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Managing Defiancewith Self-regulation Training<br />Brad Chapin MS, LCP, LMLP<br />Mathew Penner MSW, LMSW<br />
Overview<br />Opposition and Defiance<br />Managing it with a Solid Framework<br />Self-regulation Training<br />Strategie...
Defiance and Opposition<br />Can we “cure” it?<br />Or a better question may be…should we?<br />Are there times in your li...
A World Without Defiance?<br />
On an Individual Level<br />Learned helplessness<br />Dependence vs.Independence<br />Victimization – bullying, domestic v...
Manage it vs. Destroy it<br />Oppositional and Defiant behavior is healthy<br />Conflict is a natural part of communicatio...
So What’s the Problem?<br />
Where it can go Wrong<br />Intensity<br />Aggression<br />Becomes destructive<br />Timing<br />A time and a place for it<b...
Behavior on a Continuum<br />Moderate<br />Dependent,<br />Helpless,<br />Victim<br />Aggressive, Hurtful, Antisocial<br />
Disruptive Behavior Disorders<br />Oppositional Defiant Disorder<br />Conduct Disorder<br />Disruptive Behavior Disorder N...
Oppositional Defiant Disorder<br />A.   A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 	month...
Types of Defiance<br /><ul><li>Externalizing
Anger outbursts
Aggression
Arguing
Yelling, hitting, throwing things
Internalizing
Passive aggressive
Shutting down
Avoidance
Passive resistance</li></li></ul><li>How Do Children Develop Extreme Defiance?<br />Bio-psycho-social explanation<br />Bio...
Behavioral Reasons for It to Get Out of Control<br />The child has LEARNED that extreme defiance “works”<br />He throws a ...
Cognitive Reasons for It to Get Out of Control<br />“I have to get you before you get me.”<br />“Everyone is against me.”<...
Things that Don’t Seem to Work<br />What things have you tried that didn’t seem to work very well?<br />Have you ever “won...
What Can We Do?<br />Set up a simple and Consistent set of expectations<br />Learn to manage ourselves<br />Use our skills...
“Know Thyself”<br />Socrates - 469 BC – 399 BC<br />Benjamin Franklin wrote in his 1750 Poor Richard's Almanac that "There...
“Know Thyself”<br />How do you think about children who are oppositional or defiant? <br />What perceptions do we form abo...
Having a Solid Framework<br />Gives you guidance when you get stuck<br />Helps you evaluate new interventions/activities<b...
Self-regulation Training Framework<br />Cognitive-behavioral Psychology<br />Provides Evidence Base<br />Self-Regulation<b...
Self-regulation & Violence<br />School Safety<br />Violence & Aggression<br />Victim/Perpetrator<br />What are the connect...
Assumptions of the Framework<br />Children will do well if they can (Green & Ablon, 2006).<br />One must be physically cal...
Assumptions of the Framework<br />Cognitive-behavioral psychology works (Beck & Fernandez, 1998; Butler, Chapman, Forman &...
Cognitive-behavioral Psychology Works<br />Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology<br />Over 400 Random, Clinical studies<br />Eas...
Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology in a Nutshell<br />Behavioral<br />Setting up consistent limits with consequences<br />Rew...
What is the Goal?<br />Self-Regulation<br />Age<br />External<br />Regulation<br />Age<br />
Self-regulation<br />Broadly defined<br />Skill-building<br />Scaffolding <br />Learning to regulate one’s own Physical, E...
Three Functional Categories of Self-regulation Skill Training<br />Physical<br />Emotional<br />Cognitive<br />
Physical Regulation<br />When Physical response is triggered:<br />Lower Brain is in command<br />Higher thinking not enga...
Physical Regulation<br />Goals of Physical Strategies:<br />Moderate the Fight/Flight/Shut-down ; Autonomic system <br />M...
Physical Training<br />Do:<br />Remove Stimulation<br />Practice and Prevention<br />Reduce Stress<br />Give Space<br />Ca...
My Physical Strategies<br />Break into small groups and identify as many activities as you can to address Physical Regulat...
Emotional Training<br />Goals of Emotional Strategies:<br />Accurately identify emotions; our own and those of others<br /...
