Year IV, Semester I
Academic Year: 2013-2014
Desegregation: Attendance by students of different racial
background in the same school and classroom.
integration: The step beyond simple desegregation that
includes effective action to develop positive interracial
contacts and improve the performance of low-achieving
A Brief History of Segregation in American Education
Slavery and the Constitution After the Civil War, the Thirteenth
,Fourteenth ,and Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution attempted
to extend rights of citizenship irrespective of race. During
Reconstruction, African Americans made some gains, but, after 1877,
legislative action segregated blacks throughout the South and in other
parts of the country.
Separate, unequal schools In many cases, African American students
had to travel long distances at their own expense to attend the nearest
black school, and in many instances black senior high schools were a
hundred miles or more away from a black student’s home.
The Brown case Supreme Court was a case in which lawyers for Linda
Brown asked that she be allowed to attend white school in Topeka,
Civil rights movement: after three civil-rights workers were murdered in
Mississippi, the U.S. Congress passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act and
other legislation that attempted to guarantee equal protection of the
laws for minority citizens.
Resistance to desegregation: this resistance took such forms as delaying
reassignment of African American student to white school, opening
private schools with tuition paid by public funds, gerrymandering
school boundary lines to increase segregation, suspending or repealing
compulsory attendance law, and closing desegregated school.
The progress of Desegregation Efforts
Type of segregation
de jure segregation: segregation resulting from laws or
de facto segregation: segregation associated with and resulting
from housing patterns.
Increasing segregation for Latinos: the percentages of African
American and Hispanic Students in Racially segregated public
schools increased since 1969 to 2007.
Trend toward cessation: In the 1990s and 2000s, many school
districts ceased all o part of the segregation plans they had
introduced in previous decades.
Some urban districts had predominantly enrollment in all their
schools and it difficult or impossible to maintain desegregated
schools even with substantial student busing.
In some districts, courts ruled that the district had accomplished
enough to overcome discriminatory effects attributable to the
original constitutional violations.
In other districts, public and school officials concluded that
desegregation efforts did little to actually help minority students.
In 2007, supreme Court ruled that school districts could no longer
use race as the sole or major factor in devising a desegregation
Components of desegregation plans to accomplish desegregation usually
involve one or more of the following actions:
• Alter attendance areas to include a more desegregated population.
• Establish magnet school-school that use specialized programs and
personnel attract student throughout a school district.
• Bus students involuntarily to desegregated school.
• Pair school, bringing two school in adjacent areas together in one
• Allow controlled choice, a system in which students may select the
school they wish to attend as long as such choice does not result in
• Provide voluntary transfer of city students to suburban schools.
Emphasizing quality of instruction: for these end similar reasons,
desegregation plans in many big cities generally concentrate on
trying to improve the quality of instruction.
Magnet schools: the most frequently used themes include arts,
business, foreign language, health professions, international
studies, Montessori early childhood, science and mathematics, and
What is a minority group?
Depending on regional and local circumstances and court precedents,
various racial minority group may not be counted as minority for the
purposes of school desegregation.
Effects on Student performance and Attitudes
Importance of implementation: positive intergroup relationships develop
only if desegregation is implemented well and if educators promote
equal-status contact between minority and nonminority students.
Moral and political imperatives:
(1) resources were focused on attaining goals.
(2) administrative leadership was outstanding.
(3) parents were more heavily in the classroom.
(4) staff systematically promoted positive interracial attitudes
Another aspect of our nation’s commitment to
equal educational opportunity is the
Compensatory education movement, which has
sought to overcome ( that is, compensate for )
disadvantaged background and thereby
improve the performance of low achieving
students, particularly those from low –income
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act ( ESEA ), passed in
1965, among other provisions immediately provided $1 billion to
improve the education of economically disadvantaged children. The
moneys are known as Title I funds, named after the portion of the
ESEA that describes them. The federal government distributes the
funds to the states, which, along with school districts , identify
schools with sufficient disadvantaged students to receive a share.
Nearly $200 billion were spent on Title I between 1965 and 2009.
Early Childhood Compensatory Education
Discouraging early results
During the first decade of compensatory education, most
interventions appeared to be relatively ineffective in raising
student achievement levels and cognitive development. Despite
the expenditure of billions of dollar per year, students generally
were not making long-range academic gains.
Improved procedures and funding
The federal and state governments improved monitoring procedures,
required more adequate evaluation, and sponsored studies to improve
compensatory education. Some states also began to provide additional
money for compensatory programs. By the early 1980s, research
suggested that compensatory education in preschool and the primary
grades could indeed improve the cognitive development and
performance of disadvantaged students.
