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E ws research cacha

  1. 1. Layout1.indd 1 7/12/2009 10:28:36 AM
  2. 2. Project implemented by: Supported by:Layout1.indd 2 7/12/2009 10:29:43 AM
  3. 3. Layout1.indd 3 7/12/2009 10:30:19 AM
  4. 4. Acknowledgement This report presents the results of action research entitlied “ The Policies Environments regarding Universal Access And the Right to Work of Entertainment Workers/Sex Workers”. The study was carried out under the leadership of the Cambodian Alliance for Combating HIV/AIDS (CACHA) in collaboration with WNU, CPU, MSM, CCW and CNMWD and with the financial and technical support from the ActionAid, ICASO/APNSW, UNAIDS, UNFPA and WAC. First and foremost, the appreciation and profound gratitude go to Ms. Phenh Parozin [National Coordinator of CACHA] and Ms. Hang Chansophea [Research Coordinator] who were coordinating the whole adminstrative process of the study. In particular, the highest appreciations are to Dr. Ly Cheng Huy [Chairman of CACHA SC], Dr. Seng Sutwantha [Treasurer of CACHA SC], other members of CACHA SC and Ms. Dy Many [Programme Officer of ActionAid Cambodia and CACHA Advisor] for their high commitments and efforts in initaiting the study. The heartfelt thanks and high appreciation are given to analysitical reseacrh teams namely Dr. Tia Phalla [Freelance Consultant of Action Research Project]; Mr. Sok Serey [Consultant of Quantitative Analysis]; Mr. Seng Sary [Consultant of Qualitiative Analysis]; Ms. Sally Francess Low [International Consultant of Law and Human Rights ]; and Mr. Keo Chenda [Local Consultant of Law and Human Rights]. In particular, Dr. Tia Phalla who was actively involved in the whole report production. Without his patient guide and technical support, the resaecrh report would not be comprehensive with systematic and scientific states. The warmest thanks are extended to Mrs. Khan Chanmuny and Mr. Ung Sovannak [Team Leader and Representative from National AIDS Authority] and Ms. Chan Vattey and Mr. Samtyn Noreen [Team Leader and Representative from the civil society] in leading the field assistants for data and other field work support. The data is full of information and accurate are due to the efforts and hard work of them and the field research assistants. Last but not least, a grateful thanks and deep appreciation are for the National AIDS Authority (NAA) who fully supports such important initiative. Finally, thanks and appreciation for the local authority, and officer in charge of HIV and the civil society organizations in the 4 selected study provinces Phnom Penh, Banteay Mean Chey, Siem Reap and Sihaknouk Ville who helpfully coordinating for the respondents and necessary field work to be existed. The last special thank are all the respondent including MSM, Karaoke, field Massage, Beer girl, Freelance sex worker Direct sex worker and Transgender to freely allow the interview work and discussion. y Cheng Dr. Ly Cheng Huy, h Chairman of CACHA Steering CommitteeLayout1.indd 4 7/12/2009 10:30:20 AM
  5. 5. Contents 1. Background 2. Objectives 3. Methodology 1. Conceptual Framework 2. Research Design 4. Findings Objective 1 : The right to work of EWs and MSM/Transgender 1. Socio-Economic 2. The Work 3. The perception 4. Main factors related to right to work 5. The application of law and policies 6. The participation Objective 2: The enabling environment on development and enforcement of existing policies and social norm regarding Universal Access of EWs/SWs and MSM/Transgender 1. Involvement in the Advocacy mechanism for Universal Access 2. The perception a. Right to sell sex b. Public order ( Waving hands) c. Main factors related to UA 3. Actual implementation of the LSHSE a. Clients of EW and MSM/Transgender punished? b. Separation between those who are trafficked and those who are not Objective 3: To assess the coverage and quality services regarding Universal Access of EWs and MSM/Transgender 1. Coverage c. Condom Use d. Peer Education e. The use of services 2. Quality 1. Friendliness of services 2. Payment for services Objective 4: To identify problems (and possible problems) related to the implementation of the new Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation amongst EWs and MSM/Transgender 1. Possible problems 2. The support 3. Changes in some key variables between 2007 and 2008Layout1.indd 5 7/12/2009 10:30:22 AM
  6. 6. • Objective5: The key areas (of training) and skills development of relevant networks and key partners including EWs and MSM/Transgender 1. Capacity building on Leadership for Results 2. Capacity building in designing and delivering innovative and appropriate strategic BCC Program for EW and MSM/Transgender and their clients 3. Develop skills of the police and local authority to act as Community Enablers 4. Strengthening the organizational and advocacy capacity of EW and MSM/Transgender network 5. Strengthening the organizational and advocacy capacity of networks working with EW and MSM/Transgender 5. Analysis 1. The change of general features of the sex industry 2. Right to work 3. Discrepancy between the perception and the reality 4. Right to Universal Access services 5. Quality of Universal Access services 6. Possible problems related to the implementation of the Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation 6. Recommendations 1. Pillar 1: Assure universal access to comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment ,care and support 2. Pillar 2 : Build supportive environment , strengthen partnerships and expand choices 3. Pillar 3 :Reduce vulnerability and address structural issues 7. Conclusions 1. Understanding the vulnerability of EW and MSM/Transgender and their right to work 2. Universal Access coverage 3. Quality of services 4. Impact of the implementation of the Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation 5. Capacity building 6. Leadership and coordinationLayout1.indd 6 7/12/2009 10:30:23 AM
  7. 7. ACRONYMS AAC ActionAid Cambodia AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AFESIP Agir Pour les Femmes En Situation Precaire APNSW Asia Pacific Network of Sex Workers ART Antiretroviral Therapy BC Bandanh Chaktomuk BCC Behavior Change Communication BPG Beer Promotion Girls CACHA Cambodian Alliance for Combating HIV/AIDS CBOs Community Base Organisations CCW Cambodian Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS CDHS Cambodian Demographic Health Survey CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women CNMWD Cambodian Network for Men and Women Development CPU Cambodian Prostitute Union CUCC Condom Use Coordinating Committee CUP Condom Use Programme DHATWG Drug and HIV Technical Working Group DSW Direct Sex Worker DU/IDU Drug User/Inject Drug User EW Entertainment Worker FHI Family Health International FSW Freelance Sex Worker GFATM Global Fund for the fight against AIDS , Tuberculosis and Malaria HACC HIV/AIDS Coordinating Committee HBC Home Base Care HCW Health Care Worker HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ICASO International Council on AIDS Organisations IDSW Indirect Sex Workers IDU Intravenous Drug Users KHANA Khmer HIV/AIDS NGO Alliance LICADHO Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights LSHSE Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation MARPS Most At Risk Populations MHC Men Health Clinic MHSS Men’s Health Social Service MOI Ministry of Interior MOLVT Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training MSM Men who have Sex with Men NAA National AIDS Authority NACD National Authority Combating DrugLayout1.indd 7 7/12/2009 10:30:23 AM
