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- 1. Results from Power Audit of xxx Facility, Hyderabad Presentation to Mr. XXX Version 1 18 August, 2008
- 2. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions2 About This Report Choice Solutions is submitting this report of findings and insights based on our power audit of xxx facility at Hyderabad. We estimate significant opex and capex savings through capacity optimization, PF correction, CMD correction and implementation of wastage control measures. Our strong recommendation is to replace the existing common electrical distribution system with a separate panel to avoid unnecessary break downs in facility. Our important suggestion: existing DG sets are very old and cannot be used forever. As a next step, we recommend implementing the suggested changes followed by maintenance of electrical infrastructures.
- 3. Agenda Audit Scope of Work Contract Demand Diversity Factor Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Consumption (End Loads) UPS LDB AHU Spilt A/C’s Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Power Quality Facility Observations Conclusions and Next Steps
- 4. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions4 Audit Scope of Work DG Backup Energy Meter 750 kVA Facility End to End Power Distribution System Floor Panels and Intermediate Loads 1800 kVA HT 11 KV OCB 1 1 1 1 1 Transformer Gnd Floor A/C Gnd Floor UPS Gnd Floor Lighting n raw power First Floor UPS First Floor A/C First Floor PAC Second Floor UPS Second Floor A/C Second Floor Lighting Raw Power First Floor Lighting Terrace and Cafeteria Elevator Sub DB (West Wing) DG-1 DG-2 DG-3 DG-4 500kVA500kVA 500kVA 500kVA 4X500 kVA Synchronization panel APFC AMF Panel Common Bus Bar Main LT Panel Sub DB (East Wing) Second Floor Sub DB (West Wing) Sub DB (East Wing) Sub DB (West Wing) First Floor Ground Floor Sub DB (East Block)
- 5. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions5 APSEB (CMD) Power Audit Activities Check CMD allotted, utilization and cable size Check cable temperature, % loss across the cable from starting to end point Measure PF Check for loads connected Measure phases and neutral current Contd…
- 6. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions6 APSEB (CMD) Power Audit Activities Check for load balancing Check for body and neutral earthing Check for PCC Check for PCC panel bus bar conductor size
- 7. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions7 DG Audit Activities Measure phase and neutral current Check for load balancing and % of load Measure load PF Ascertain same cable and lug material as per standards Copper or aluminum Contd...
- 8. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions8 DG Audit Activities Check for gland and gland plates Check for cable routing, bunching and termination Check for generator capacity, utilization, and age Engine and alternator Check for loads connected Contd...
- 9. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions9 DG Audit Activities Check for MCO/AMF panel Check generator battery’s age and condition Check for body and neutral earthing Check for earth resistance Measure current rating of ACB/MCBs and sockets Check for MCB enclosure Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas
- 10. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions10 Load Balancing on EB and DG Audit Activities Loads on EB Check load on R-phase current Check load on Y-phase current Check load on B-phase current Loads on DG Check load on R-phase current Check load on Y-phase current Check load on B-phase current
- 11. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions11 MCO Panel / AMF Panel Audit Activities Check terminations of changeover Check for inter locking system between EB and DG Check for connection status of APFC while on DG Check for glands and gland plates Check for switchgear neutral contact rating Check for cable size and bus bar capacity Check for body earthing
- 12. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions12 APFC Audit Activities Check for automatic/manual connection Check for faulty capacitors/contactors Check for sufficient number of capacitors Check for capacitor bank fuses Check for PF close to unity Contd…
- 13. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions13 APFC Audit Activities Check cable size Check if capacitors designed as per PF correction Check capacitors working conditions Check for body earthing Check for PF which causes incentive / penalty
- 14. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions14 Main LT Panel Audit Activities Ensure combined load or other facility load billing shouldn’t reflect in xxxmonthly billing Assess power in LT panel Check routing, bunching and termination of cables Check MCCB/ACB ratings and function Check for interlocking system function Contd…
- 15. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions15 Main LT Panel Audit Activities Check for bus bar size Check for neutral size Check earth cable size Check for body earthing Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas
- 16. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions16 UPS Audit Activities Check UPS input PF Check UPS input and output harmonics (VTHD and ITHD) Check input filter inside UPS Check efficiency and backup Check loads connected Measure phases and neutral current
- 17. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions17 UPS Audit Activities Check routing, bunching and termination of cables Check body and neutral earthing Check efficiency and heat dissipation of UPS Check ventilation for air circulation in the UPS room Check for emergency lighting in critical and common areas Check if, UPS are having parallel redundancy