My Emotional Strategies<br />Break into small groups and identify as many activities as you can to address Emotional Regul...
Cognitive Training<br />Goals of Cognitive regulation:<br />Problem-solving skills<br />Engaging higher cortical areas of ...
Cognitive Training<br />Common beliefs:<br />“I have to get you before you get me.”<br />“Everyone is against me.”<br />“T...
My Cognitive Strategies<br />Break into small groups and identify as many activities as you can to address Cognitive Regul...
Specific Scenario<br />What about the other Complicating Factors?<br />Crowded classroom with lots of eyes and ears<br />P...
Johnny<br />10-year-old boy <br />Often disruptive in class with frequent anger outbursts <br />When angry, he stays agita...
Johnny’s Baseline  Assessment<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC <br />
Creating an Individualized Planfor Change<br />Complete baseline assessment<br />Select Physical, Emotional and Cognitive ...
Create Your Plan<br />Get into groups<br />Develop a plan to help Johnny increase his ability to Self-regulate<br />Use Ph...
Don’t Forget Self-Assessment<br />What baggage did you bring to the party?<br />
 2 Physical Strategies<br />My Warning Signs<br />Melting Freeze<br />
My Warning Signs<br />One of the first steps in diffusing emotional upset is successful recognition of the physical change...
Melting Freeze<br />Children who do not regulate well have difficulty calming down physically when they are upset. <br />©...
3 Emotional Strategies<br />You Can’t Make Me Laugh<br />Emotional Overflow<br />Free Emotional Expression<br />
You Can’t Make Me Laugh<br />Children struggling with self-regulation often do not understand the power they have over the...
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Managing Defiance with Self-regulation Training

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Managing Defiance with Self-regulation Training

  1. 1. Managing Defiancewith Self-regulation Training<br />Brad Chapin MS, LCP, LMLP<br />Mathew Penner MSW, LMSW<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Opposition and Defiance<br />Managing it with a Solid Framework<br />Self-regulation Training<br />Strategies<br />
  3. 3. Defiance and Opposition<br />Can we “cure” it?<br />Or a better question may be…should we?<br />Are there times in your life where being oppositional or defiant was the best course of action?<br />
  4. 4. A World Without Defiance?<br />
  5. 5. On an Individual Level<br />Learned helplessness<br />Dependence vs.Independence<br />Victimization – bullying, domestic violence<br />Low Self-esteem<br />Powerlessness<br />
  6. 6. Manage it vs. Destroy it<br />Oppositional and Defiant behavior is healthy<br />Conflict is a natural part of communication<br />Conflict can create growth<br />We can learn from conflict<br />
  7. 7. So What’s the Problem?<br />
  8. 8. Where it can go Wrong<br />Intensity<br />Aggression<br />Becomes destructive<br />Timing<br />A time and a place for it<br />Planning/Process<br />How to approach the situation<br />Consideration of others involved<br />Pros and Cons<br />Cost/benefit<br />
  9. 9. Behavior on a Continuum<br />Moderate<br />Dependent,<br />Helpless,<br />Victim<br />Aggressive, Hurtful, Antisocial<br />
  10. 10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders<br />Oppositional Defiant Disorder<br />Conduct Disorder<br />Disruptive Behavior Disorder NOS<br />Antisocial Personality Disorder<br />Reserved for Adults<br />
  11. 11. Oppositional Defiant Disorder<br />A. A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present: (1) often loses temper (2) often argues with adults (3) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules (4) often deliberately annoys people (5) often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior (6) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others (7) is often angry and resentful (8) is often spiteful or vindictive B. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. C. The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder. <br /><ul><li>Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth Edition. Copyright 1994 American Psychiatric Association</li></li></ul><li>What Else Can Look LikeOppositional Defiant Disorder?<br />Autism Spectrum<br />Anxiety<br />Depression<br />Bipolar Disorder<br />Trauma History<br />Developmental Issues<br />
  12. 12. Types of Defiance<br /><ul><li>Externalizing
  13. 13. Anger outbursts
  14. 14. Aggression
  15. 15. Arguing
  16. 16. Yelling, hitting, throwing things
  17. 17. Internalizing