  8. 8. NCHADS National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STD NCDD National Commission for Decentralization and Deconcentration NGOs Non Government Organisations NMSMTWG National MSM Technical Working Group OPC Outreach Peer Education and 100% Condom Use PMTCT Prevent of Mother to Child Transmission SOP Standard Operational Procedure STI Sexually Transmitted Infection SW Sex Worker TWG Technical Working Group UA Universal Access UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Program VCCT Voluntary Confidential Counseling and Testing WHN Women Health Network WAC Womyns Agenda for Change WNU Women Network for Unity 8Layout1.indd 8 7/12/2009 10:30:24 AM
  9. 9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY With the imminent emergence of the second wave of HIV infection, strong leadership is critical to orchestrate, align and harmonize all the initiatives of different sectors working with EW and MSM/ Transgender to address their rights and their access to UA services. This action research aims at analyzing the situation on the right to work of entertainment workers and at examining a broad scope of enabling environment factors that might affect the coverage of quality of UA services. It also seeks to identify eventual problems resulting from the implementation of the Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation. With support of EW and MSM/Transgender networks, this research was conducted in November 2008 on 1116 Entertainment Workers (Direct Sex Workers, Massage Girls, Freelance Sex Workers, Karaoke Girls and Beer Promotion Girls) and 591 MSM/ Transgender ( 362 Short Hair and 229 Long Hair ) selected from 4 Provinces, Siem Reap, Banteay Mean Chey, Sihanoukville and Phnom Penh. Findings 1.Right to work a. The EW was on average 25 while MSM/Transgender was one year younger. However, the latter were better educated than their female peers (respectively 9 years and 3.9 of schooling on average). Among EW, 27% of them were found to be illiterate. While one third of EWs is found to be single, more than two thirds of MSM/Transgender claims that they had never married. The duration in the sex job varies from 20 to 36 months with EW and 15 to 40 months with MSM/Transgender.18% of EW used to work in the Garment Factories. Among Female EWs the average number is 3.12 while MSM/ Transgenders have only 2 dependents in average. b. Over 50% of female EWs said they entered the profession voluntarily. A further 40.16% said they chose to work in the industry because of family problems. In-depth analysis is needed to find out what is meant by family problems and whether or not this involves force and whether or not sex work as is their last choice for survival. Less than 0.8% of female EWs surveyed said they were sold into prostitution and 6.21% said they were lured. Further investigation would be needed to determine what respondents meant by being lured. Some may mean that they were attracted to work in the industry by honest information about what to expect. However, even if all of those lured were deceived, this would still mean that only 7.1% of respondents were trafficked. More than 90% of EWs stated that they work independently. Among EW, 86% of sexual acts during the last week were with clients whereas only the figure was only 40% for MSM/Transgender. The total income of EW and MSM/ Transgender ranges from 91 USD (MSM) to 157 USD (Karaoke Girls). The former send on average 20 USD back home while their female peers remit 38 USD for their dependants. The debts of EWs were almost twice as high as those of MSM/Transgender (44 USD and 24USD respectively). IDSW were found to be more often drunk than DSW. 41% of Karaoke Girls and 28% of BPG asserted that they had been drunk in the previous week. The prevalence of the use of smoking drugs (21.4 % for DSWs) seems to be higher than in the 2007 BSS (18.6% of DSWs). More than 90% of EW and MSM/Transgender asserted that the government has the duty to protect the rights of all citizens including MARPs and that they have equal rights with other citizens. All of them rated a number of factors related to their work (e.g. lack of job opportunity, lack of representatives, unclear policies with conflicting understanding and practices…) as having a negative impact on their right to work. They also acknowledged that stigma, discrimination, harassment and violence from different population groups are declining. 2.Enabling Environment for UA 1. Involvement in the Advocacy mechanism for Universal Access The participation of EW and MSM/Transgender sex workers in advocacy occurs mostly at the local level and mostly through their passive participation in workshops where listen to others. With 9Layout1.indd 9 7/12/2009 10:30:25 AM
  10. 10. support from NGOs and their central level teams, some participatory advocacy interventions (e.g. campaigns, workshops, Parades and Press Conferences) have been conducted and these result in a better atmosphere than the more passive activities. The percentages of Direct Sex Workers, Massage Girls and Freelance Sex workers participating in advocacy for the right to work were respectively 38%, 38% and 43%. Karaoke Girls and Beer Promotion Girls were less involved (27% and 30%) while 46% of MSM/Transgender sex workers had participated. The involvement of EWs in UA mechanisms was found to be lower than their actions for the right to work. The percentage of the involvement of Massage Girls and Freelance Sex Workers were respectively 32%, 19% AND 33%. In contrast Karaoke Girls’ and Beer Promotion Girls’ involvement was higher in advocacy for the right to than for the right to UA. The percentages of the latter groups in UA advocacy were respectively 31% and 33%. MSM and Transgender sex workers have a better involvement than the female groups (respectively 58% and 43%). 2. The perception On the right to sell sex on a voluntary basis: The absolute majority of EWs from all types of employment agree that they have right to sell sex on a voluntary basis (84%). MSM and Transgender sex workers provide almost similar answers to this question with 86% of them asserting that they do have the right to sell sex on a voluntarily basis. On public order: Waving hands to attract the Clients: Among EWs, the disagreement and agreement with Article 24 of the LSHSE (which punished soliciting in public) are equal. The analysis by types of employment found that those who are directly selling sex (DSW, Massage Girls and Freelance SW) have almost the same percentage of agreement and disagreement with this statement. Those who are indirectly selling sex (Karaoke and Beer Promotion Girls) agree less than the three previous groups. MSM and Transgender strongly disagree with the statement of the article 24 of LSHSE (with 67% of MSM and 74% of Transgender). It is interesting to note that from the analysis by locations of EWs, there is an absolute disparity between the perceptions provided by the respondents. On the main factors related to UA: The analysis by the use of WAI, found that EWs and MSM/ Transgender sex workers strongly perceive that stigma and discrimination are barriers to UA for EWs. The lack of EW representatives in the process of policy and program development, the lack of coordination between central and local levels and the lack of participation in Anti-Human Trafficking, Drug control, Human Right networks in 100% CUP are the main factors that affect their access to UA services. 3. Actual implementation of the policies Illegality of selling sex and legality of buying sex: By types of employment, it is known that more than 80% of all EWs and MSM/Transgender has not seen their clients punished by the authority. Actions of uniformed services and local authorities for those who are trafficked and those who are voluntarily selling sex: The pattern of the responses to this question asking whether Uniformed Services and local authorities separate those who are trafficked and those who are voluntarily selling sex varies across provinces. Among EW, most of the Sihanouk Ville respondents did not provide answers while among MSM/Transgender, 78% of Phnom Penh respondents stated that there is no separation when 46% of respondents in Banteay Mean Chey and Sihanouk Ville said there was separation. . 3.Universal Access 1. Coverage a. Condom Use: As an overall observation, the rate of condom use for all EW with paying clients ranged from 88% to 99%. With sweethearts it ranged from 70% to 91% and with spouse/ cohabiting partners from 41% to 78%. The condom use rates of Karaoke Girls and Beer Promotion Girls with sweethearts are respectively 70% and 78%. Among MSM (Short Hair) the rate of condom use with different types of partners exceeds 80%. The condom use rate of Transgender (Long Hair) with their 10Layout1.indd 10 7/12/2009 10:30:29 AM