- 18. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions18 Other Loads Audit Activities Check lighting load Check AC and chiller plant load Check elevator load Check routing, bunching and termination of cables Check body and neutral earthing Check load protections
- 19. Agenda Audit Scope of Work Contract Demand Diversity Factor Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Consumption (End Loads) UPS LDB AHU Spilt A/C’s Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Power Quality Facility Observations Conclusions and Next Steps
- 20. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions20 Loads and Maximum Consumption APSEB Power 750 kVA CMD with 11 kV HT 1800 kVA Transformer Total: 1054 kVA Max Electricity Bill Unit = 1 kW 3x160 kVA UPS (For facility) 2X120 KVAUPS (For server and HUB room) Air conditioners (AHU) LDB (For lighting and raw power) Current: 105 kVA Current: 250 kVA Current: 75 kVA Current: 470 kVA Current: 100 kVA Other Loads (Water, elevator, terrace and cafeteria)
- 21. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions21 Capacity vs. Utilization MD (Peak Load) • Peak load consumption is 1054 kVA • Avoid maximum demand cross penalty by increasing MD to 2000 kVA from current 750 kVA • Hence results in opex savings • Includes cushion of ~35% • Peak load consumption is 1054 kVA • Avoid maximum demand cross penalty by increasing MD to 2000 kVA from current 750 kVA • Hence results in opex savings • Includes cushion of ~35% 750 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF kW kVA R 238.1 1498 0.83 300 360 Y 239.7 1430 0.81 278 346 B 239.9 1432 0.92 319 348 TOTAL 897 1054 750 kVA MD utilization = 1054/750 = 140.5%, under provisioned
- 22. Agenda Audit Scope of Work Contract Demand Diversity Factor Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Consumption (End Loads) UPS LDB AHU Spilt A/C’s Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Power Quality Facility Observations Conclusions and Next Steps
- 23. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions23 Capacity vs. Utilization Generator (DG 4x 500 kVA, xxx Load) 4x500 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF kW kVA R 237.6 1531 0.78 284 364 Y 228.9 1526 0.80 280 351 B 228.8 1592 0.80 294 368 TOTAL 858 1083 DG utilization( xxx ) = 1083/2000 = 54% • 35% capacity is unutilized • DG is over loaded, heated and tripping even utilization (65%) is less than rated DG capacity • Current load is < 1300 kVA( Including other tenants of consumption less than 300 kVA) • Save opex by switching to 3 x750 kVA DG instead of existing old DG • Lower diesel expenses with auto synchronization switching of the DG sets • Increase PF to 0.90, for maximum utilization of the rated capacity • 35% capacity is unutilized • DG is over loaded, heated and tripping even utilization (65%) is less than rated DG capacity • Current load is < 1300 kVA( Including other tenants of consumption less than 300 kVA) • Save opex by switching to 3 x750 kVA DG instead of existing old DG • Lower diesel expenses with auto synchronization switching of the DG sets • Increase PF to 0.90, for maximum utilization of the rated capacity
- 24. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions24 Capacity vs. Utilization Other Tenants Load on 4x 500 kVA DG 4x500 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF kW kVA R 235.8 349.1 0.83 66.7 80.4 Y 239.6 284.4 0.81 55.4 68.9 B 238.8 298.3 0.80 55.4 69.4 TOTAL 177.5 218.7 DG utilization (other tenants) = 218.7/2000 = 11%
- 25. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions25 Capacity vs. Utilization xxx Load on 4x 500 kVA DG Observations and Recommendations: Replace current 4 x 500 kVA with separate 3 x 750 kVA D.G Current DG set is old, hence over loaded and tripping even DG utilization is 1280 kVA at 0.8 PF which is less than rated kVA (2000kVA at 0.8 PF) xxx facilities are asked to switch off first and second floor A/C load, to reduce over loading on DG set as it is making more sound and heat For reducing heat, building maintenance people are pouring water on DG sets, not advisable Increase PF at DG output to reduce load factor for maximum capacity utilization
- 26. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions26 Capacity vs. Utilization UPS 1(120 kVA Server Room source-1) • Load is 31% in 120 kVA, use 40 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 7.5% cushion which supports future expansion • Load is 31% in 120 kVA, use 40 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 7.5% cushion which supports future expansion UPS utilization = 37.3/120 = 31% 120 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 221.1 54.6 0.74 9.0 12.1 Y 225.3 53.5 0.79 9.6 12.1 B 226.7 57.6 0.78 10.2 13.1 TOTAL 28.8 37.3
- 27. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions27 Capacity vs. Utilization UPS 2 (120 kVA Server Room Source - 2) UPS utilization = 36.3/120 = 30 % 120 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 221.0 51.7 0.74 8.6 11.6 Y 229.4 52.4 0.77 9.3 12.1 B 232.8 54.2 0.75 9.4 12.6 TOTAL 27.3 36.3 • Load is 30% in 120 kVA, use 40 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 7.5% cushion which supports future expansion • Load is 30% in 120 kVA, use 40 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 7.5% cushion which supports future expansion
- 28. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions28 Capacity vs. Utilization UPS 3 (160 kVA Ground Floor Facility) UPS utilization = 63.9/160 = 40 % 160 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 223.1 92.4 0.78 16.1 20.6 Y 225.9 95.0 0.82 17.6 21.4 B 226.9 97.6 0.81 17.7 21.9 TOTAL 51.4 63.9 • Load is 40% in 160 kVA, use 80 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 20% cushion which supports future expansion • Load is 40% in 160 kVA, use 80 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 20% cushion which supports future expansion
