Alveolar Bone


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Alveolar Bone

  1. 1. Alveolar bone<br />1<br />
  2. 2. BONE<br />Part I<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Bone Tissue<br />Bone tissue<br />is a specialized form of connective tissue and is the main element of the skeletal tissues.<br />is composed of cells and an extracellular matrix in which fibers are embedded.<br />is unlike other connective tissues in that the extracellular matrix becomes calcified.<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Functions of Bone<br />Skeletal function of support, protection, locomotion and attachment of muscles<br />Bone constitutes an important reservoir of minerals<br />Bone is for hemopoiesis<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Compositionof Bone<br />65% Inorganic (Hydroxyapatite)<br />Mostly Calcium and inorganic orthophosphate deposited between collagen<br />35% Organic<br />28% collagen<br />5%<br />Osteocalcin<br />Sialoprotein<br />Phosphoprotein<br />Osteonectin<br />Bone specific protein<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Structural Elements of Bone<br />Bone Cells<br />Odontoblasts – forms bone<br />Osteocytes – maintains bone<br />Osteoclasts – resorbsbone<br />Bone Matrix<br />is the intercelluar substance of bone consisting of collagenous fibers ground substances & inorganic salts<br />Sharpey’s Fibers<br />Are a matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of collagenous fibers connecting periosteum to bone <br />Blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Histological Arrangement of Mature Bone<br />Compact Bone<br />Spongy Bone<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Compact Bone<br />are dense outer sheet that are closely packed<br />3 Distinct Layering:<br />Circumferential lamella<br />Concentric lamella<br />Interstitial lamella<br />8<br />
  9. 9. 3 Distinct Layering of Compact Bone:<br />Circumferential Lamellae - enclose the entire adult bone, forming its outer perimeter<br />Concentric Lamellae- make up the bulk of compact bone and form the basic metabolic unit of bone, the osteon<br />Interstitial Lamellae - interspersed between adjacent concentric lamellae and fill the spaces between them<br />9<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />
  11. 11. Spongy Bone<br />Also called Cancellous bone<br />flattened spicules surrounding the spaces known as marrow spaces containing the bone marrow<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Osteon - basic metabolic unit of bone generally oriented in the long axis of bone<br />Haversian Canal - canal lined by a single layer of bone cells at the outer of an osteon; each cana; houses a capillary<br />Volkman’s Canal - channels that connect adjacent haversian canal;contains blood vessels<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Periosteum – osteogenic connective tissue membrane that surrounds every compact bone; consists of 2 layers<br />Inner layer – consists of bone cells; their precursors and a rich microvascular supply<br />Outer layer – more fibrous, gives rise to…<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Bone Formation (Ossification)<br />Endochondral(Intracartilaginous) Bone Ossification<br />Has a precatilaginous stage<br />Intramembranous Bone Ossification<br />Mandible and maxilla<br />Sutural Bone Growth<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Alveolar Socket<br />Part II:<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Alveolar Socket<br />Also called Dental alveolus<br />are sockets in the jaws in which the roots of teeth are held in the alveolar process with the periodontal ligament.<br />Alveolar socket of the second premolar tooth in a bovine maxillary bone.<br /><br />16<br />
  17. 17. Alveolar Process<br />Part II:<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Alveolar process<br />is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on bones that bear teeth. <br />The alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament called Lamina dura.<br />Maxilla and Mandible<br />Are the tooth-bearing bones<br /><br />18<br />
  19. 19. Lamina Dura<br />is this part which is attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament.<br /><br />19<br />
  20. 20. Functions of Alveolar bone<br />Acts as the anchoring of teeth within the alveoli<br />Absorption and distribution of occlusal pressures produced by intermittent tooth contacts during chewing, swallowing, speech and parafunctional activities such as grinding and chewing<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Structure of the Alveolar Bone<br />Cortical Plate – outermost part<br />Alveolar bone proper or lamina<br />Spongiosa – spongy bone<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Cortical Plate<br />Outer bony plate of varying thickness, which is the outside wall of the maxilla and mandible, covered with periosteum<br />Continuous with the lamina cribriformis at the orifice of the alveoli – alveolar crest<br />Consists of haversian systems (osteons) and interstitial lamellae<br />Thicker in the mandible than maxilla<br />Generally greater on the lingual than on the buccal/facial<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Alveolar Bone Proper or Lamina<br />An inner, heavily perforated bony lamellae, forming the alveolar wall<br />In radiograph, appears as radioopaque line distinct from the adjacent spongiosa – Lamina Dura<br />Contains osteons like other cortical bone, but is distinguished by the presence of Bundle Bone<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Bundle Bone<br />Multiple layers of bone parallel to surface of alveolar wall which are penetrated by bundles of Sharpey’s Fibers embedded nearly right angle…<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Spongiosa<br />Are spongy (or cancellous/trabecullar) bone between the 2 bony plates and between the lamina cribriformis of adjacent teeth or roots<br />Consists of delicate trabeculae, between which are marrow spaces, filled mostly with fatty marrow<br />Regions of maxillary tuberosity and the angle of mandible, erythropoietic …<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Vascular Supply of Alveolar Process<br />Alveolar process of the maxilla<br />Anterior and posterior alveolar arteries (branch from the maxilla and infraorbital arteries)<br />Alveolar process of the mandible<br />Inferior alveolar arteries (internal)<br />Periosteal branches of submental and buccal arteries (external)<br />26<br />