  11. 11. partners also exceeds 80% except with Male Non Paying Partners where the rate is only 65%. b. Peer Education: Among EW, there was very little progress in outreach by Peer Education teams in Siem Reap and in Banteay Mean Chey over the past year. While there was a significant increase of coverage in Sihanouk Ville, it slightly decreased in Phnom Penh. The overall coverage in 4 provinces increased from 63% in 2007 to 65% in 2008. It is worth noticing that the coverage in Siem Reap in 2007 and 2008 was relatively low by comparison to other locations (only 31% in both locations in 2007 and 2008). Among MSM/Transgender sex workers, the coverage of Peer Education in Siem Reap is also low in 2007 and 2008 (respectively 53% and 49%). For other locations the coverage varies from 79% to 94%. c. Interest in the Peer Education Program: The analysis by Wight Average Index by location found that all EW are Highly Interested in PE except in Siem Reap where they are only interested. The analysis by type of employment shows that only Freelance Sex Workers are only Interested while others are Highly Interested. Among MSM/Transgender sex workers, Phnom Penh had a lower score (only interested) as compared to other locations where the respondents are Highly Interested. They were found to be Highly interested both in the separate MSM and Transgender groups. d. The Use of Services: STI and VCCT: a. Among EW/SWs the use of STI services was higher by DSW, Massage Girls and Freelance Sex Workers (ranging from 72% to 83%) than by Indirect Sex Workers group (Karaoke: 58% and Beer Promotion Girls: 61%). The difference in the use of VCCT services is also similar but with a higher percentage in all groups (ranging from 70% to 90%). The use of abortion services is high among Freelance Sex Workers and Beer Promotion girls (respectively 17% and 11%). For EW/SWs who attended STI and VCCT services, the average usage decreases in all 4 provinces except for the STI clinic in Phnom Penh. As an overall observation, MSM and Transgenders’ use of health services is less than their female peers. The use of STI clinics is less than 50% while the use of VCCT varies from 71% among MSM to 76% for Transgenders. The analysis by location found the coverage of services to EW/SWs was lower in Siem Reap than in other provinces while the coverage of services for MSM/Transgenders was lower in Banteay Mean Chey and Siem Reap as compared to the other two provinces. b. Over the past one year, among EW the coverage of STI and VCCT services increases in all provinces except in Phnom Penh. The coverage of those services in Banteay Mean Chey and Sihanoukville are similar. A closer look at the average use of STI and VCCT services by MSM and Transgender found that it is in fact decreasing in all provinces except in Banteay Mean Chey. In Phnom Penh, the use of STI services remains unchanged while the VCCT is slightly decreasing. The use of STI services provided by government by EW and MSM/Transgender are respectively 43% and 42% of the respondents. The remaining services are mostly provided by NGOs. The reach to Drug Education Program and HBC a. Among EW: From 55% to 61% of EW in Banteay Mean Chey, Sihanouk Ville and Phnom Penh have been reached by Outreach Workers who work on Drug abuse. However, only 32% of EWs in Siem Reap have been reached. The reach by HBC (Home Based Care) Teams is low in Siem Reap and Banteay Mean Chey (only 16%), medium in Sihanouk Ville (30%) and high in Phnom Penh (46%). b. Among MSM and Transgender, the reach by the Drug Education Program varies from 42% in Sihanouk Ville to 66% in Phnom Penh. The reach by HBC Teams has a greater variance with 55% of MSM/Transgender covered by the team while only 7% of their peers in Banteay Mean Chey have been contacted by the HBC Team. Partner referral The total figure for partner referral is only 26% for EW and 22% for Transgender. In Sihanouk Ville the referral of MSM/ Transgender partners is remarkably high (57%). 11Layout1.indd 11 7/12/2009 10:30:30 AM
  12. 12. 2. The quality of services Friendliness of services From the data collected and the analysis by locations, it is found that EWs from all provinces said that HCWs at STI clinics and VCCT Centers are very friendly to them. EWs from Siem Reap found that HCWs of both services are friendly. Among MSM/Transgender, the scores are less than EWs in all provinces since they said that HCWs at STI clinics and VCCT Centers are friendly to them. Payment for services According to the answers of the EW respondents, the payments for ART and PMTCT are insignificant. The proportion of EW/SWs in Siem Reap spending money on these services seems to be high for STI and VCCT services (respectively 26.6% and 37.2%). However, the average amount of those payments is lower compared to other locations. Compared to their female peers, fewer MSM/Transgender pay for STI and VCCT services, their payments for ART are also insignificant. 4.Possible problems related to the implementation of the new LSHSE 1. Possible problems related to the implementation of LSHSE Movement The analysis by types of employment found that Direct Sex Workers have moved location markedly more in 2008 as compared to 2007 while movement by Karaoke Girls increased only a little in 2008 as compared to 2007. The movement of other EW groups decreased from 2007 to 2008. Among MSM/Transgender, there was a little increase in movement by Transgenders in2008 as compared to 2007. There was less mobility among MSM in 2008 by comparison to 2007. Arrests The analysis by location found that in 3 provinces (Siem Reap, Banteay Mean Chey and Sihanouk Ville) less than a dozen of the EW interviewed had been arrested in 2007 and 2008 (2% to 4%). For EW in Phnom Penh, the numbers of arrest was 103 (or 19% of the EW interviewed in Phnom Penh) in 2007 and 80 (or 14% of the EW interviewed in Phnom Penh) in 2008. In all locations the tendency of arrest is decreasing from 2007 to 2008 except in Sihanouk Ville and except among Direct Sex workers where there was an increase in 2008. In all 4 locations, there was an increase of arrests of MSM/Transgender except in Banteay Mean Chey. The arrests were severe in Phnom Penh where MSM/Transgender seek clients in the parks and public places. Release from arrest The compiled data from 4 provinces indicates that half of the arrested EW is released without intervention or with intervention from NGOs. Money or valuable items have been used to gain release during or after arrest (respectively 7% and 27%). Among those who have arrested, 6% stated that they had provided sex as a means of release. The MSM/Transgender groups use similar ways to the Female EW to gain their release with the exception that they are more able to provide valuable items or pay direct money at the time of the arrest. 2. Support The support in case of violation As per the response of EWs, it is found the chance of obtaining support from someone civilians or from uniformed services / local authorities in Siem Reap and Sihanouk Ville is medium and low in Banteay Mean Chey and in Phnom Penh. The chances of receiving support are thought to be low by MSM/Transgender in all provinces, except in Sihanouk Ville where they can be rescued by a citizen. The support gain back right after violation Among different sources of assistance after violations, less than 40% of EWs from the 4 provinces 12Layout1.indd 12 7/12/2009 10:30:31 AM