- 29. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions29 Capacity vs. Utilization UPS 4 (160 kVA First Floor Facility) UPS utilization = 73.1/160 = 46 % 160 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 226.7 101.0 0.77 17.5 22.7 Y 232.5 106.5 0.83 20.3 24.7 B 235.1 110.1 0.77 19.8 25.7 TOTAL 57.6 73.1 • Load is 46% in 160 kVA, use 80 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 8% cushion which supports future expansion • Load is 46% in 160 kVA, use 80 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes 8% cushion which supports future expansion
- 30. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions30 Capacity vs. Utilization UPS 5 (160 kVA Second Floor Facility) UPS utilization = 79.3 /160 = 50 % 160 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 226.0 109.0 0.79 19.5 24.8 Y 231.4 114.8 0.83 22.4 26.9 B 234.3 116.3 0.79 21.9 27.6 TOTAL 63.8 79.3 • Load is 50% in 160 kVA, use 80 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes no cushion • Load is 50% in 160 kVA, use 80 kVA with redundancy, to save opex and capex • This includes no cushion
- 31. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions31 Capacity vs. Utilization UPS 6 (160 kVA Standby UPS for all UPS) UPS utilization = 31.2/160 = 20% 160 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 223.2 44.3 0.67 6.6 9.9 Y 227.2 44.3 0.71 7.2 10.1 B 228.7 48.3 0.72 8.0 11.2 TOTAL 21.8 31.2
- 32. Agenda Audit Scope of Work Contract Demand Diversity Factor Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Consumption (End Loads) UPS LDB AHU Spilt A/C’s Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Power Quality Facility Observations Conclusions and Next Steps
- 33. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions33 Consumption Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power Load Consumption Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power Load Lighting consumption = 30.30 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 224.0 41.19 0.84 7.57 9.0 Y 228.3 39.80 0.87 7.72 9.1 B 229.5 58.1 0.82 9.7 12.2 TOTAL 25.0 30.30
- 34. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions34 Consumption First Floor Lighting and Raw Power Load Lighting consumption = 30 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 221.4 49.17 0.94 8.36 8.91 Y 226.9 31.07 0.90 6.63 7.38 B 228.9 57.7 0.79 10.4 13.2 TOTAL 25.39 29.59
- 35. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions35 Consumption Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power Load Lighting consumption = 34.80 Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 224.9 45.54 0.84 8.6 10.3 Y 229.9 59.9 0.88 11.9 13.5 B 230.6 47.65 0.84 9.22 11.0 TOTAL 29.72 34.80
- 36. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions36 Consumption Terrace and Cafeteria Load Lighting consumption = 93.10 Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 223.3 137.1 0.89 27.4 30.7 Y 226.7 134.7 0.86 25.8 30.2 B 228.1 141.1 0.87 27.9 32.2 TOTAL 81.10 93.10
- 37. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions37 Consumption Elevator - 4 Elevator consumption = < 1 kVA Voltage (V) Current (A) PF KW KVA R 228.0 0.73 0.09 0.02 0.16 Y 231.3 1.18 0.95 0.26 0.27 B 230.6 0.48 0.04 0.00 0.11 TOTAL
- 38. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions38 Consumption PAC TR Voltage (V) Current (A) PF kW KVA R 224.2 86.5 0.81 15.7 19.3 Y 228.4 85.9 0.80 15.7 19.6 B 229.5 76.9 0.77 13.5 17.6 TOTAL 44.90 56.50 Total PAC consumption =56.50 kVA
- 39. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions39 Consumption Ground Floor AC TR Voltage (V) Current (A) PF kW KVA R 223.2 225.7 0.76 38.4 50.3 Y 226.7 216.1 0.78 38.3 49.1 B 228.4 224.3 0.75 38.6 51.3 TOTAL 115.30 150.7 Total AHU consumption = 150.7 kVA • Multiple number of AHU’s installed in facility • Needs to increase PF to 0.95, for better AC capacity utilization • Multiple number of AHU’s installed in facility • Needs to increase PF to 0.95, for better AC capacity utilization
- 40. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions40 Consumption First Floor AC TR Voltage (V) Current (A) PF kW KVA R 223.0 150.6 0.72 24.2 33.7 Y 226.7 145.7 0.74 24.4 33.0 B 227.7 153.2 0.71 27.2 38.1 TOTAL 75.80 104.80 Total AHU consumption = 104.80 kVA • Multiple number of small AHU’s installed in facility • Needs to increase PF to 0.95, for better AC capacity utilization • Multiple number of small AHU’s installed in facility • Needs to increase PF to 0.95, for better AC capacity utilization
- 41. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions41 Consumption Second Floor AC TR Voltage (V) Current (A) PF kW KVA R 223.1 229.4 0.72 37.0 51.2 Y 227.0 226.1 0.75 38.6 51.4 B 228.1 236.2 0.68 38.9 54.0 TOTAL 114.50 156.60 Total AHU consumption =156.60 kVA • Multiple number of small AHU’s installed in facility • Needs to increase PF to 0.95, for better AC capacity utilization • Multiple number of small AHU’s installed in facility • Needs to increase PF to 0.95, for better AC capacity utilization
- 42. Agenda Audit Scope of Work Contract Demand Diversity Factor Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Consumption (End Loads) UPS LDB AHU Spilt A/C’s Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Power Quality Facility Observations Conclusions and Next Steps
