Water Management Institutional bodies in Sri Lanka
Introduction• Water is the most important natural resource which keeps the world alive.• Not only do we humans use it just about every day, but every living thing needs it to live.• Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.• The institutions which are related with such kind of activities, called as “Water management Institutions.”
• Water management is not a new concept for Sri Lankans. For the centuries, our ancient people were engaging in large scale irrigation projects with their amazing water management technologies and even now a days we can take benefits from them.• But in the last 2 decades, in here Sri Lanka “Water Management” is became very critical concept and sometimes it caused to even change the ruling parties of the government of Sri Lanka.
Classification of Water Management Institutions in Sri LankaGovernment Non GovernmentNational Water Supply International Water& Drainage Board Management Institute (IWMI)Irrigation Department Lanka JalaniWater ResourcesBoardMahawali Authority
Water Management Institutions- Government• According to above chart there are several government Institutional bodies which are engaging with water management of Sri Lanka. The National Water Supply & Drainage Board is related with drinking water supply and drainage systems of Sri Lanka, while the irrigation sector is governed by the Ministry of Irrigation & Water Resources Management.• The irrigation is the largest water user in Sri Lanka accounting for about 90% of the total water use. The total irrigated area in the country is about 0.6 million hectares.
• The larger schemes (over 400 hectares) are administered by the Irrigation Department and the Mahaweli Authority.• The medium schemes (80–400 hectares ) are administered by the provincial councils.• The minor schemes (less than 80 hectares) are supposed to be maintained by farmers with technical guidance of the Provincial Irrigation Departments (PIDs).
The National Water Supply & Drainage Board-under the Ministry of Water Supply & Drainage
• Vision- “To be the most prestigious utility organization in Sri Lanka through industry and service section.”• Mission-“Serve the nation by providing sustainable water and sanitation ensuring total user satisfaction.”
• The National Water Supply & Drainage Board had its beginning as a sub department under the Public Works Department with responsibility for the water supply and drainage systems of Sri Lanka. From 1965, it functioned as a division under various ministries until January 1975 when it was converted to a Statutory Board by an Act of Parliament.• The National Water Supply & Drainage Board functions under the Ministry of Water Supply & Drainage. This Ministry was established in 2007 separately for the subject area of water supply & drainage.
• In accordance with the Board Act, several major Urban Water Supply Schemes operated by Local Authorities were taken over by the NWSDB to provide more coverage and improved service.• This is the principal authority providing safe drinking water and facilitating the provision of sanitation in Sri Lanka.• The NWSDB is presently operating 312 Water Supply Schemes which cover 39% of the total population with pipe borne Water Supply, and 12% of the population is served with hand pump tube wells.• The NWSDB is also in charge of the sewerage systems in Colombo & suburbs, Hantane, Koggala, Hikkaduwa, Kataragama and in few housing schemes.• Rural Water Supply & Sanitation programs including deep well programs are also being implemented by the NWSDB.
Goals• Goal 1 - Increase the water supply and sanitation coverage• Goal 2 - Improve Business Efficiency• Goal 3 - Improve services to customers and promptly attend to public complaints• Goal 4 - Promote Information and Communication Technology solutions as a catalyst for business growth• Goal 5 - Ensure greater accountability and transparency• Goal 6 - Promote Human Resource Development• Goal 7 - Facilitate safe drinking water supply and sanitation to rural and underserved communities
•"Not a single drop of water flow in to the sea without being used for the mankind……."
King Maha Parakramabahu the Great- 1153-1186 AD
• Irrigation Department, in existence from 1900, is the premium water resource development organization in Sri Lanka.• It created productive farmlands out of the thick malarial jungles that once covered most of the island.• VISION -"Not a single drop of water flow in to the sea without being used for the mankind"(King Maha Parakramabahu the Great-1153-1186 AD)• MISSION -The Irrigation Department is responsible for planning, design, construction, operation and management of all major and medium Irrigation schemes and work related to flood control, drainage and salinity extrusion.
Subjects and Functions• Formulation and implementation of policies, plans and programmes in respect of Irrigation, Reservoirs and Water Management.• Irrigation and drainage work• Salt water exclusion schemes• Rain water harvesting• Flood protection• Prevention of the pollution of rivers, streams and other watercourses• Promotion, construction, operation and Maintenance of schemes of irrigation, drainage, flood control• Engineering Consultancy Services and Construction
• Water resource board established in 1966.• IT collects data and information on Water Resources for advisory purposes, and undertakes Hydro geological investigation and Groundwater development projects.
• Vision Adequate access to clean and safe water for all• Mission To advise the government and the people and make necessary regulations & laws on assessing, conserving, harnessing, developing and frugally utilizing water resources in the country; and to implement the same in close collaboration with the rural society, relevant national and provincial level government institutions, private sector, international organizations and scientific communities here and abroad.• To ensure that the society today doesn’t pollute the water of future.• To be self dependent.
• Mahaweli Development Programme envisages for development of 365,000 ha of land for agriculture in 13 Systems identified in Mahaweli Master Plan in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka.• It was planned for the construction of a series of reservoirs with hydro electricity plants and to develop a large extent of land with irrigation facilities, for establishment of new settlements and agriculture development.• Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka was established in 1979 in Parliament Act with a mandate to implement the Mahaweli Development Programme.
• Presently maintenance & rehabilitation of Its irrigation net work, land administration, increase agricultural production and post settlement activities are done.• At present, MASL is responsible for managing irrigation water for 175,000 ha. of Irrigable land In the dry zone.
Water Management Institutions, non-Government International Water Management Institute
• The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organization with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.• Research at the Institute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim of underpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmental processes.
• IWMI is one of 15 international research centers supported by the network of 60 governments, private foundations and international and regional organizations collectively known as the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).• It is a non-profit organization with a staff of 350 and offices in over 10 countries across Asia and Africa and Headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
• IWMIs Mission is to improve the management of land and water resources for food, livelihoods and the environment.• IWMIs Vision, reflected in the Strategic Plan is water for a food-secure world.
• IWMI targets water and land management challenges faced by poor communities in the developing world/or in developing countries and through this contributes towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing poverty, hunger and maintaining a sustainable environment.• Research is the core activity of IWMI.
• Lanka Jalani is an independent nonprofit association with a goal of promoting Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in line with the concepts and principles outlined at international for a such as Rio, Dublin & 1st & 2nd World Water Forums.• . It is an initiative supported by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) Membership is open and inclusive and currently represents a wide range of stakeholder interests.
• . It has taken the initiative in developing a Water Vision 2025 for Sri Lanka in the year 2000 and a program for Action (PFA) to translate the vision to action has been developed.• It has set up Area Water Partnerships (AWP) Youth networks and other basin level institutions to support River Basin Management (RBM) and IWRM in Sri Lanka.• Area Water Partnerships provide the local institutional base for representation & action at local level while the Country Water Partnership (CWP) and associated CEO panel provides the forum for policy level dialogue of these issues for consideration at national level.