  13. 13. asserted that they would receive support from police and/or local authorities. The majority are likely to rely on NGOs and local people for assistance. The answers from MSM/Transgender groups are also similar to their female peers. 3. Changes in some key variables between 2007 and 2008 Among EW • Significant reduction of the mean of their movements from 0.59 in 2007 to 0.49 in 2008. • Significant reduction of the mean of VCCT checks up from 1.46 in 2007 to 1.33 in 2008. • No significant changes of mean number of arrests and STI attendance of EW between 2007 and 2008. Among MSM/Transgender • Significant reduction of the mean amount of movements from 1.17 in 2007 to 1.03 in 2008. • Significant increase of the mean of number of arrests from 0.071 in 2007 to 0.121 in 2008. • No significant changes of the mean of the rates of usage of STI and VCCT services by MSM/ Transgender between 2007 and 2008. 5.Training and skills development of relevant networks and key partners including EWs and MSM/Transgender 1. Capacity Building on Leadership for Results is suggested to create a powerful and long lasting network of policy makers, program implementers and beneficiaries which can adjust the implementation of policies especially at local level. Policy makers and program implementers need to be inspired to support this paradigm shift. Key officials from the relevant institutions who are directly or indirectly involved with the work of Entertainment Workers and MSM/Transgender sex workers and their access to basic services (e.g. UA, legal services, social services…). 2. Capacity building in designing and delivering innovative and appropriate strategic BCC programs for EW, MSM/Transgender and their clients The capacity building for BCC needs to be linked to Basic Human Rights, Positive Prevention, Continuum of Care, and also to creating an enabling environment through empowerment and meaningful participation. Sweethearts Programs need be reviewed, redesigned and expanded with the active participation of Entertainment Workers. 3. Develop skills of police forces and local authorities to act as Community Enablers The technical capacity of police and local authorities in hot spot areas need to be built to create enabling environments for the prevention programs of government institutions and NGOs. 4. Strengthening the organizational and advocacy capacity of Entertainment Workers and MSM Transgender networks The expected output is to establish a strong network of Entertainment Workers and MSM Transgender sex workers which can work in solidarity with GOs and NGOs and can effectively advocate not only for sexual safety but also for broader aspects of human rights including legal and social support. 5. Strengthening the organizational and advocacy capacity of Networks working with Entertainment Workers and MSM/Transgender Technical and Organizational Capacity of different elements of the existing mechanism needs to be strengthened. Secretariat support needs to be made available to each element of the systems to ensure smooth undertaking of the mandated tasks. Some key elements of the system may need close mentoring by a Short Term Consultancy for a reliable and effective functioning with improvement of local ownership. 13Layout1.indd 13 7/12/2009 10:30:32 AM
  14. 14. Analysis 1. The changes in the general features of the sex industry with an increase in the number of EW their movement to non brothel based settings, the combination of risks of EWs and MSM/Transgender, the changes in the relationship between EWs and their partners/clients and the changes in the enabling environment. 2. The study on Demography Socio Economic of this action research paints the picture of an environment where young women and young men have to be involved in entertainment industry and gain their living buy selling sex. Most of them come from poor and/or broken families. Less than 1% of them have been sold into prostitution. EWs need to send from 30 to 50 USD back home every month to support on average 3.12 dependents. Among MSM/Transgender it is interesting to note that 66.6% of MSM acknowledged that they receive money from selling sex while 84.5% of Transgender do so. 3. Discrepancy between the perception and the reality a. 84% of EW and 90% of MSM/Transgender think they have the right to participate in the development of law and policies that are related to sex work In depth interviews with key informants found that there was a lack of representatives of EW and MSM/Transgender in the consultation process for the development of those policies. Their assignment in the former OPC SOP was just aimed at having representatives of the service beneficiaries rather than to play an active role in service design and implementation and to protect broader rights including the right to work and the right to live ( No representative of WNU in the OPC TWG at central level and CUCC at provincial level). Although WNU and WHN are active in 9 provinces, their connections with local level and central level are lacking. The reality at local level could not easily be reported to provincial and /or central level as a contribution to policy development or review. b. 89% of EW and 96% of MSM/Transgender think they have the same rights as other citizens? Although sex work has not been made illegal under the Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, many articles of this law cut off the chance of entertainment workers to earn their living from sex work. 4. Right to Universal Access services Apart from their funding agencies, MSM CBOs working at the local level such as MHC, MHSS, and Kanhnha have not been systematically connected with NMSMTWG to report the problems related to the coverage of interventions in their own areas. NGOs are using different approaches for interventions and different channels of reporting. NMSMTWG and DHA TWG are struggling to define indicators, to collect and compile data on service coverage for MSM/Transgender and DU/IDU. 5. Quality of Universal Access services Since EW and MSM/Transgender have been mostly considered as passive service beneficiaries, the problems related to the quality of UA services (e.g. friendliness of the services, payment of services in some areas…) have not been most of the time openly discussed. 6. Possible problems related to the implementation of the new Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation In depth interviews with key informants found that there was a lack of proper training for local police on the use of unified guidelines for the implementation of the law. Many reasons could be used by uniformed services and local authority to arrest EWs and MSM/ Transgender beyond trafficking. These are include soliciting, room rental, and public order, child prostitution … For release from arrest, 34% of respondents asserted the use of bribes as an alternate solution. Overall, there was a low expectation and confidence that police and local authorities could assist EWs and MSM/Transgender in case of violations. 14Layout1.indd 14 7/12/2009 10:30:34 AM