- 43. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions43 Potential Power Savings Electricity Bill Incentive and Penalty # Meter details Bill Date Bill Amount MD Penalty PF Penalty 1 Consumption at HT Meter( 750 kVA MD) Feb 2008 24,23,938.00 2,10,244.00 - 2 Consumption at HT Meter( 750 kVA MD) March 2008 27,65,108.00 2,64,420.00 - 3 Consumption at HT Meter( 750 kVA MD) April 2008 29,86,375.00 3,46,164.00 - 4 Consumption at HT Meter( 750 kVA MD) May 2008 35,17,680.00 4,40,700.00 3,00,745.00 5 Consumption at HT Meter( 750 kVA MD) June 2008 37,72,886.00 4,67,026.00 3,68,358.00 6 Consumption at HT Meter( 750 kVA MD) July 2008 28,66,053.00 2,60,052.00 - Total 1,83,32,040.00 19,88,606.00 6,69,103.00 • MD crossed average penalty per month is Rs. 3, 31, 434/- • Average PF penalty per month is Rs. 1,11,517/- • Total monthly average penalty is Rs.4,42,951/- • Average penalty per year is Rs.53,15,414/- • MD crossed average penalty per month is Rs. 3, 31, 434/- • Average PF penalty per month is Rs. 1,11,517/- • Total monthly average penalty is Rs.4,42,951/- • Average penalty per year is Rs.53,15,414/-
- 44. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions44 Potential Power Savings MD # Area of Saving Opex (Annual) 1 Shifting to 2000 kVA MD instead of 750 kVA * Rs.33,57,912.00 TOTAL Rs.33,57,912.00 (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 218.4/-) x (demand of 750 kVA) = Rs.19,65,600/- * (MD Penalty charge/kVA/month of Rs. 436.8/-) x (demand difference of 1069 kVA) x (12 months per year) Rs. 56,04,312/- Total MD charges including penalty per year Rs. 75,69,912/- * (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 195/-) x (demand difference of 1800 kVA) x (12 months per year) is Rs. 42,12,000/- Total MD charges saving by upgrading to 1800 kVA is Rs. 33,57,912/- year
- 45. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions45 Potential Power Savings PFC # Area of Saving Opex (Annual) 2 By Correcting the PF from 0.81 to 0.92** Direct savings10% on monthly billing Rs. 13,38,204.00 TOTAL Rs. 13,38,204.00 ** (Rs1,11,517 / month) x (12 months per year) equals Rs. 13,38,204/- Capacitor required to correct the PF is kVAR = 897 { Tan[ cos-1( 0.81)] – Tan [ cos -1 ( 0.95)]}= 354 kVAR approximately 400 KVAR
- 46. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions46 Potential Power Savings DG # Area of Saving Opex (Annual) 3 Use 3x750 kVA instead of 4 x 500 kVA *** Diesel consumption savings (270lts vs. 240lts/hr) *** Rs.1,08,000.00 TOTAL Rs.1,08,000.00 ** Based on new Cummins 500 kVA and 750 kVA DG set diesel consumption *** (Rs. 30 per lt diesel) x (30 lts/hr difference) x (120 hrs power cut per year) equals to Rs. 1, 08, 000/- Assuming 2x750 kVA run instead of 3x500 kVA at 75% load
- 47. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions47 Potential Power Savings UPS (Server) # Area of Saving Opex (Annual) 4 Replace 2x120 kVA UPS with 2x60 kVA **** Savings from No load losses ***** 3,31,776.00 UPS AMC charges savings ****** . 60,000.00 Savings in cooling the UPS ******* 1,16,121.00 TOTAL Rs. 5,07,897.00 **** Requirement is met by 2x60 kVA (this includes 40% cushion and redundancy with 1x160 KVA i.e UPS 6) ***** For the2x120 kVA and 2 x60 kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 9.6 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 120 kVA and 60 kVA UPS AMC charges difference, Rs. 30,000 per year x 2 No of UPS ******* For the 2x120 kVA and 2x60 kVA UPS cooling requirements difference, 3.36 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year
- 48. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions48 Potential Power Savings UPS (Facility) # Area of Saving Opex (Annual) 5 Replace 3x160 kVA UPS with 3x80 kVA **** Savings from No load losses ***** 4,42,368.00 UPS AMC charges savings ****** .1,00,000.00 Savings in cooling the UPS ******* 1,54,828.00 TOTAL Rs.6,97,196.00 **** Requirement is met by 2x160 kVA (this includes 25% cushion and redundancy with 1x160KVA i.e UPS 6) ***** For the3x160kVA and 2 x160kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 12.8 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 120kVA and 60 kVA UPS AMC charges difference, Rs. 30,000 per year x 2 No of UPS ******* For the 2x120kVA and 2x60kVA UPS cooling requirements difference, 4.48 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year
- 49. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions49 Potential Power Savings Summary # Area of Saving Opex (Annual) 1 Shifting to 2000 kVA MD instead of 750 kVA * 33,57,912.00 2 By Correcting the PF from 0.81 to 0.92** Direct savings10% on monthly billing .3,38,204.00 3 Use 3x750 kVA instead of 4 x 500 kVA *** Diesel consumption savings (270lts vs. 240lts/hr) *** 1,08,000.00 4 Replace 2x120 kVA UPS with 2x60 kVA **** (Server) Savings from No load losses ***** 3,31,776.00 UPS AMC charges savings ****** . 60,000.00 5 Replace 3x160 kVA UPS with 3x80 kVA **** Savings from No load losses ***** 4,42,368.00 UPS AMC charges savings ****** .1,00,000.00 Savings in cooling the UPS ******* 1,54,828.00 TOTAL Rs. 48,93,088
- 50. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions50 Potential Power Savings Summary (MD Penalty charge/kVA/month of Rs. 436.8/-) x (demand difference of 1069 kVA) x (12 months per year) Rs. 56,04,312/- Total MD charges includes penalty per year Rs. 75,69,912/- * (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 195/-) x (demand difference of 1800 kVA) x (12 months per year) is Rs. 42,12,000/- Total MD charges saving by upgrading to 1800 kVA is Rs. 33,57,912/- year (MD charge/kVA/month of Rs. 218.4/-) x (demand of 750 kVA) = Rs.19,65,600/- ** (Rs1,11,517 / month) x (12 months per year) equals Rs. 13,38,204/- Capacitor required to correct the PF is KVAR = 897 { Tan[ cos-1( 0.81)] – Tan [ cos -1 ( 0.95)]}= 354 kVAR approximately 400 KVAR ** (Rs1,11,517 / month) x (12 months per year) equals Rs. 13,38,204/- Capacitor required to correct the PF is KVAR = 897 { Tan[ cos-1( 0.81)] – Tan [ cos -1 ( 0.95)]}= 354 kVAR approximately 400 KVAR Contd…
