Chapter 20


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Chapter 20

  1. 1. Chapter 20 Ophthalmic Surgeon in Hong Kong (1891-92)
  2. 2. Farewell to Europe <ul><li>On Oct. 3, 1891, two weeks after the publication of the El Fili , Rizal left Ghent to Paris, where he stayed a few days to say goodbye to the Lunas, the Pardo de Taveras, the Ventura and the others. </li></ul><ul><li>He boarded in the steamer Melbourne bound for Hong Kong. He brought with him a letter of recommendation by Juan Luna for Manuel Cumpas, a compatriot living in Singapore, and 600 copies of the El Fili . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Melbourne steamer
  4. 4. Arrived in Hong Kong <ul><li>Rizal arrived in Hong Kong on Nov. 20, 1891. He was welcomed by Jose Ma. Basa. His residence at No. 5 D’Aguilar Street, No. 2 Rednaxola Terrace and also this is the place where he opened his medical clinic. </li></ul><ul><li>On Dec. 1, 1891 he wrote to his parents asking their permission to return home. On the same date Manuel Hidalgo sent a letter telling the sad news in Calamba. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rednaxola Terrace
  6. 6. Jose Ma. Basa
  7. 7. Family Reunion in Hong Kong <ul><li>He was glanned by the arrival of his father, brother and Silvestre Ubaldo (brother-in-law). And not long afterwards his mother and sisters Lucia, Josefa, and Trinidad also arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>This Christmas in Hong Kong was one of the happiest celebration in Rizal’s life. </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote a letter to Blumentritt saying “Here we are all living together, my parents, sisters and brother, in peace and far from persecutions they suffered in the Philippines. They are very much pleased with the English government.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ophthalmic Surgeon in Hong Kong <ul><li>To earn money for himself and for his family. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques, a Portuguese physician who became his friend and admirer, helped him to build up a wide clientele. </li></ul><ul><li>He successfully operated on his mother’s left eye so that she was able to read and write again. </li></ul><ul><li>Some friends of Rizal who were in Europe gave him moral and substantial aid in his medical practice in Hong Kong. </li></ul><ul><li>He possessed the qualities of a great ophthalmic surgeon. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Borneo Colonization Project <ul><li>In the face of the bleak outlook of the Calamba folks under Governor Valeriano Weyler’s terroristic regime, Rizal conceived the establishment of a Filipino colony in North Borneo (Sabah). </li></ul><ul><li>On March 7, 1892, he went to Sandakan on board the ship to negotiate with the British authorities for the establishment of a Filipino colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Lopez Jaena wrote to Rizal regarding the Borneo colonization project but Hidalgo, brother-in-law of Rizal, objected to the colonization project . </li></ul>
  10. 10. a.) Valeriano Weyler b.) Rizal’s mother
  11. 11. Menon ship
  12. 12. Writings in Hong Kong <ul><li>Notwithstanding the pressure of his medical practice and his Borneo colonization project, Rizal continued his writings. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ang Mga Karapatan Nang Tao ”- tagalog translation of “The Rights of Man” proclaimed by the French Revolution in 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>“ A La Nacion Espa ñ ola ” (To the Spanish Nation) which is an appeal to Spain to right the wrongs done to the Calamba tenants. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sa Mga Kababayan ” (To My Countrymen) explaining the Calamba agrarian situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rizal also contributed articles to the British daily newspaper, The Hong Kong Telegraph , Whose editor Mr. Frazier Smith. The vigilant Spanish censors soon discovered the spread of Rizal’s ideas and immediately banned the Hong Kong newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>March 2, 1892 Rizal wrote “ Una Visita a La Victoria Gaol ” (A visit to Victoria Gaol) – an account of his visit to the colonial prison of Hong Kong. He contrasted the cruel Spanish prison system with modern and more humane British prison system. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>He wrote articles in French entitled “ Colonisation du British North, par de Familles de Iles Philippines” ( Colonization of British North Borneo by Families from the Philippine Island). He elaborated on the same idea in another article in Spanish, “ Proyecto de Colonizacion del British North Borneo por los Filipinos” ( Project of the Colonization of British North Borneo by the Filipinos). </li></ul><ul><li>“ La Mano Roja” (The Red Hand) printed in sheet form in Hong Kong. It denounces the frequent outbreak of intentional fires in Manila. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important writing made by Rizal during his Hong Kong sojourn was the Constitution of the Liga Filipina , to deceive the Spanish authorities. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Decision to Return to Manila <ul><li>In May, 1892, Rizal made up his mind to return to Manila. This decision was spurred by the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To establish the Liga Filipina in Manila. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To prove the Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid. </li></ul><ul><li>Last Hong Kong Letters </li></ul><ul><li>Relatives and friends of Rizal opposed his decision to return home because it was like bearding the lions in their den. His sister Trinidad tearfully warned him to desist, ‘for here, they will kill you”. </li></ul><ul><li>Not even the fear of death could deter Rizal from his decision. He celebrated his 31 st birthday in Hong Kong and on the following day he wrote two letters having a premonition of his death, he sealed, inscribed on each envelope “to be opened after my death” and gave them to his Friend Dr. Marques for safekeeping . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Not even the fear of death could deter Rizal from his decision. He celebrated his 31st birthday in Hong Kong and on the following day he wrote two letters having a premonition of his death, he sealed, inscribed on each envelope “to be opened after my death” and gave them to his Friend Dr. Marques for safekeeping. The first letter, addressed TO MY PARENTS, BRETHREN, AND FRIENDS. The second letter, addressed TO THE FILIPINOS. Rizal penned another letter in Hong Kong for Gov. Despujol, incidentally his third letter to that discourteous Spanish chief executive. In this letter, he informed the governor general of his coming to Manila and placed himself under the protection of the Spanish government. On the same date, Rizal and his sister Lucia, widow of Herbosa, left Hong Kong for Manila. They carried a special passport or “safe-conduct” issued by the Spanish consul-general in Hong Kong.