Aristotle homework


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Aristotle homework

  1. 1. Western University Where quality come first! Department of Art and Humanity Lecturer: Mr. SoeungSopha Submitted by: ChhitSeyha Academic Year: 2013 & 2014 ASSIGNMENT: ARISTOTLE
  2. 2. ARISTOTLE 1. Biography Aristotle (384-322 B.C), Greek philosopher and scientist, who shares with Plato and Socrates the distinction of being the most famous of the ancient philosophers.Born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of physician to the royal court, Aristotle moved at the age of 17 to Athens to study at Plato’s academy. He remained there for 20 years, first as a student then as a teacher. 2. Methods Aristotle had great confident in human beings’ ability to arrive at a reasoned understanding of the world around them. He was committed to the claim that the world itself makes understanding possible; that it is structured in such a way as to be amenable to rational inquiry and understanding. Further, the nature of human beings is to have both capacity and the desire to understand the world. Thus, the world and human nature cooperate in making understanding possible. 3. Nature In Aristotle’s view, the nature world is made up of individual plants and animals occurring fixed natural kinds or species. He denied that the nature world is the product of a historical creation or the result of some the revolutionary process. The defining the characteristic of nature or living things is that they are subject to change: the regular processes of birth, growth, development, and decay that can be observed in the natural world.Nature things, which exist in nature, have a nature an internal dynamic principle responsible for the specific pattern of development that each member of a nature species undergoes consisting of two aspects: a material aspect and formal aspect. The material aspect is the material of which the plant or animal is composed, and which enables the relevant processes of development to occur, that is, the “matter” of the plant or animal. The formal aspect of the nature of a living thing is its identity as the specific kind of thing it is, which, in combination with the requisite the matter, govern the development of the individual as a member of the natural species. This aspect is the “form” of the plant or animal. He identified four such factors, each of which involves either the material or formal aspect of the nature of living thing. They are (1) the “material cause”, the material of a living thing, the “formal cause”,
  3. 3. Its form (3) the “efficient cause” or the “origin of the change”, the male parent of the living things in question, which transmit the form in reproduction and thereby initiates the developmental process, (4) the “final cause”, the fully developed living thing, which as an adult member of its species, has achieved the end to which its earlier processes of development were directed. 4. Doctrines a. Physic or Natural Philosophy According to the ancient philosophy, notably developed by Aristotle, associate with the four elements (earth, fire, air, and water) that make up Earth was the fifth substance that pervaded heavenly bodies in the universe beyond the moon, called “quintessence”. This theory about the origin of the universe was still adhered to in the Middle Age, particularly in the school of alchemy. b. Aristotelian Psychology For Aristotle, psychology was a study of soul. Insisting that “form” (the essence or unchanging characteristic element in an object) and “matter” (the common undifferentiated substratum of things) always exist together (except in the case of God and certain other divine entities) c. Ethic Individual’s freedom of choice made an absolutely accurate analysis of human affairs impossible. “Practical science”, then, such as politics or ethics, was called science only by courtesy and analogy. The inherent limitations on practical science are made clear in Aristotle’s concepts of human nature and self-realization. Human nature certainly involves, for everyone, a capacity for forming habits; but the habits that a particular individual forms depend on that individual’s culture and repeated personal choices. All human beings want “happiness”, an active, engaged realization of their innate capacities, but this goal can be achieved in a multiplicity of ways. d. Logic In logic, Aristotle developed rules for chains of reasoning that would, if followed, never lead from true premises to false conclusions (“validity rules”). In reasoning, the basic links are
  4. 4. syllogisms: pairs of propositions that, taken together, provide a new conclusion. In the most famous example, “All human beings are mortal” and “All Greeks are human beings” yield the valid conclusion “All Greeks are mortal”. e. Metaphysics In his metaphysics, Aristotle argued for the existence of a divine being, described as the “Prime Mover”, who is responsible for the unity and purposefulness of nature. God is perfect and therefore the aspiration of all things in the world, because all things desire to share perfection. Other movers exist as well—the intelligent movers of the planets and stars.The Prime Mover does not, for example, take an interest in what goes on in the world and did not create the world. Aristotle limited his “theology”, however, to what he believed science requires and can establish. 5. Influence The influence of Aristotle’s philosophy has been pervasive; it has even helped to shape modern language and common sense. His doctrine of the Prime Mover as the final cause played an important role in theology. Before the 20th century, logic meant Aristotle’s logic alone. Until the Renaissance, and even later, astronomers and poets alike esteemed his concept of the universe. Zoology rested on Aristotle’s work until the British scientist Charles Darwin modified the doctrine of the changelessness of species in the 19th century. In the 20th century a new appreciation developed of Aristotle’s method and its relevance to education, literary criticism, the analysis of human action, and political analysis. 6. Conclusion Aristotle is a famous philosopher that recognized by many people around the world. He is a great philosopher of universal knowledge. For centuries Europe acknowledged him as the master, and no philosopher has ever had such profound and lasting influence on the thought and life of western world.His method and doctrine have been recognized and practice by all human being around the world.