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Foundation of education 15


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Foundation of education 15

  1. 1. Subject :Foundation of education Lecturer : Soeung Sopha Chapter15: International Education Prepared by : Meas Chanleakhena Phien Davy Chan Houng 2013-2014 1
  2. 2. Contents 2
  3. 3. Introduction Many educational reformers have suggested that the United States could improve its educational system by emulating other countries. Although educational system differ considerably between nations, they tend to confront the similar problem of providing effective instruction for large numbers of students whose opportunities and performance relate to their social and cultural background. 3
  4. 4. Few of the teachers have a high-school diploma; the curriculum and teaching; which rely heavily on memorization and recitation, are determined by the country’s ministry of education. Teacher are highly respected professionals with college degree. 4
  5. 5. They are given considerable latitude in devising activities and adapting materials that satisfy the national guidelines; which emphasize development of children’s thinking and problem-solving skills; as well as social, moral, and physical instruction that benefits the whole person. The strong relationships between students’ social-class origins and their success in school, the educational challenges posed by multicultural populations, typical teaching approaches, and professional conditions teachers face. 5
  6. 6. Social-Class Origins and Outcome Donald Treiman and others have fond that individual’s social-class origins and background related to their educational and occupational attainment regardless of whether their society is rich or poor, politically liberal or conservation. 6
  7. 7. Multicultural Populations and Problem Except in a few homogeneous countries, nationwide systems of education enroll diverse groups of students who differ significantly with respect to race, ethnicity, religion, native language, and cultural practice. These force more or less ensure that you, as a teacher, will have students from other nation in your class. 7
  8. 8. Teaching Approaches and Conditions Although instructional approaches vary considerably from one teacher to another and the conditions for teaching and learning change accordingly in different classroom and schools, practices emphasized around the world typically show much similarity. In general, in all ten participating countries, the primary classroom activities included teacher- presented lectures or demonstrations plus seatwork activity. 8
  9. 9. Each nation’s educational system also differs in important ways from other system. Resources Devoted to Education One fundamental way in which nations differ is in the percentage of their resources they devote to education rather than to priorities such as highways, health care, and military forces. 9
  10. 10. Relatively wealthy nations, as well as nation that allocate many of their resources to education, can provide a higher level of services than poor nations that mobilize relatively few resources for their schools. The same pattern has appeared in other developed nations. With a few exceptions, such as Japan and Turkey, female enrollment in colleges and universities in wealthy nations has been growing to the extent that more women than men obtain first degrees. 10
  11. 11. Data on teacher salary averages indicate that for both beginning and experienced teachers, average salaries in countries such as Ireland and Norway are a good deal lower than in the United States, but in some other countries they are generally higher. Extent of Centralization In some countries, centralization has led to long lines of citizens from all parts of the nation waiting outside the ministry of education for appointments with central school officials who determine what schools children will and how students will be treated. 11
  12. 12. Curriculum Content and Instructional Emphasis • New Zealand primary schools are known for their systematic emphasis on learning to read though natural language learning • The education system in Finland has become known for high achievement and attainment at all levels from preschool though higher education. • School in certain Islamic countries build much of the curriculum around religious. 12
  13. 13. Vocational versus Academic Education School system around the world also differ greatly in how they are organized to provide education through the postsecondary level.  Most nation provide at least 4 years of first-level (during which all student attend primary and elementary schools).  Many countries students are divided between a academic-track schools and vocational schools after 4 to 8 years of first-level education. 13
  14. 14.  Secondary students enrolled in primarily vocational programs varies from less than one-tenth (industries countries Denmark and US), more than one-fifth (Germany).  The current education system comprises primary (grades 1–6), lower secondary (grades 7–9),and upper secondary (grades 10–12). Basic education is defined as grades 1–9. Technical and vocational education programs run parallel to upper secondary programs and are the responsibility of the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training.(Cambodia) 14
  15. 15. Enrollment in higher Education Countries that channel student into vocational pragmas tend to have low percentages of youth attending intuitions of higher education. By contrast, more youth go on to higher education in countries that provide general academic studies for most high- school student. 15