- 51. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions51 Potential Power Savings Summary **** Requirement is met by 2x60 kVA (this includes 40% cushion and redundancy with 1x160 KVA i.e UPS 6) ***** For the2x120 kVA and 2 x60 kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 9.6 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 120kVA and 60 kVA UPS AMC charges difference, Rs. 30,000 per year x 2 No of UPS ******* For the 2x120kVA and 2x60kVA UPS cooling requirements difference, 3.36 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year **** Requirement is met by 2x160 kVA (this includes 25% cushion and redundancy with 1x160KVA i.e UPS 6) ***** For the3x160kVA and 2 x160kVA UPS Efficiency difference, 12.8 kW per hour x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year ****** For the 120kVA and 60 kVA UPS AMC charges difference, Rs. 30,000 per year x 2 No of UPS ******* For the 2x120kVA and 2x60kVA UPS cooling requirements difference, 4.48 kW per hr x Rs. 4 per hr x 24 hrs x 30 days per month x 12 months per year
- 52. Agenda Audit Scope of Work Contract Demand Diversity Factor Capacity vs. Utilization (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Consumption (End Loads) UPS LDB AHU Spilt A/C’s Potential Power Savings (Infrastructure Optimization) MD DG UPS Power Quality Facility Observations Conclusions and Next Steps
- 53. Main PCC Panel Readings xxx Panel readings DG Readings PFC Readings Main LT Panel Readings
- 54. Main PCC Panel Readings
- 55. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions55 Building Common PCC Panel R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.81 > 0.95 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Unstable Stable Bad impact on loads
- 56. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions56 Building Common PCC Panel R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 57. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions57 Building Common PCC Panel Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.82 > 0.95 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Stable Unstable Bad impact on loads
- 58. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions58 Building Common PCC Panel Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 59. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions59 Building Common PCC Panel B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.80 > 0.95 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Stable Unstable Bad impact on loads
- 60. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions60 Building Common PCC Panel B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 10.6% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 61. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions61 Building Common PCC Panel N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 1.4 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Abnormal, reduce equipment performance
- 62. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions62 Building Common PCC Panel N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 45.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 54.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Increases cable losses
- 63. xxx Panel Readings
- 64. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions64 xxx Panel R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.87 > 0.95 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Stable Stable Bad Impact on loads
- 65. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions65 xxx Panel R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.5% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 66. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions66 xxx Panel Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.86 > 0.95 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Stable Stable Bad impact on loads
- 67. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions67 xxx Panel Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.5% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 12.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 68. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions68 xxx Panel B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.84% > 0.95 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Stable Stable Bad impact on loads
- 69. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions69 xxx Panel B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.4% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 70. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions70 xxx Panel N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 2.50 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Unstable Stable PFC behavior
- 71. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions71 xxx Panel N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 36.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 71.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Increases cable losses
- 72. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions72 Maximum Load of xxx R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.83 > 0.95 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Unstable Stable Bad impact on loads
- 73. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions73 Maximum load of xxx Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.81 >0.85 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Unstable Stable Bad impact on loads