  18. 18. Passive aggressive
  19. 19. Shutting down
  20. 20. Avoidance
  21. 21. Passive resistance</li></li></ul><li>How Do Children Develop Extreme Defiance?<br />Bio-psycho-social explanation<br />Bio = Biological reasons<br />Psycho = Psychological<br />Social = History, Environmental<br />Within the Psychological domain we explore the “why” behind the behavior<br />What MOTIVATES defiance?<br />
  22. 22. Behavioral Reasons for It to Get Out of Control<br />The child has LEARNED that extreme defiance “works”<br />He throws a fit and ends up getting his way<br />Learned by example<br />Over time this behavior is strengthened through success<br />Risk/Reward or Cost/Benefit<br />
  23. 23. Cognitive Reasons for It to Get Out of Control<br />“I have to get you before you get me.”<br />“Everyone is against me.”<br />“The more I push, the more I get.”<br />“I’ve been hurt so much already that I don’t care what happens to me.”<br />“I have no control. I will do what it takes to have control.”<br />
  24. 24. Things that Don’t Seem to Work<br />What things have you tried that didn’t seem to work very well?<br />Have you ever “won” an argument?<br />What about power struggles?<br />How do your own actions influence the situation?<br />STUDY LINK:<br />http://www.aera.net/uploadedFiles/News_Media/News_Releases/2010/AERA%20Factsheet-3%20April8-2010.pdf<br />
  25. 25. What Can We Do?<br />Set up a simple and Consistent set of expectations<br />Learn to manage ourselves<br />Use our skills and supports<br />Self-regulation Skill Training<br />Physical<br />Emotional<br />Cognitive <br />
  26. 26. “Know Thyself”<br />Socrates - 469 BC – 399 BC<br />Benjamin Franklin wrote in his 1750 Poor Richard's Almanac that "There are three things extremely hard: steel, a diamond, and to know one's self.“<br />
  27. 27. “Know Thyself”<br />How do you think about children who are oppositional or defiant? <br />What perceptions do we form about others?<br />What do we attribute their behavior to?<br />What do we think about our own ability to manage these types of behaviors?<br />How do we respond under stress?<br />
  28. 28. Having a Solid Framework<br />Gives you guidance when you get stuck<br />Helps you evaluate new interventions/activities<br />Helps the Team Communicate<br />Prevents Confusion<br />Helps provide Consistency<br />
  29. 29. Self-regulation Training Framework<br />Cognitive-behavioral Psychology<br />Provides Evidence Base<br />Self-Regulation<br />Strategies<br />Physical, Emotional, Cognitive<br />Regulation Skill Domains<br />Academic Performance Emotional Control Motivation<br />Aggression/Violence Executive Function School Safety<br />Anger Impulse Control Self-efficacy<br />Anxiety Learned Helplessness Self-esteem<br />Attention Locus of Control Social Interaction<br />Attribution LongevitySuccess<br />Cognitive Flexibility HappinessTrauma<br />Depression Oppositional Defiance Well-being<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC <br />
  30. 30. Self-regulation & Violence<br />School Safety<br />Violence & Aggression<br />Victim/Perpetrator<br />What are the connections?<br />
  31. 31. Assumptions of the Framework<br />Children will do well if they can (Green & Ablon, 2006).<br />One must be physically calm to effectively engage in problem-solving and learning (Goleman, 1998, Macklem, 2008 ,Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). <br />Human beings have little control over their environment, but a great deal of control over their responses to their environment (Ellis, 1962).<br />The relationship is likely the most important variable when trying to help someone change (Hubble, Duncan & Miller, 1999).<br />
  32. 32. Assumptions of the Framework<br />Cognitive-behavioral psychology works (Beck & Fernandez, 1998; Butler, Chapman, Forman & Beck, 2006).<br />Effective Self-regulation is critical for success and happiness (Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1994; Duckworth & Seligman, 2005; Masten & Coatsworth, 1998). <br />In order to be effective, we need to meet children where they are currently functioning (Greene, 2006; Bailey, 2001).<br />Do not assume that children have learned anything about how to regulate their own behaviors in a healthy way. <br />
  33. 33. Cognitive-behavioral Psychology Works<br />Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology<br />Over 400 Random, Clinical studies<br />Easy to Use<br />Natural to implement – probably doing some of it already<br />De-mystifies psychology<br />High emphasis on education<br />Stresses monitoring and outcomes<br />