  15. 15. Recommendations Recommendations were made on the format of the guidance note on HIV and Sex Work of UNAIDS that have been released in February 2009. • Pillar 1: Assure universal access to comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment ,care and support • Pillar 2 : Build a supportive environment, strengthen partnerships and expand choices • Pillar 3 :Reduce vulnerability and address structural issues Conclusions As for the response to the results of the findings on the five objectives and the analysis, it is concluded that a strong leadership is very critical for a coordinated response to assure both the right to work and the right to have access to UA services of Entertainment Workers. Each sector and mechanism needs to support the actions recommended in the three pillars. The existing initiatives such as the National Strategy for the prevention among EWs and clients (NAA), MOI Strategic Plan for the response to HIV and AIDS 2009-2013 (MOI), the Prakas 086 of MOLVT, the new SOP for the Continuum of Prevention Care and Treatment, Approach for Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia (NCHADS), the network of EW and MSM/Transgender and the NGO working MARPs should be supported. 15Layout1.indd 15 7/12/2009 10:30:35 AM
  16. 16. I-BACKGROUND National AIDS Authority (NAA) in collaboration with the Cambodian Alliance for Combating HIV/ AIDS (CACHA) is working closely with entertainment workers networks which include namely Women’s Network Unity (WNU), Network Men and Women Development of Cambodia (CNMWD), Cambodian Prostitute Union (CPU), National Men having Sex with Men/Transgender network and Cambodian Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (CCW) since April 2006. The up-coming research project will be funded by Women’s Agenda for Change (WAC), Women’s Network Unity (WNU), International Council on AIDS Organisations (ICASO) through Asia Pacific Network of Sex Workers (APNSW), ActionAid Cambodia, The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). CACHA understands clearly the drivers of the epidemic, through its extensive experience in working with entertainment workers for almost three years. Despite the fact that HIV prevalence rate dropped from 3.2% (1997) to 0.9% (2006) but the prevalence of specific groups in particular entertainment workers remains high, approximately 12.69% in 2006. The Entertainment workers in Cambodia are now facing challenges that have not been seen in the past decade. More than half of brothels were closed. Entertainment workers can no longer carry condoms with them. A lot of them had been arrested, detained, beaten and in some cases raped. A proportion of them no longer have access to ARV medicines. The move of entertainment workers from brothel based to be freelance (or indirect) entertainment workers is obvious and widespread throughout the country. Moreover, the entertainment workers and brothel owners were arrested especially after the implementation of the new Law on the Suppression of Human trafficking and Sexual Exploitation. It is foreseen that, if no appropriate measures are put in place on time, the HIV prevalence among entertainment workers will increase, meaning the second wave HIV in Cambodia will be inevitable. In response to such problems, the Deputy Prime Minister Sok An on the occasion of the Closing Ceremony of The Third National AIDS Conference on 12th September 2008 at Chakdomuk Theatre, acknowledged that sex industry could not be eliminated in Cambodia (and in other countries). In view of the necessity to support 100% Condom Use policy and also ensure a smooth implementation of the new Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, the Deputy Prime Minister has urged the two institutions namely National AIDS Authority and the General Department for Anti- Trafficking of the Ministry of Interior to work closely together to come up with common understanding and workable actions to deal with these sensitive issues. More importantly, he reiterated that NAA should collaborate closely with the CSOs which are the active operators and implementers in the field of HIV/ AIDS countrywide. It is expected that the results of the Research on Policies Environments regarding Universal Access and the Right to Work of Entertainment Workers will provide valuable insights for policy and program development to relevant stakeholders especially the National AIDS Authority and the General Department for Anti-Trafficking of the Ministry of Interior for consideration. More importantly, the results of this research will be consulted with all concerned stakeholders including policy makers, technical officers (programmers and law enforcement officers), representative of private sectors (beer companies, karaoke owners, hotels owners, etc.), representatives of MARPs and vulnerable populations so that their comments could also be gathered and reflected in the final recommendations of the research. One of the key lessons learnt by CACHA through its experience in working with this target group is that the process of bringing about sustainable change takes time, especially given the complex nature of the problems faced by entertainment workers in the context of Cambodia society. It was also realized that the most important players are the target group themselves. Sustainable impact in the longer term depends on strengthening their voice and choice options. Empowering and enabling people to exercise their rights, along with the wider aim of reducing discrimination, marginalization, exploitation, and building a more socially inclusive society are also very important. It is a long-term process, and cannot be achieved over a short period of time. 16Layout1.indd 16 7/12/2009 10:30:35 AM
  17. 17. The progressive realization of rights can only happen through the initiation of a series of simultaneous processes, involving the target group themselves, civil society, legal and political authorities, services providers, and other stakeholders. This requires a gradual and step-by-step approach. Therefore, the project has adopted a holistic approach, and that a central component entails empowering the target group as potential agents of change with rights and responsibilities, through increasing rights awareness, linkage with civil society groups and services providers. The collaborative nature of most of the activities includes facilitation of linkages between the target groups and local government authorities and services providers, the involvement of civil society as key change agents, harnessing the capacity of this potentially dynamic group, empowering them through awareness training so that they will be more assertive in mobilizing public action against discrimination. During project designing stages it has been noticed that many organizations which have been working with the target groups are mostly implementing discrete sectoral project, mainly focusing on service delivery especially health rights. Based on this experience this project has been given emphasizes to build collaboration and cooperation between relevant governmental and non-governmental agencies so that lasting strategic changes can be brought about. II- OBJECTIVES Specific Objectives 1. To analyze the situation on the right to work of entertainment workers in light of the current situation of Cambodia (when the human trafficking law is being applied) 2. To examine the enabling environment on development and enforcement of existing policies and social norm regarding Universal Access of Entertainment Workers. 3. To assess the coverage and quality services regarding Universal Access of Entertainment Workers. 4. To identify problems (and possible problems) related to the implementation of the new Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation amongst Entertainment Worker. 5. To increase the knowledge, capacity and skills of relevant networks and partners. 17Layout1.indd 17 7/12/2009 10:30:38 AM