Comprehensive Ecological Intervention
Importance of early family environment
Educators face great difficulty working to overcome the
extreme disadvantages of students who grow up in poverty
neighborhoods. For this reason, policy makers and educators
increasingly support Ecological Intervention– comprehensive
efforts to improve the home and neighborhood environment of
The No Child Left Behind Act
In 2001, Congress reauthorized the ESEA and Title I
established sweeping new requirements for all elementary
and secondary schools. The newest version of the law,
known as the No Child Left Behind Act ( NCLB ), has
affected not only schools that receive Title I funding, but
nearly all public schools.
Challenging Standards and annual test
Standards and Testing
States and school districts are required to develop challenging academic content and
achievement standards for all children in reading/language arts, mathematics, and
science, with the goal of having all students.
Students with Special Needs
States, districts, and schools must identify English Languages Learner ( ELL ) students
and develop instructional benchmarks and a proficiency test to assess their progress in
learning English. Schools and districts must include both ELL students and students with
disabilities in the annual testing required of all other students.
Adequate Yearly Progress
A key provision of NCLB is that all schools and districts must make
Adequate Yearly Progress ( AYP ) toward their 2013-2014 goals.
Schools and districts that fail to make sufficient progress are designated
as “ needing improvement ” . The school is identified as needing
improvement if the school as a whole or any disaggregated subgroup
has achievement scores below those the state government has
determined are required in moving forward to meet its 2013-2014
Multicultural education refer to the various ways in which
schools can take productive account of cultural differences
among students and improve opportunities for students
with cultural backgrounds distinct form the U.S mainstream.
As a teacher, you should also be concerned with the larger
implications of multicultural education that make it valuable
for all students.
Bilingual education means that instruction in their native language
provided for students whose first language is not English.
Bilingual education has been expanding in US public schools as
immigration has increased.
Controversy over bilingual education
As in the case of teaching through dialect, argument erupt between
those who would immerse children in an English-language environment
and those who believe initial instruction will be more effective in the
Transitional bilingual education
Conclusion for bilingual education
Claude Goldenberg reviewed much of the research and concluded that
“primary-language instruction enhances English-language learners’
He also presented the following conclusions that he believes can be drawn
from multiple studies on instruction for ELL students:
1. If feasible, children should be taught reading in their primary language.
2. As needed, students should be helped to transfer what they know in
their first language to learning tasks presented in English.
3. Teaching in the first and second languages can be approached similarly.
4. ELLs need intensive oral English language development, especially
vocabulary and academic English instruction.
5. ELLs also need academic content instruction, just as all students do;
although ELD is crucial, it must be in addition to—not instead of—
instruction designed to promote content knowledge.
Conclusion for bilingual education (Cont.)
Education for Students with Disabilities
Special education: the education of children who have physical problems
or learning problems.
The basic requirements are as follows:
1. Children cannot be labeled as disabled or placed in special education
on basis of a single criterion such as an IQ score; testing and
assessment service must be fair and comprehensive.
2. If a childe is identified as disabled, school official must conduct a
functional assessment and develop suitable intervention strategies.
Education for Students with Disabilities (Cont.)
3. Parents or guardians must have access to information diagnosis and
may protest decisions of school officials.
4. Every student eligible for special education services must be taught
according to an individualized education program that includes both
long-range and short-range goal.
5. Educational services must be provided in the least restrictive
environment, which mean that children with disabilities should be in
regular classes to the extent possible.
Mainstreaming and inclusion
Mainstreaming: placing students with disabilities in regular classes fro
much or all of the school day, while also providing additional services,
programs and classes as needed.
Inclusion: educating students with disabilities in regular classroom in
their neighborhood school, with collaborative support services as
Issues and Dilemmas
We focus on 4 issues or dilemmas that may have particular prominence
in the next several year:
1. Financial dilemmas: Schools must provide the services necessary to
help children with special need, for example: special assistance.
However, providing an optimal learning environment for students
with severe disabilities can be expensive.
2. Standard and Assessment: How should special-education students
prepare for state testing? Many educators are concerned that
applying statewide standards may prove disastrous for learning
disabled and other students in special education.
3. Potential effects on nondisabled students: if school officials divert
substantial amounts of money from regular budgets to pay for
separate placements or special services for disable student, will the
classroom conditions fro nondisabled students suffer? Observers
4. What services should we provide for which students, where, when,
and how? Many issues we have discussed remain unresolved, for
example: to what extent should we make differing arrangements for
severely and mildly disabled students, to what extent should is it
desirable or feasible to provide regular classroom support services, such
as a sign language interpreter for deaf students or a nurse to assist
Suggested policies and guidelines for students with disabilities
Congress should provide more fund to help schools implement its
Legislation should require that teachers receive adequate training
State and school districts should find ways to quickly identify
classrooms or school were full inclusion or other arrangement are not
State should pass legislation to expedite quick removal from regular
classes of disabled students who are violent or extremely disruptive.
School opting to pursue full inclusion should receive whatever
technical help is necessary.
Teachers and staff in inclusive classrooms should receive training and
support in using appropriate instructional strategies that will help all of
their students master basic and advanced learning skills.