  16. 16. Other factor that help determine enrollment education include : • Nation’s investment of resources in higher education. • Emphasis on postsecondary learning rather than job-market entry. • Traditions regarding the use of higher education to equalize educational opportunities. • Extent to which colleges and universities admit only high-achieving students. 16
  17. 17.  School enrollment has increased during the 2000s (decade) in Cambodia. USAID data shows that in 2011 primary enrollment reached 96% of the child population, lower secondary school 34% and upper secondary 21%. (Cambodia) 17
  18. 18. Nonpublic Schools Depending on their histories, political structures, religious composition, legal frameworks, and other factor, nations differ greatly in size and function of their nonpublic education sector.  Proportion of students in private school (Netherland, more than half, and most countries less than 10% but Cuba, North Korea have prohibited.) 18
  19. 19.  Problem of defining a private school. - People think private schools are expected to play in national development. - Some countries, nonpublic school enroll a relatively small (elite group and prestigious colleges). - Enrolling poor students in urban slums. 19
  20. 20.  Problems and Prospects in Developing Countries  Education and economic development  Problem in upgrading education  Recommendations for developing counties.(7 steps ) Page 485. 20
  21. 21.  Exemplary Reforms: A Selection Early Childhood Education France  Varying child-care arrangements: Recognizing the critical importance of the preschool in a child’s social, physical, and educational development, many countries have taken steps to provide stimulating learning opportunities and positive day-care arrangements for most or all young children. 21
  22. 22.  French preschool programs: Nearly all three-to-five-year-olds are enrolled in preschool programs. Average salaries of preschool teachers are considerably higher than the United states and most other countries. France has what many observers consider a model approach to preschool services. 22
  23. 23.  Participating children pursue stimulating activities before and after school, during vacation, and at other time when school is out.  Equally important, parents have financial incentive to enroll their children in high- quality programs that provide pediatric and other preventive health services. 23
  24. 24.  Positive features of French programs: Virtually all children have access to a coordinated system linking early education, day care, and health services. Paid parental leave from jobs after childbirth or adaption helps to nurture positive parent-child relationships. 24
  25. 25. Good salaries and training for early childhood teachers help to keep turnover low and program quality high.  Nearly all young children are enrolled in preschool services.  The government provides additional resources to ensure high quality at locations enrolling low-income children. 25
  26. 26. Elementary-School Reading and Mathematics in England  British literacy and numeracy initiatives  A requirement that school have at least a daily literacy hour and a daily mathematics hour.  A reduction in prescribed curriculum content outside these core subjects.  Additional fund and other resources for low- performance school.  Providing the services of hundreds of expert literacy and numeracy consultants. 26
  27. 27. An Emphasis on early intervention and catch-up for students who fail behind.  The appointment of more than two thousand math teachers and several hundred literacy teachers as lead teachers to model best practice for their colleagues. Major investments in books for schools.  Regular monitoring and extensive evaluation by a national inspection agency. 27
  28. 28. Mathematics and Science Education in Japan  High performance International achievement studies indicate that Japanese students consistently attain high scores in mathematics, science, and other subjects areas. 28
  29. 29.  Possible reasons for Japanese success Outstanding day care can help prepare children for school success. In addition, socialization practices in family and in early childhood help students learn to adapt to classroom situations and demands.  Parental involvement Intense parental involvement is expected. 29
  30. 30.  Long school year  Student attend school 240days a year  Students are given much responsibility for school work and learning, beginning at an early age.  Large amount of homework correlated with classroom lessons contribute to high student performance. 30
  31. 31.  National curriculum  Careful planning and delivery of a national curriculum help students acquire important concepts within a sequential and comprehensive framework.  The schools emphasize the development of students’ character and sense of responsibility. 31
  32. 32.  Status of teacher  Responsibility for students learning.  Prospective teachers must pass rigorous examinations and are intensely supervised when they enter the profession.  Japanese educators have high social status. School schedules provide considerable time for counseling students, planning, instruction, and engaging in other activities that make teachers more effective. 32
  33. 33. Multicultural Education in Europe and North America  Model multicultural programs:  The United States is trying to provide bilingual education for millions of English language learner students.  Canada has implemented sizable bilingual education programs. 33
  34. 34. France has provided in-service training nationwide to help teachers learn to teach French as a second language.  Belgium provides reception classes, in which immigrant children receive up to two years of instruction from both a Belgian teacher and a native-language teacher. 34
  35. 35. Conclusion: The International Context and the Challenge Facing U.S. Schools  Growing similarities among nations  Much to learn, much to offer 35
  36. 36. 36