  18. 18. III- METHODOLOGY 1. Conceptual framework This action research is designed to address two fundamental rights to live of Entertainment Workers and MSM/Transgender, the right to work and the right to have access to basic services. Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Action Research Subsequent to Demographic and Socio-Economic studies and the exploration of attitude and the risks of EW and MSM/Transgender, this action research intends to investigate 2 important aspects: Right to work • Operation of sex work • Enabling environment (participation in the development of law and policies and in advocacy actions , results of advocacy actions) • Social norm (on right of citizen, on social order, on the duty of local authority, on stigma and discrimination • Problems related to enabling environment ( Harassment and violence, the practices in the implementation of the polices and law, arrest and release from the detention ) • Social supports (from normal citizen , from local authority and police, from the community) • Perceptions on main factors related to right to work Right to have access to Universal Access services • Coverage of Peer Education • The use of basic services (e.g. STI, VCCT, Drop in center…) • The linkages to other services (e.g. HBC, Drug Outreach education) • The qualities of services (e.g. interest in Peer Education, friendliness of HCW, payment for services) • Perceptions on main factors related to right to have access to UA 18Layout1.indd 18 7/12/2009 10:30:38 AM
  19. 19. A special interest of the action research aims at finding whether the recent implementation of the law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation in February 2008 has the potential to detrimentally affect the right of living of EW and MSM/Transgender and their right to have access to basic services. 2. Research design 1. Type of research study • Purpose: The overall objective of this action research is to advocate for positive change in the approach, practices, policies and mechanisms of authorities and development partners, service providers and civil society through strategic partnership towards Universal Access and the Right to Work amongst entertainment workers in Cambodia. • Type: This action research is a combination of qualitative and qualitative approaches. It aims at gathering data on “Policy Environment Regarding Universal Access (UA) and the Right to Work of Entertainment Workers”. Subsequent analysis was made to provide comments on the findings and to suggest causes that might affect the rights to work and to have access to UA services of EW and MSM/ Transgender in a broad context. Lastly, recommendations for future application and planning for a safe working environment and a better access to quality UA services. Identification of study issues Literature review Research Objectives Conceptual Framework Research Design Coordination Scheme Selection of Study areas Data Collection Methods Secondary data Primary data NCHADS, NAA, MoI, MoH, CARE Filed Observation, Standardized UNAIDS, WHO, HACC, PAO… Questionnaires, Key Informants, Group Discussion Data Analysis Objective1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4 Objective 5 To analyze the situation on the To examine the enabling To assess the coverage and To identify problems (and possible right to work of entertainment environment on development and quality services regarding problems) related to the To increase the knowledge, workers/sex workers in light of enforcement of existing policies Universal Access of implementation of the new Law on capacity and skills of relevant current situation of Cambodia and social norm regarding UA of Entertainment Workers/Sex Suppression of Human Trafficking networks and partners. (when the human trafficking law Entertainment Workers/Sex Workers. and Sexual Exploitation amongst is being applied) Workers Entertainment Worker/Sex Workers. Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations Figure 2: Research design of the Action Research 19Layout1.indd 19 7/12/2009 10:31:01 AM
  20. 20. • Study Population: The interest of this action research is to address those who are directly or indirectly selling sex. The respondents are Direct Sex Workers, Massage Girls, Freelance Sex Worker, Karaoke girls, Beer Promotion Girls, Men having Sex with Men (MSM) and Transgender. • Study Locations: The study has been purposively conducted in 4 selected provinces and municipalities where sex industry is booming namely Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanouk Ville and Banteay Meanchey. Figure 3: Map showings the provinces where Data collection were conducted The following table provides the population size of the Direct Sex Workers and Indirect Sex Workers and MSM reached reported by Provincial AIDS Office of the 4 selected provinces Table 1: Number of EW and MSM/ Transgender reported by Provincial AIDS Offices Types of EWs and Siem Reap Banteay Mean Chey Sihanoukville Phnom Penh Total MSM/Transgender Direct SWs 131 124 96 743 1098 Indirect SWs 3400 1345 955 11109 16854 MSM/ Transgender 1312 1257 105 1014 3683 ( reached) 20Layout1.indd 20 7/12/2009 10:31:03 AM
  21. 21. 2. Data collection Data sources and collection methods • Secondary Data Sources Secondary data relating to study provinces will be collected from pre-existing documents belonging to: NCHADS, NAA, MoI, MoH, MOLVT, CARE, UNAIDS, WHO, HACC, PAO (Provincial Statistics and other relevant organizations and institutions). • Primary Data Sources For the qualitative portion: The officials from key relevant institutions and organizations (the government, the civil societies, the community-based organizations, the international and UN agencies) and also representatives of Direct Sex Workers, Freelance Sex Workers, Karaoke girls, Beer Promotion Girls, Men having Sex with Men (MSM) and Transgender have been recruited in the study in order to get insight views on the rights of EW and MSM/Transgender and their access to UA services. The data collection used by several techniques including reconnaissance survey, standardized questionnaires, interview, group discussion and observation. A- Reconnaissance Survey: it will be applied in the initial stage to visit the 4 study provinces for identification of a sample size, pre-test of structured questionnaires and design a plan for field work. Also, it will give a basic understanding in the existing situation of the areas and the selected provinces useful to plan for other stage. B- Filed Observation: These will be employed to observe the surrounding areas, environment and location of brothels, karaoke, restaurants, guess houses, renting rooms, public parks and other entertainment establishments where the sexual activities could be taken place. C- Standardized Questionnaires: This was design for the interviewing entertainment workers, Karaoke girls, beer girls, Men having Sex with Men (MSM) and Transgender. They will be included both close- ended and open-ended questions. D- Key Informants: These will be targeted to interview several key actors in the study provinces namely the government, the civil societies, the community-based organizations, the international and UN agencies. E- Group Discussion: These will take place for consensus, further information, in particular, the immediate issue. The discussion will be held among sex workers, Karaoke girls, beer girls, Men having Sex with Men (MSM) and Transgender, local people (both old and young generations) local authorities, police and other key stakeholders. For the quantitative portion: a. Sample Size Formula calculation of sample size will be used through to statistic (Yamane, 1960) and 90 percent of confidential interval. n = N / ( 1 + N* e2 ) Where, n: sample size (respondent) N: total population (respondents) e: precision (10%) b. Sampling Methods Based on the selection criteria of the study areas, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanouk Ville and Banteay Mean Chey will be purposively employed. 21Layout1.indd 21 7/12/2009 10:31:10 AM