  34. 34. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology in a Nutshell<br />Behavioral<br />Setting up consistent limits with consequences<br />Rewarding positive behaviors<br />Cognitive<br />Understanding that beliefs and perceptions dictate our emotional and behavior responses<br />Change beliefs to change behavior<br />
  35. 35. What is the Goal?<br />Self-Regulation<br />Age<br />External<br />Regulation<br />Age<br />
  36. 36. Self-regulation<br />Broadly defined<br />Skill-building<br />Scaffolding <br />Learning to regulate one’s own Physical, Emotional, and Cognitive processes in healthy, pro-active ways to be successful<br />Healthy, adaptive and “appropriate” responding to internal and external events<br />
  37. 37. Three Functional Categories of Self-regulation Skill Training<br />Physical<br />Emotional<br />Cognitive<br />
  38. 38. Physical Regulation<br />When Physical response is triggered:<br />Lower Brain is in command<br />Higher thinking not engaged<br />Body is ready for action<br />Performance requiring thought is compromised<br />Learning is decreased<br />Problem-solving is decreased<br />Yelling, screaming, pushing, hitting, kicking, biting, throwing things, spitting, “shutting down”, etc.<br />People can get hurt<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trPuXkbTpok<br />
  39. 39. Physical Regulation<br />Goals of Physical Strategies:<br />Moderate the Fight/Flight/Shut-down ; Autonomic system <br />Move back “up” from the brain-stem<br />Return body to baseline<br />Physical Strategies include:<br />Repetitive movements<br />Stretching<br />Change of physical position<br />Breathing<br />Relaxation<br />Distraction<br />Biofeedback <br />Can take advantage of Imagination and Visualization – Suggestion, Association<br />
  40. 40. Physical Training<br />Do:<br />Remove Stimulation<br />Practice and Prevention<br />Reduce Stress<br />Give Space<br />Calming Exercises<br />Rhythmic Repetitive Movements and Stretching<br />Do Not:<br />Try to teach<br />Argue<br />Lecture<br />Win<br />Prove a point<br />
  41. 41. My Physical Strategies<br />Break into small groups and identify as many activities as you can to address Physical Regulation<br />Goals of Physical Strategies:<br />Moderate the Fight/Flight/Shut-down ; Autonomic system <br />Move back “up” from the brain-stem<br />Return body to baseline<br />Physical Strategies include:<br />Repetitive movements<br />Stretching<br />Change of physical position<br />Breathing<br />Relaxation<br />Distraction<br />Biofeedback <br />Can take advantage of Imagination and Visualization – Suggestion, Association<br />
  42. 42. Emotional Training<br />Goals of Emotional Strategies:<br />Accurately identify emotions; our own and those of others<br />Own and accept responsibility for our feelings<br />Expressing feelings in healthy, appropriate ways<br />Emotional Strategies Include:<br />Labeling<br />Expression training<br />Responsibility for feelings<br />
  43. 43. My Emotional Strategies<br />Break into small groups and identify as many activities as you can to address Emotional Regulation<br />Goals of Emotional Strategies:<br />Accurately identify emotions; our own and those of others<br />Own and accept responsibility for our feelings<br />Express feelings in healthy, appropriate ways<br />Emotional Strategies Include:<br />Labeling<br />Expression training<br />Responsibility for feelings<br />
  44. 44. Cognitive Training<br />Goals of Cognitive regulation:<br />Problem-solving skills<br />Engaging higher cortical areas of the brain<br />Planning and organization skills<br />Insight and Understanding<br />Forming healthy beliefs about ourselves and the world around us<br />Cognitive Strategies include:<br />Specific training to problem areas<br />Ex. – Collaborative Problem Solving for Conflict Resolution<br />Insight-oriented teaching to promote understanding<br />Learning about his/her own patterns of behavior<br />
  45. 45. Cognitive Training<br />Common beliefs:<br />“I have to get you before you get me.”<br />“Everyone is against me.”<br />“The more I push, the more I get.”<br />“I’ve been hurt so much already that I don’t care what happens to me.”<br />“I have no control. I will do what it takes to have control.”<br />
