Geographical Information systems in Precision Agriculture


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Geographical Information systems in Precision Agriculture

  1. 1. Practical Report on, Geographical Information Systems Precision Agriculture 32nd Batch 1
  2. 2. Page of contentsIntroductionWhat is Precision Agriculture? 3What is Geographical Information System? 3What GPS can do? 4The Role of GIS in Agriculture 4PracticalMaterial and equipment 5Methodology 5Data 5Soil sampling and mapping 6Data analysis 7References 9 Introduction 2
  3. 3. 1. What is Precision Agriculture?Precision Agriculture is the application of technologies and principals to manage spatial andtemporal variability associated with all aspects of agricultural production for the purpose ofimproving crop performance and environmental quality. 2. What is Geographical Information System? A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data forcapturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referencedinformation.GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data inmany ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports,and charts. A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a waythat is quickly understood and easily shared.GIS technology can be integrated into anyenterprise information system framework. GIS Map 1 GPS receiver 1 3
  4. 4. 3. What GIS can do? Storage of data Display data Manipulation of data Statistical application Handling of missing data Comparison of maps 4. The Role of GIS in AgricultureSpatial analysis, the study of geographic features, and the relationships that exist betweenthem can be applied to many areas of the agriculture industry. By better understanding howfeatures within the landscape interact, decision makers can optimize operational efficiencyand improve economic returns. Regardless of scale-whether at the farm field level analyzingcrop yield information or across an entire country-GIS is becoming fully integrated andwidely accepted for assisting government agencies to manage programs that support farmersand protect the environment. These are the agriculture GIS application in the field Combining agronomic and economic data sets Field data interpolation Decision support for farm management Farm asset allocation Field input reporting Regulatory compliance 4
  5. 5. PracticalMaterial and equipments GPS receiver - to get positional coordinates Lord soil Sampler- to get soil samples Sampling bags- to collect soil samples pH meter –to measure the soil pH EC meter –to measure the soil EC GIS software/ computer/ user interface- to develop mapMethodology As a group all the students of precision agriculture went to a selected bare field offaculty. Then we were separated to small groups. Soil samples with depth of 10 inches and 20inches below from soil surface were taken. Meantime we collected the longitudinal andlatitudinal data of the positions which soil samples were taken. Then we went to the engineering department’s laboratory and measure the pH and ECof the soil samples. These data were entered to database and also they feed to the GISsoftware, ARC VIEW. Finally soil sample map was developed.Data Arc view ID NO N E pH10 EC10 PH20 EC201 0095897 0177419 5.88 22.7 5.50 17.42 0095903 0177429 6.02 18.0 6.04 12.83 0095899 0177432 7.50 20.7 6.40 19.74 0095904 0177426 6.18 16.3 6.28 12.75 0095912 0177420 6.55 26.9 7.65 18.46 0095927 0177445 7.74 28.0 7.75 24.07 0095925 0177433 8.13 30.0 7.83 29.08 0095910 0177446 8.90 23.6 8.60 18.69 0095929 0177461 8.13 31.3 7.93 38.310 0095950 0177444 8.13 39.7 7.73 28.8 5
  6. 6. Soil sample mapping Elevation 1EC-10 EC-20 6
  7. 7. Data analyzing Arial Photograph of faculty Red circular area shows the field which practical was done.Soil pH @ depth of 10cm Soil pH @ depth of 20cm 7
  8. 8. DATA analysisImportance of elevation This map shows the elevation of the site selected. If this is a large field we can selectthe crops according to the elevation. But this selected area is very small and elevation onlyvaries between 27m-44m. Therefore we can select one common crop which is suitable forlow lands for the whole field. The importance of the elevation map of this small field is we can apply themanagement practices according to the elevation. Specially we can apply soil conservationmeasures in the areas where the contour lines are present in more closely.Importance of soil pH A pH reading is a measurement that expresses the degree of acidity or alkalinity, verymuch like heat and cold are expressed in degrees Centigrade or Fahrenheit. The pH scale has14 units and is centered on 7, which is neutral. Levels below 7 are considered in the acid orsour range and readings above 7 are alkaline or sweet. Soil nutrients are at their optimumavailability in the range between 6 and 7. Most plants grow best in this range, although sometype of plant growth can take place anywhere between 3.5 and 10. The pH level greatlyaffects the fertility of soil and quality of plant growth. Under alkaline conditions, the solubility of minerals decrease to the point that nutrientdeficiencies occur. Plant growth is therefore limited by deficiencies in iron, manganese, zinc,copper and boron. Phosphorus is also less available in alkaline soils and high levels ofcalcium may inhibit the uptake of potassium and magnesium. Under acidic conditions, many soil minerals dissolve and increase the concentrationof metal ions to toxic levels. The primary toxic metal is aluminum, but high levels ofmanganese and iron can also inhibit plant growth under these conditions. The nutrientsphosphorus and molybdenum are less available in acidic soils and calcium and/or magnesiummay also be deficient. In this field South area is more acidic and North area is more saline. Therefore we canconsider the most suitable crops for the field according to this ph map. Acid tolerance cropsare more suitable for south area and salinity tolerance crops are more suitable for north area.Also if there is any crop available, we can manage soil ph according to that crop’srequirements by changing soil ph. (by adding acids or bases.) 8
  9. 9. Importance of soil ECSoil electrical conductivity (EC) is a measurement that correlates with soil properties thataffect crop productivity, including soil texture, cation exchange capacity (CEC), drainageconditions, organic matter level, salinity, and subsoil characteristics. By agriculturalstandards, soils with an EC greater than 4 dS/m are considered saline.We can clearly observe the variance of soil EC in this field with the maps developed. References Korte B. George, THE GIS BOOK, 5th Edition, 2001-by Onward press-Canada ISBN- 13: 978-0-7668-2820-9 -10:0-7688-2820-4 Thanks for Mr. Amila Buddhika ( demonstrator of Agric Engineering dept) for hiskindness Guidance and cooperation throughout this practical as well as developing maps withGIS. 9