- 74. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions74 Maximum load of xxx B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.92 >0.85 Low PF, causes cable heating and high demand rating Waveform Unstable Stable Bad impact on loads
- 75. DG Readings
- 76. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions76 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.67 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Unstable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 77. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions77 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 9.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 78. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions78 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.62 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Unstable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 79. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions79 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 13.1 % IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 80. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions80 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.49 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform unstable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 81. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions81 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 13.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 82. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions82 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 3.07 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Back feeding harmonics causes damaging the equipments
- 83. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions83 DG 1 (with first and second floor AC being off) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 34.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 22.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Increases cable losses
- 84. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions84 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 85. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions85 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 10.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 86. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions86 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.74 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 87. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions87 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 10.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 88. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions88 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.76 > 0.95 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 89. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions89 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 90. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions90 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 3.61 V < 3 V Need to check and set the earth pit Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 91. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions91 DG 2 (with first and second floor AC being off) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 46.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 10.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics with in limits
- 92. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions92 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.80 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 93. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions93 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 94. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions94 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.79 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 95. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions95 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.4% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 96. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions96 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.80 > 0.95 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 97. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions97 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 98. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions98 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 3.42 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 99. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions99 DG 3 (with first and second floor AC being off) N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 3.42 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 100. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions100 DG 4 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.99 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 101. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions101 DG 4 (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.4% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 13.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 102. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions102 DG 4 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.99 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 103. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions103 DG 4 (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 13.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 104. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions104 DG 4 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.99 > 0.95 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 105. