue for relationship initiation, it serves as one of the primary motivators for students to participate (Lane, 1994)
Most students maintain positive attitudes towards the potential outcomes of email applications on reading achievement and e-mail journaling was found to be better than paper journaling (Shang, 2005)
A study of students and teachers in Mathematics at Trinity University of Asia (TUA) in 2006 showed a predisposition to respond positively to a technologically enhanced environment (Corbeta-Gomez, 2006)
1. How receptive are TUA students to internet activities? a. What pre-existing knowledge do they have about the internet? b. What kind of behavior will they display, in terms of response time, when tasked to do an internet activity? c. Will they behave the same way as in a traditional classroom task? d. What factors affect the differences or similarities in performance?
Transition from a traditional lecture to a hybrid format significantly enhanced student learning (McFarlin, 2008) Learners demonstrated improvements in grammar domain, vocabulary acquisition, and pronunciation when accessing computer-assisted resources (Garcia & Arias, 2000) Most participants found CALL very useful for learning English, especially for listening practices (Parker, 2007) Research findings have shown that the use of CALL has positive effects on the achievement levels of ESL students. (Burrus, 2009)
Studies have looked at the student’s level of acceptance in applying e-learning for Biology, Geography, and Business courses (Cheng, 2006) Students’ attitudes towards computers and English after CAEI increased significantly (Altunay & Altun, 2006) Participants showed a positive attitude towards WBLL (Son, 2008) Adult ESL students were found to enjoy using technology and are comfortable doing so as a method of English acquisition (Burrus, 2009)
According to TPB, “intention is the immediate antecedent of behavior and is itself a function of attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control” ( Ajzen, 2012)
“…Whether intentions predict behavior depends in part on factors beyond the individuals’ control.” (Ajzen, 2011) “EFL instructors need to come up with ways to bridge the gap between belief and practice” (Liu and Chen, 2008)
Quasi-experimental design Online behavior Time response to an online assignment
Recall the personal mission_vision you set out to accomplish and become at the beginning of the semester 1. What part of your vision of yourself did you achieve? 2. Which missions did you accomplish? 3. What possible reasons, if any, were there for you not to fulfill your short-term mission vision? write your personal mission and vision for the semester in the text box and email to me (NO ATTACHMENTS, pls) email to: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: SECTION_Mission Vision Reflection Deadline: Oct 10, 12 mn
Despite being online most of the time and being familiar with the web, the participants in this study viewed the online task as just another assignment and put off its execution accordingly. Only 48% of the total participants were able to accomplish the online task, compared to 77% of them accomplishing a paper task.
My initial data suggests there is little difference in gender participation in internet-based tasks; notwithstanding the growing body of research on gender differences in computer-mediated communication and conditions that affect female and male participation in CMC (Jeong & Davidson-Shivers, 2006)
MTBI introvert and extrovert types generally perceived the use of LAN as beneficial in intermediate French (Beauvois and Eledge, 1995/1996) No significant difference between field-dependent and independent students in student achievement. Students with different learning styles and backgrounds learned equally well in web-based courses. (Shih & Gamon, 2001)
A survey in 2004 suggested a reluctance of students from a collectivist background to use e-mail for teaching and learning, despite its widespread social use. The Philippines belongs to a collectivist culture and the participants’ reticence in this study may echo this same observation. (Frank et.al., 2004)
Frank and his collaborators in 2004 noticed that collectivist students are more likely to use e-mail to interact with their peers than they are to use if for contacting their lecturers. Social networking sites
As reflected in the participant profile, email sites barely registered as one of the sites the participant frequented. A study by Liu and Chen in 2008 showed that 45% of the students they studied did not use e- mail. Although a high percentage had e-mail accounts, 52% of the participants in my study were not able to use their email to perform the required task. Among those participants, 3 have reported that they have been blocked out of their email account due to inactivity and 2 claim to have no email account.
“there is a negative causal link between the ‘naturalness’ of a computer-mediated communication medium, which is the similarity of the medium to the face-to-face medium, and the cognitive effort required from an individual using the medium for knowledge transfer.” (Kock, 2004)