  22. 22. Table 2: Number of EW and MSM/ Transgender involved in quantitative part of the action research Provinces Siem Reap Banteay Mean Chey Sihanouk Ville Phnom Penh Total Types N % N % N % N % N % DSW 44 16.06% 69 27.60% 53 23.87% 80 21.62% 246 22.04% Massage Girls 7 2.55% 25 10.00% 1 0.45% 90 24.32% 123 11.02% Freelance Female EWs SW 20 7.30% 3 1.20% 22 9.91% 81 21.89% 126 11.29% Karaoke Girls 183 66.79% 132 52.80% 114 51.35% 94 25.41% 523 46.86% Beer Promotion Girls 20 7.30% 19 7.60% 26 11.71% 25 6.76% 90 8.06% Others 0 0.00% 2 0.80% 6 2.70% 0 0.00% 8 0.72% Total 274 250 222 370 1116 Types N % N % N % N % N % MSM/ MSM 63 39.38% 134 77.01% 40 59.70% 125 65.79% 362 61.25% Transgender Transgen- der 97 60.63% 40 22.99% 27 40.30% 65 34.21% 229 38.75% Total 160 174 67 190 591 c. Operational procedures Questionnaires were developed from the conceptual framework by the consultants’ team and pre-tested and corrected with representatives of EW or MSM/Transgender (the members of WNU, CPU and CNMWD) to ascertain that the questions could be clearly understood and that the information collected fit the local context and situation. A training session was conducted in Phnom Penh for all provincial Focal Points and Coordinators and along with an additional training for each member of the interviewers for the 4 selected provinces. Interviews were conducted face to face by gender-matched interviewers who are mostly young students of social sciences and health and also officials of National AIDS Authority. A Focal Point and a Coordinator (Representative of EW or MSM/Transgender) were assigned to coordinate and supervise the data collection in each province. Central supervision was provided to the study in Banteay Mean Chey and Siem Reap. All questionnaires were checked in the field by supervisors to ensure data quality before the data was entered. Efforts have been made to have interviews had conducted in privacy and in an appropriately sensitive manner. 3. Data Analysis All the information and data collected from both primary and secondary sources will be analyzed by various techniques of qualitative and quantitative approaches. a) Quantitative Analysis The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used for analyzing the quantitative data collected. 1) Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistic will be employed basically on socio-economic data of respondents using frequency, percentage, cross-tabulation, graphs and charts. 2) Analytical Statistics • ANOVA test ANOVA will be used to test for a relationship between one continuous variable and one categorical variable in the 4 different study provinces. The test will give us details in difference in the means of the rating on the perceptions on main factors related to the right to work and the right to have access 22Layout1.indd 22 7/12/2009 10:31:10 AM
  23. 23. to UA services, the interest in Peer Education Program, the rating of the friendliness of STI and VCCT, the rating of perceptions on the social support in case of violations. Wight Average Index (WAI) WAI technique will be used for rating the degree of perceptions on main factors related to the right to work and the right to have access to UA services , the interest in Peer Education Program, the rating of the friendliness of STI and VCCT, the rating of perceptions on the social support in case of violations. The WAI will be applied in the study is illustrated as below: (1) Index of the perceptions on the right to work and the right to have access to UA services First Rank Second Rank Third Rank (1) (0.66) (0.33) The ranking and priority index will be constructed as follows: F1: Frequency of 1st rank F2: Frequency of 2nd rank F3: Frequency of 3rd rank (2) Index of interest in Peer Education Program Very High High Moderate Low Very Low (1) (0.8) (0.6) (0.4) (0.2) (3) Index of rating the degree of satisfaction of the friendliness of STI and VCCT services Very Friendly Friendly Moderate Somehow Friendly Not Friendly (+2) (+1) (0) (-1) (-1) (4) Index of the rating of perceptions on the social support in case of violations. Very High High Moderate Low Very Low (1) (0.8) (0.6) (0.4) (0.2) Paired Sample T test This test has been used to depict the existence of the significance of the changes of the means some variables between 2007 and 2008. These are the movement of EW and MSM/Transgender, the arrest, the use of STI and VCCT services. b) Qualitative Analysis Most of the data collected through group discussion, key informants’ interview and field observation will be analyzed by qualitative analysis. In addition, the desk review, situation analysis, statement analysis and content analysis on their views and perceptions on new anti-trafficking law, 100 condom uses, current brothel crackdown, rights to work and other current hot issues will included in the qualitative analysis stage. In addition, a problem loop will be developed in order to find relationship of factors affecting the Universal Access Achievement 2010. 4. Limitations o Most of the interviews of this action research were not done by EW and MSM/Transgender due to the limitation of their basic knowledge. Although they are thought to be the most appropriate interviewers for their peers, most of them can hardly read and write. The majority of interviews were instead conducted with students of social sciences and health universities and health officials. o The interviews of this action research were mostly arranged by a Coordinator who is mostly the Provincial representative of EW and MSM/Transgender. Most of the respondents in this action research are somehow connected with their local network. However, it is understood that there are 23Layout1.indd 23 7/12/2009 10:31:11 AM
  24. 24. a large number of EW and MSM/Transgender who have not been connected with local network. o It is commonly found that sex workers may have felt a need to give “correct” or socially acceptable answers: Duration of work in the sex industry : Usually sex workers tend to state that they were recently involved in the sex work EW and MSM/Transgender may have not appropriately recall events that happened in 2007 (e.g. movement, arrest, the use of STI and VCCT services…) Some Direct Sex Workers may not be able to frankly state that the income of their work are to be shared with the owners of the rooms who used to be their former owners. o All of the sex workers who participated in this action research appeared to be over 18 years of age, although, in the course of visits to entertainment establishment, girls who appeared to be younger than this were observed. It is difficult to interview adolescent working in entertainment industry especially with sensitive questions that are connected with their private lives. 24Layout1.indd 24 7/12/2009 10:31:12 AM