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions105 DG 4 (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 14.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 106. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions106 Other tenants load on DG (with first and second floor AC being off) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.83 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 107. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions107 Other tenants load on DG (with first and second floor AC being off) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.81 >0.85 PF with in limits should Not be less than 0.85 Waveform Stable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 108. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions108 Other tenants load on DG (with first and second floor AC being off) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.80 > 0.95 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 109. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions109 Maximum Load on DG R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 >0.85 Low PF leads to cable heating and de-rating of DG Waveform Stable Stable Without capacitor bank, If same power feeding load, may damage equipment
- 110. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions110 Maximum Load on DG Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.80 >0.85 PF with in limits should Not be less than 0.85 Waveform Stable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 111. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions111 Maximum Load on DG B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.80 > 0.95 PF with in limits should Not be less than 0.85 Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no impact on load
- 112. PFC Readings
- 113. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions113 PFC Bank - 1 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 9.93 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty . Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 114. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions114 PFC Bank - 1 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 33.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Cable gets heated up Frequent failure of fuses
- 115. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions115 PFC Bank - 1 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 9.80 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 116. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions116 PFC Bank – 1 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 31.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics Not in limits
- 117. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions117 PFC Bank - 1 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 0 kW <1 kW Capacitor is not working Waveform Stable Capacitor is not working
- 118. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions118 PFC Bank - 1 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 51.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 119. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions119 PFC Bank - 1 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 8.53 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty . Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 120. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions120 PFC Bank - 1 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.6% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 32.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 121. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions121 PFC Bank - 2 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 5.94 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty . Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 122. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions122 PFC Bank – 2 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.6% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 32.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 123. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions123 PFC Bank – 2 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 0.20 <1 kW Capacitor is working fine and correcting PF. Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 124. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions124 PFC Bank - 2 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.6% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 31.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 125. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions125 PFC Bank - 2 Capacitor : Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 0.18 <1 kW Capacitor is working fine and correcting PF. Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 126. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions126 PFC Bank - 2 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 33.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 127. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions127 PFC Bank - 2 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 6.97 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 128. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions128 PFC Bank - 2 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 33.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 129. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions129 PFC Bank - 3 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 9.52 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 130. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions130 PFC Bank - 3 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 32.