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Reproducción de Las Plantas

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Tema para el estudio de la reproducción en las plantas dirigido a alumn@s de 2º de ESO

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Reproducción de Las Plantas

  1. 1. La reproducci ón de las plantas 4. Polinizaci ón y fecundación 1. La reproducci ón, una característica de los seres vivos 3. La reproducci ón sexual de las plantas 2. La reproducci ón asexual de las plantas 03 5. Formaci ón de semillas y frutos
  2. 2. Introducci ón <ul><li>Tanto en las plantas como en los animales, existen dos modalidades de reproducción: la asexual y la sexual. </li></ul><ul><li>En el caso de la reproducción sexual, las células que darán lugar a un nuevo organismo son células especiales, que se originan en los órganos sexuales. </li></ul><ul><li>En los vegetales más evolucionados, las células reproductoras se forman en las flores que atraen a animales y éstos contribuyen a la dispersión del polen, en cuyo interior se encuentran las células reproductoras masculinas. </li></ul>03
  3. 3. 1. La reproducci ón, una característica de los seres vivos <ul><li>1.1. La reproducción: sus tipos </li></ul><ul><li>1.2. Etapas de la reproducción sexual </li></ul><ul><li>1.3. Tipos de reproducción asexual </li></ul>03
  4. 4. 1.1. La reproducción: sus tipos <ul><li>Hay dos modalidades de reproducción: sexual y asexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducción sexual. Tiene lugar por medio de la unión de las células sexuales , los gametos , que proceden de un macho y una hembra. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducción asexual. Un organismo se divide y da origen a descendientes genéticamente idénticos al progenitor. </li></ul>03
  5. 5. 1.2. Etapas de la reproducción sexual <ul><li>En la reproducción sexual se distinguen tres fases: </li></ul><ul><li>Formación de gametos. Una célula se divide y forma células hijas, los gametos , con la mitad del número de cromosomas de la célula madre. </li></ul><ul><li>La fecundación es la unión de los gametos, que origina una nueva célula llamada huevo o cigoto . </li></ul><ul><li>Desarrollo del embrión. El huevo se divide sucesivamente y da lugar al embrión , que se desarrolla hasta formar un nuevo individuo diferente a sus padres. </li></ul>03
  6. 6. 1.3. Tipos de reproducción asexual <ul><li>Existen distintas modalidades de reproducción asexual, en función de cómo se originan los nuevos organismos: bipartición, gemación, fragmentación y esporulación. </li></ul>03
  7. 7. 2. La reproducci ón asexual de las plantas <ul><li>2.1. Modalidades de reproducción asexual </li></ul><ul><li>• El cultivo in vitro de una planta ( ilustraci ón ) </li></ul>03
  8. 8. 2.1. Modalidades de reproducción asexual <ul><li>La reproducción asexual es frecuente en las plantas, especialmente a partir de tallos , hojas o raíces . </li></ul><ul><li>Las nuevas plantas que se forman son idénticas a las anteriores porque se han originado a partir de un fragmento de éstas o de una extensión de una anterior. </li></ul>03
  9. 9. El cultivo in vitro de una planta 03
  10. 10. 3. La reproducción sexual de las plantas <ul><li>3.1. El ciclo de vida de una planta </li></ul><ul><li>3.2. La flor como estructura reproductora </li></ul><ul><li>• Estructura de una flor ( ilustraci ón ) </li></ul>03
  11. 11. 3.1. El ciclo de vida de una planta <ul><li>En las plantas, a lo largo de su ciclo biológico , se alternan dos tipos de generaciones diferentes: el esporofito y el gametofito . </li></ul><ul><li>El vegetal, en el que se forman las esporas , se denomina esporofito . El desarrollo de las esporas origina un segundo organismo, el gametofito . </li></ul><ul><li>En el gametofito se forman las células reproductoras, o gametos , que al unirse originan un cigoto , que forma el embrión . </li></ul><ul><li>El embrión da lugar a un esporofito , cuyo desarrollo formará un nuevo gametofito, cerrándose así el ciclo de vida de los vegetales. </li></ul>03
