Sustainable Development


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Sustainable Development

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Environmental Management Introduction
  2. 2. Topics Covered <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Quality & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for Sustainable Development (SD) </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive Environmental Policy (PEP) </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Regrouping </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Large Scale Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Progress Through Improved Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity Directly Related to Resource Availability & Utility </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Productivity Leads to More Resource Utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Global Environmental Devastation goes Hand-in-Hand with Uncontrolled Development </li></ul><ul><li>Development in Products Related to Societal Needs </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  4. 4. Choice of Product RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  5. 5. Environmental Quality & Development <ul><li>Reasons for Environmental Damage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled Consumption of Earth’s Natural Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive Use of Non-renewable Energy Sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Visible Damages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population Increase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diminishing Stock of Vital Natural Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation leading to Ecological imbalances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declining Biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding Deserts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion of Soil & its Fertility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Aquatic Resources like Fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation of Toxic compounds as a result of Pollution across all resources like Air, Water, Soil and Food </li></ul></ul></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  6. 6. The Pareto Principle <ul><li>20% of the People Control 80% of the Resources in the World and 80% of the People Control 20% of the Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Best quality of life is with these 20% people while rest 80% reside in underdeveloped or developing countries leading to poorer basic amenities in these countries. </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  7. 7. The Planning Process RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 Top-Down Planning Process Bottom-Up Planning Process of 21
  8. 8. A Case Study Hitherto in Indian Context <ul><li>Energy requirements of India </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Generation (Major Source using Fossil Fuel or Coal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro Generation (Renewable Source) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydel Generation (Renewable Source) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Generation (Hazardous Source) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Generation (Renewable Source) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>More requirement of Energy means More Coal Utilization </li></ul><ul><li>More Air Pollution and Waste Generation </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  9. 9. Different Capacities of Environment <ul><li>Supportive Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Extent of support by ecosystem, assessed on the basis of the present level of consumption for the selected resources and potential for resource enhancement through technological innovations in the form of economic, ecological, infrastructural and socio-economic improvements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assimilative Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum amount of pollution load that can be discharged in the environment without affecting the environmental imbalance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum rate of Resource Consumption and Waste Discharge that can be sustained indefinitely in a defined planning region without progressively impairing the biodiversity and ecological intensity. </li></ul></ul></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  10. 10. The Term: ‘Sustainable Development’ <ul><li>United Nation’s World Commission on Environment & Development coined the term in 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>It is also known as ‘The Brundtland Commission’ which published a report “Our Common Future” </li></ul><ul><li>Defines SD as “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  11. 11. Sustainable Development <ul><li>Based on two underlying premises </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic Relationship Between the Consumer Human Race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Producer Natural System and Compatibility Between Ecology & Economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Important Consideration is the Enhancement of Overall Productivity of the Accumulated Capital and its Impact on Human Health & Aesthetic Pleasures (e.g. Lawns) </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  12. 12. Planning for Sustainable Development <ul><li>Concept Based on Minimum Needs of Third World Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Overlooks the Basic Requirement of Availability of a Material and Transformable Resources which form the Basic Foundation of the Planning Process </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Should be Based on “Optimum Utilization of Ecosystem’s Carrying Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Two Steps to Prevent Environmental Deterioration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taking Steps to Control Release of Pollutants in the Ecosystem (Reactive Control) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing Release of Pollutants Right in the First Stage (Preventive Strategy) </li></ul></ul></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  13. 13. The Pollution Prevention Hierarchy RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  14. 14. Preventive Environmental Policy (PEP) <ul><li>Directed Towards Conditions Responsible for Environmental Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Also takes into Consideration Anticipatory Actions for Readjustment to Prevent Potential Environmental Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Implemented through Strategies of Environmental Reorientation & Structural Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Requires Technological Substitution Leading to Induction of Technologies and Practices Better Suited to the Environment </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  15. 15. Environmental Reorientation <ul><li>Product Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactured Through Process Change to have Minimum Environmental Impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or Through Increased Product Life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input Material Change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Operating Practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Changes </li></ul></ul></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  16. 16. Some Sectors of Environmental Reorientation <ul><li>Agricultural Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Construction & Infrastructure Sector </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  17. 17. Structural Changes <ul><li>Involves Avoiding use of Environmentally Harmful Raw Materials, Processes and Products. </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution of Non-renewable Resource Base with Renewable Resources as a Big Structural Change </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Evaluation of Various Feasible Options Based on Economic, Environmental and Social Consideration </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  18. 18. Few Technological Classifications for Structural Changes <ul><li>Cleaner Technologies of Production </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle and Reuse Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnological Applications of Renewable Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Integration that Minimizes Cross Media Transfer of Pollutants (For Process Based Industries) </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  19. 19. Ecological Regrouping of Industries <ul><li>Resource Optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in Quality of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Antipollution Technology Even at the Cost of Inflation Towards a Long Term Sustainable Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Awareness Campaigns to Involve Common Man </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21
  20. 20. Ecological Regrouping of Industries RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 Questions????? of 21
  21. 21. References <ul><li>“ An Introduction to Environmental Management” Dr. A. S. Bal </li></ul><ul><li>“ Environmental Studies” Joseph Benny </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Textbook of Environmental Studies” Chatwal G.R. & Harish Sharma </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>RKEC/DMT/CRV/EM/Sus-Dev-1 31/08/08 of 21