  46. 46. My Cognitive Strategies<br />Break into small groups and identify as many activities as you can to address Cognitive Regulation<br />Goals of Cognitive regulation:<br />Problem-solving skills<br />Engaging higher cortical areas of the brain<br />Planning and organization skills<br />Insight and Understanding<br />Forming healthy beliefs about ourselves and the world around us<br />Cognitive Strategies include:<br />Specific training to problem areas<br />Insight-oriented teaching to promote understanding<br />Learning about his/her own patterns of behavior<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC <br />
  47. 47. Specific Scenario<br />What about the other Complicating Factors?<br />Crowded classroom with lots of eyes and ears<br />Pressure of completing the “task at hand”<br />Academic standards<br />Lack of other adults<br />Our own upset and other internal factors<br />The child’s unknown history /abilities<br />
  48. 48. Johnny<br />10-year-old boy <br />Often disruptive in class with frequent anger outbursts <br />When angry, he stays agitated for over an hour and continues to struggle in class<br />Can be triggered by other students or the teacher<br />believes that “things have to be a certain way or else” and it is obvious that he does not believe he has control over his actions and he believes that others “make” him angry and can be openly defiant<br />Grades are C’s and D’s and cognitive abilities are average for his age<br />Single-parent home with similar behaviors being reported at home<br />
  49. 49. Johnny’s Baseline Assessment<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC <br />
  50. 50. Creating an Individualized Planfor Change<br />Complete baseline assessment<br />Select Physical, Emotional and Cognitive Strategies to match child’s interests and behaviors <br />Engage child, team and parents if possible<br />Sell the change<br /> - Simple<br /> - Just a few meetings<br />
  51. 51. Create Your Plan<br />Get into groups<br />Develop a plan to help Johnny increase his ability to Self-regulate<br />Use Physical, Emotional, and Cognitive Strategies<br />
  52. 52. Don’t Forget Self-Assessment<br />What baggage did you bring to the party?<br />
  53. 53. 2 Physical Strategies<br />My Warning Signs<br />Melting Freeze<br />
  54. 54. My Warning Signs<br />One of the first steps in diffusing emotional upset is successful recognition of the physical changes that take place in the body. <br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC <br />
  55. 55. Melting Freeze<br />Children who do not regulate well have difficulty calming down physically when they are upset. <br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC <br />
  56. 56. 3 Emotional Strategies<br />You Can’t Make Me Laugh<br />Emotional Overflow<br />Free Emotional Expression<br />
  57. 57. You Can’t Make Me Laugh<br />Children struggling with self-regulation often do not understand the power they have over their own emotions.<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC <br />
  58. 58. Emotional Overflow<br />Children struggling with self-regulation often let their emotions build up inside them to a level that becomes impossible to contain. <br />
  59. 59. Free Emotional Expression<br />Children who struggle with self-regulation often have difficulty expressing the feelings they have in healthy ways<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC<br />
  60. 60. 2 Cognitive Strategies<br />Defiance Trap<br />The Domino Effect<br />
  61. 61. Defiance Trap<br />Children struggling with self-regulation often have difficulty complying with rules and limits. A critical part of self-regulation is understanding that one’s own actions can dictate the amount of freedom they are granted by parents, teachers and others in authority.<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC<br />
  62. 62. The Domino Effect<br />Those who struggle with self-regulation often have difficulty understanding the fact that they can control their own emotional and behavioral outcomes for events that take place in their lives<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC<br />
  63. 63. Additional Tips<br />Use Natural Consequences when you can<br />Be Strengths-based<br />For strategies, use things that you and the child are interested in<br />Programs like Challenge Software can engage children quickly<br />Understanding goes a long way<br />
  64. 64. Collaborative Information<br />Psych Challenge Blog<br />http://psychchallenge.blogspot.com<br />Email<br />Brad.chapin@cpschallenge.com<br />Facebook – search Challenge Software<br />Twitter id = chapin55<br />Challenge Software Program for Children<br />Online tool for teaching Self-regulation www.cpschallenge.com<br />© 2010 ChapinPsychological Services, LLC www.cpschallenge.com brad.chapin@cpschallenge.com<br />

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