  12. 12. 3.2. La flor como estructura reproductora <ul><li>La flor constituye el órgano reproductor de las plantas más evolucionadas. Contiene y protege los gametos, alojados en los gametofitos. </li></ul><ul><li>Las flores están formadas por cuatro capas concéntricas, o verticilos , de hojas modificadas: el cáliz , la corola , los estambres y el pistilo . </li></ul>03
  13. 13. Estructura de una flor 03
  14. 14. 4. Polinizaci ón y fecundación <ul><li>4.1. El proceso de polinización </li></ul><ul><li>4.2. Los gametos se unen: fecundación </li></ul><ul><li>• La fecundación ( ilustraci ón ) </li></ul>03
  15. 15. 4.1. El proceso de polinización <ul><li>La polinización es el proceso por el cual los granos de polen, que se encuentran en los órganos masculinos, llegan a la parte femenina de la misma flor. </li></ul><ul><li>Si el polen cae en el estigma de la misma flor, se da la autopolinización . Si se deposita en otra flor, se produce una polinización cruzada . </li></ul>03
  16. 16. 4.2. Los gametos se unen: fecundación <ul><li>Cuando el grano de polen llega al estigma de la flor, comienza una serie de transformaciones que permiten a los gametos masculinos ir hacia el pistilo, el órgano sexual femenino. </li></ul><ul><li>Si el grano de polen que se ha depositado en el estigma es el apropiado para aquella especie de flor, forma el tubo polínico , por el cual los gametos masculinos descienden hacia el ovario. </li></ul><ul><li>En el interior del ovario, el tubo polínico se dirige hacia uno de los óvulos, donde se encuentra la oosfera o célula sexual femenina. La fusión de los gametos para formar un cigoto se denomina fecundación . </li></ul>03
  17. 17. La fecundación 03
  18. 18. 5. Formaci ón de semillas y frutos <ul><li>5.1. El óvulo se transforma en semilla </li></ul><ul><li>5.2. El ovario se transforma en fruto </li></ul><ul><li>5.3. La germinación de las semillas </li></ul><ul><li>• Etapas de la germinación de una semilla ( ilustraci ón ) </li></ul>03
  19. 19. 5.1. El óvulo se transforma en semilla <ul><li>Cada óvulo fecundado contiene un cigoto que se divide repetidamente para formar un embrión . </li></ul><ul><li>Al cabo de unos días, en el embrión, ya se hacen visibles una raíz y un tallo incipientes, la radícula y la plúmula . </li></ul><ul><li>El embrión también contiene una o dos hojas de la semilla, los cotiledones , que almacenan nutrientes que proceden de la planta y que servirán de alimento al embrión durante la fase de crecimiento. </li></ul><ul><li>El óvulo transformado, el embrión, junto a los cotiledones y la testa , forman la semilla . </li></ul>03
  20. 20. 5.2. El ovario se transforma en fruto <ul><li>El ovario experimenta cambios. Su pared acumula sustancias nutritivas y se transforma en un fruto . </li></ul><ul><li>Algunas veces, la pared se transforma en tejidos secos y leñosos que constituyen la cáscara de ciertas semillas como nueces, avellanas, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>La transformación del ovario en fruto tiene dos finalidades: proteger las semillas que contiene y favorecer la dispersión de las semillas. </li></ul>03
  21. 21. 5.3. La germinación de las semillas <ul><li>La germinación de las semillas consiste en el desarrollo del embrión para crear una nueva planta. Este proceso se da tras un período de latencia o reposo. </li></ul><ul><li>Esta característica supone una adaptación de las semillas para sobrevivir cuando las condiciones ambientales no son favorables. </li></ul>03
  22. 22. Etapas de la germinación de una semilla 03

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