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오픈소스 라이선스 세미나 (2014/07/15)

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오픈소스 라이선스 세미나 2014.7.15

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오픈소스 라이선스 세미나 (2014/07/15)

  1. 1. 오픈소스 라이선스 세미나 류창우 cwryu@debian.org
  2. 2. 0. IANAL
  3. 3. IANAL ● 전산학 전공자 ● 회사 다니는 개발자 ● Debian developer (1998-) o 패키징, 번역, 테스트, … o debian-legal mailing list read-only-member
  4. 4. 흔한 오픈소스 라이선스 발표 블랙덕소프트웨어코리아 http://www.slideshare.net/mosaicnet/-4923192 (17쪽)
  5. 5. 흔한 오픈소스 라이선스 발표 (계속) 문제점 - 기업 입장 - "오픈소스를 가져다 쓰는 litch" 기업 입장 - GPL 소송을 당하지 않기 위한 도움
  6. 6. 1. 동기 부여
  7. 7. 신경 써야 되나? ● "골치아파요" ● "법무팀이 알아서 하겠지"
  8. 8. Q: 저작권이 우리를 지켜줄까?
  9. 9. Q: 저작권이 우리를 지켜줄까? A: 대부분의 경우, 아닐 것.
  10. 10. 현재의 추세 ● 저작권 제도는 갈 수록 강화되고 있음 ● 작가가 아니라 대형 출판사 ● 뮤지션이 아니라 대형 앨범 레이블 ● 개발자가 아니라 대형 소프트웨어 기업 주도
  11. 11. 골치아픈 선택 1. 저작권 제도 무시 2. 저작권 제도에 타협
  12. 12. 허가 문화와 그 반감 Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture (2004)
  13. 13. github, 라이선스 무시 문화와 비판 github에서 permissive license 비중의 대폭 증가 http://www.softwarefreedom.org/resources/2013/lcs-slides- aaronw/#/begin Simon Phipps의 평가, “Github needs take open source seriously” http://www.infoworld.com/d/open-source- software/github-needs-take-open-source-seriously-208046
  14. 14. github의 문화와 그 비판 (계속) github에서 만든 라이선스 사이트 http://choosealicense.com/ Simon Phipps의 평가, “Github finally takes open source licenses seriously” http://www.infoworld.com/d/open-source-software/github- finally-takes-open-source-licenses-seriously-222708
  15. 15. github의 문화와 그 비판 (계속) Armin Ronacher, ...And it's probably not just a bad solution, it's one that might actually be hurtful if people are not aware of what the effects of the respective license are. http://lucumr.pocoo.org/2013/7/23/licensing/
  16. 16. "우리 그냥 코딩하게 해 주세요" 현실 제도에서 안 됨 ● 베른 협약, 1886 - 대한민국은 1996년부터 ● 저작권법 (2009 컴퓨터 프로그램 보호법 통 합) 저작권을 무시하면 자유로운 것이 아니라 “All Rights Reserved” 라이선스가 기본값.
  17. 17. 저작권법이 보호해 주는 것 복제, 공연, 공중송신, 전시, 배포, 대여, 2차 저 작물
  18. 18. 저작인격권? ● 공표권 ● 성명표시권 ● 동일성 유지 (어라?) -> 소프트웨어는 해당 없음요 ㅋ
  19. 19. 자유로운 사용 보장 방법 default가 제한되는 것이니, "보장한다"라고 명시 하는 것.
  20. 20. 2. 자유, 오픈소스, 공개, 치실
  21. 21. 용어의 남발 - 자유소프트웨어 by FSF - 오픈소스소프트웨어 by OSI - 공개소프트웨어 by 대한민국
  22. 22. 타협 - Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) - Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS)
  23. 23. 정의와 차이점
  24. 24. Free Software Definition (1986) The freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose (freedom 0). The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  25. 25. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2). The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  26. 26. Debian Free Software Guidelines 1. Free Redistribution 2. Source Code 3. Derived Works 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups
  27. 27. 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 7. Distribution of License 8. License Must Not Be Specific to Debian 9. License Must Not Contaminate Other Software 10. Example Licenses
  28. 28. Open Source Definition 1. Free Redistribution 2. Source Code 3. Derived Works 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups
  29. 29. 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 7. Distribution of License 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral
  30. 30. 다른가? 보기에는 특별히 차이는 없으나 케이스별로..
  31. 31. 예) NASA Open Source Agreement OSI approved but FSF not G. Each Contributor represents that that its Modification is believed to be Contributor's original creation and does not violate any existing agreements, ...
  32. 32. 예) Debian vs FSF (GFDL) - "Invariant section"에 대한 수정 금지가 발단 - 결과: 데비안에서 Invariant section이 있는 모 든 문서가 non-free 섹션으로 빠짐 (gcc-doc, make-doc, gawk-doc, glibc-doc ...). - Fedora OpenSuse 등 배포판의 경우에는 문제 삼지 않음.
  33. 33. 허용되는 제한 1. copyleft / share-alike 2. 특허 허용 / 특허 보복 3. anti-DRM
  34. 34. copyleft / share-alike - CC BY-SA - GPL - MPL - OFL - Microsoft Reciprocal License - MySQL, Qt, sendmail, ...
  35. 35. 특허 허용 / 특허 보복 - GPL / APL - 배포는 곧 해당 특허 허용 - APSL / MPL - 특허 소송은 곧 사용권 중지
  36. 36. 그래도 골치아프면 "골치아파요. 그냥 (BSD|MIT)로 해 주세요."에 대해서 IMHO, ● 세상엔 나쁜 어른들이 생각보다 많다 ● BSD나 MIT의 attribution도 지켜지지 않는다.
  37. 37. GPL 호환성 예 - BSD 4 clauses “advertising clause” - CDDL
  38. 38. 예) OpenSSL - BSD 4, GPL 비호환 - Fedora: 링크 허용 - Debian: 링크 불허 - OpenSSL이 배포판에 포함되면 그냥 OS 라이 브러리로 볼 수 있는가?
  39. 39. (예)Debian vs Joerg Schilling - cdrtools 중에 CDDL 라이선스인 libscg와 GPL 인 mkisofs 코드 링크 - 메인테이너의 고집, 무례한 태도 - 결과: 모든 리눅스 배포판에서 삭제 - cdrkit fork 탄생

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