  25. 25. IV- FINDINGS Objective 1: The right to work of EWs and MSM/Transgender 1. Socio-Economic 1. Age of the respondents In average the female EWs are one year older than MSM and Transgender. It is interesting to notify that both female EWs and MSM/Transgender are older than their peers for the remaining three provinces.). Besides, it is to remind that in this survey 35 EWs (or 3.4%) are found to be less than 18 years old. Out of 35 adolescent EWs, 22 admitted that they receive money from sex work. Table 3: Mean age of EW and MSM/ Transgender Siem Reap Banteay Mean Sihanouk Ville Phnom Penh Total Chey Female EWs 24 23 24 28 25 MSM 21 23 24 25 24 Transgender 23 25 24 25 24 Source: Action Research, November 2008 2. Marital status Among female EWs, the percentage of those who are single is similar in Siem Reap, Sihanouk Ville (respectively 33% and 31%). Banteay Mean Chey EWs have the highest percentage of single EWs while Phnom Penh has the least percentage of those who are single. 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% SRP BMC SHV PNP All SRP BMC SHV PNP All MSM/Tran MSM/Tran MSM/Tran MSM/Tran MSM/Tran EW/SW EW/SW EW/SW EW/SW EW/SW sg sg sg sg sg Divorced/separated 35.04% 0.00% 36.00% 1.72% 31.98% 0.00% 20.81% 3.68% 29.93% 1.69% Widow /w idow er 4.74% 0.63% 5.60% 0.00% 18.02% 0.00% 17.30% 3.16% 11.74% 1.18% Living together w ithout w edding 6.20% 6.25% 8.00% 7.47% 13.06% 17.91% 24.59% 3.68% 14.07% 7.11% Married 20.80% 4.38% 2.80% 3.45% 5.86% 1.49% 16.49% 5.79% 12.37% 4.23% Single 33.21% 88.75% 47.60% 87.36% 31.08% 80.60% 20.81% 83.68% 31.90% 85.79% Figure 4: Marital Status of EW and MSM/ Transgender Among MSM/Transgender, in general, the respondents were single (85.8%), living together (7.1%), married (4.2%), divorced/separated (1.7%) and widow/widower (1.2%). All of the study sites shared similar high percentage from single status as compared to their Female EWs peers. 3. Level of education In general the level of education of EWs in the 4 sites is low. The average of schooling (counted by years) by location for Siem Reap, Banteay Mean Chey, Sihanouk Ville, Phnom Penh is respectively 4.27, 4.73,3.34 and 3.38. Therefore, the majority of EWs is within the Primary education. The analysis by type of employment finds that DSW and Freelance SW are having the lowest level of education (respectively 2.73 and 2.87 years of education). Karaoke Girls and Beer Promotion Girls are having almost similar level of education (4.63 and 4.29) while Massage Girls are in the middle of the two previous groups. 25Layout1.indd 25 7/12/2009 10:31:14 AM
  26. 26. 10 8 6 4 2 0 Banteay Mean Siem Reap Sihanoukville Phnom Penh Total Chey Female Ews/SWs 4.27 4.73 3.34 3.38 3.9 MSM/Transgender 9 9 8 9 9 Figure 5: Level of education of EW and MSM/Transgender by locations In average, MSM/Transgender respondents completed grade 9 including grade 9 for Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Banteay Mean Chey but grade 8 for Sihanouk Ville. It is notifying that MSM completed grade 9 but Transgender completed grade 8. 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% No Primary Lower Upper University education school secondary seconday MSM/Transgender 2.88% 21.49% 35.36% 35.36% 4.91% EW/SW 26.79% 50.72% 18.55% 3.94% 0.00% Figure 6: Level of education of EW and MSM/Transgender by level of completion From the above figure, it is surprising that the 27% of EW have no education at all. Since they can barely read and write their chance for other job opportunity could be very low except the unskilled work. 4. Duration of work in the job The analysis by type of employment found that Massage Girl and Freelance sex workers work longer (almost 36 months) in the service than other groups. Karaoke and Beer Promotion Girls are having similar duration in the job (around 20 months). In average, Direct Sex Workers have been working for 30months. Duration of the job of EW/SW and MSM/Transgender 45 40 40 35.75 35.93 35 30.24 30 25 20.03 19.68 20 15 15 10 5 0 Direct Sex Massage Freelance Karaoke Beer Girl MSM Transgender Worker Girl SW Figure 7: Duration of work in the jobs of EW and MSM/Transgender 26Layout1.indd 26 7/12/2009 10:31:25 AM
  27. 27. Among the MSM/Transgender group, the data collected from 4 provinces, the Transgender have been working 40 months while the MSM has been working only 15 months. 5. Previous job Among EWs, more than third of all EWs were unemployed, 18% were previously employed in the factories. The analysis by locations found that high percentage of EWs in Phnom Penh and in Sihanouk Ville leaving the factory work. It is interesting to notify that the among EWs who used to work in the factory, the percentage of Massage Girls, Beer Promotion Girls and Karaoke are respectively, 25%, 24% and 20%. 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Beer Massag Freelanc Karaoke Transge AllMSM/ DSW Prom oti All Ews MSM e Girl e SW G nder Transg. on G Others 40.24% 26.02% 36.51% 25.43% 43.33% 31.54% 16.02% 22.27% 18.44% Unem ployed 36.18% 30.08% 36.51% 34.03% 22.22% 33.24% 18.78% 24.89% 21.15% Factory Work 12.20% 25.20% 8.73% 20.27% 24.44% 18.19% 8.56% 6.55% 7.78% Entertainm ent Work 8.94% 12.20% 13.49% 10.52% 3.33% 10.04% 7.18% 6.99% 7.11% Study 2.44% 6.50% 4.76% 9.75% 6.67% 6.99% 49.45% 39.30% 45.52% Figure 8: Previous jobs of EW and MSM/Transgender Among MSM/Transgender, from 40% to 50% of them were in schools while 21% of them were unemployed. Only 7% of MSM/Transgender used to work in Entertainment Establishments. 6. Average number of dependents Among Female EW the average number is 3.12 while MSM/Transgender has got only 2 dependents in average. Average number of dependents 4 3.47 3.42 3.5 3.05 3.12 3.12 2.88 3 2.5 2 2 2 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 G er M i rl SW r G SW s de nd G w n S e io M en E ok D ge ge e ot l nc sg Al ra ns sa m la an Ka ro ra as ee P Tr /T M Fr er M S Be lM Al Figure 9: The average number of EW and MSM/Transgender 27Layout1.indd 27 7/12/2009 10:31:28 AM
  28. 28. 2. The work 1. Main reasons for working in Entertainment Services To the multiple answers question, EWs list out the main reasons that force them to work in the sex industry. On average, each EW provides almost 2 answers to this question. Table 4: Main reasons for working in Entertainment services of EW Main reasons DSW Massage G FSW Karaoke G BPG All EWs/SWs for working in Massage G Entertainment services Lured by others 15 4.55% 3 1.14% 26 13.76% 36 5.09% 12 10.08% 94 6.21% Sold to 6 1.82% 1 0.57% 1 0.53% 4 0.58% 0 0.00% 12 0.79% prostitution Rape 2 0.61% 1 0.57% 4 1.59% 1 0.15% 1 0.84% 9 0.59% Family problems 139 42.12% 78 44.57% 78 41.27% 262 38.08% 46 38.66% 608 40.16% Volunteers by 166 50.30% 93 53.14% 77 40.74% 381 55.38% 60 50.42% 780 51.52% their owns Others 2 0.61% 0 0.00% 4 2.12% 5 0.73% 0 0.00% 11 0.73% Total 330 100% 176 100% 190 100% 689 100% 119 100% 1514 100% Source: Action Research, November 2008 Among negative factors, rape is seen a one of the main reasons only for DSWs while sex trafficking is very low among different groups (less than 1%). The percentage of EWs who have been lured by others is also not important for all types of employment except Freelance Sex workers and Beer Promotion Girls (respectively 14% and 10%). Although half of EW stated that they decide to work as sex workers on voluntarily basis, in depth analysis need find out the details of the problems that force them to sex work as a mean for survival. As an overall observation, family problems (parents divorce, debt, poverty…) are one of the main reasons that oblige EWs to accept self-prostitution as a mean for survival have been lured by others is also not important for all types of employment except Freelance Sex workers and Beer Promotion Girls (respectively 14% and 10%). Total Beer PG Karaoke G FSW Mass age G DSW 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Massage Karaoke DSW FSW Beer PG Total G G Others 0.61% 0.00% 2.12% 0.73% 0.00% 0.73% Volunteers by their owns 50.30% 53.14% 40.74% 55.38% 50.42% 51.52% Family problems 42.12% 44.57% 41.27% 38.08% 38.66% 40.16% Rape 0.61% 0.57% 1.59% 0.15% 0.84% 0.59% Sold to prostitution 1.82% 0.57% 0.53% 0.58% 0.00% 0.79% Lured by others 4.55% 1.14% 13.76% 5.09% 10.08% 6.21% Figure 10: Main reasons causing EW to work in sex industry 28Layout1.indd 28 7/12/2009 10:31:30 AM

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