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 131. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions131 PFC Bank - 3 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 17.3 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty . Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 132. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions132 PFC Bank - 3 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 33.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 133. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions133 PFC Bank - 3 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 6.71 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 134. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions134 PFC Bank - 3 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.5% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 34.6% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 135. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions135 PFC Bank – 4 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 8.99 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 136. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions136 PFC Bank - 4 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 30.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 137. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions137 PFC Bank - 5 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 9.22 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty . Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 138. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions138 PFC Bank - 5 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 32.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 139. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions139 PFC Bank - 5 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 9.99 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 140. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions140 PFC Bank - 5 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 32.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 141. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions141 PFC Bank - 5 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 9.46 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty . Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 142. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions142 PFC Bank - 6 Capacitor: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 32.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 143. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions143 PFC Bank - 6 Capacitor: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact kW 9.52 <1 kW Consumption of active power is a symptom of faulty . Will not correct the PF Waveform Zigzag Stable It may causes damage to equipment
- 144. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions144 PFC Bank - 6 Capacitor : Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 31.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 145. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions145 Main L.T.Panel individual loads UPS Incomer Lighting and other load AC load
- 146. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions146 UPS Incomer Details in Main L.T. Panel UPS-1 input readings-3 phase system UPS-2,4,5 input readings-3 phase and neutral system UPS-3 input readings-3 phase system UPS -6 input readings- 3 phase system
- 147. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions147 UPS - 1 Input (120 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.74 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 148. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions148 UPS - 1 Input (120 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.6% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 49.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 149. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions149 UPS - 1 Input (120 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.74 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS and resulting in less efficiency
- 150. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions150 UPS - 1 Input (120 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 48.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 151. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions151 UPS - 1 Input (120 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 152. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions152 UPS - 1 Input (120 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 45.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 153. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions153 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.83 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS and resulting in less efficiency
- 154. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions154 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 35.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 155. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions155 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.85 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 156. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions156 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 34.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 157. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions157 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.82 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 158. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions158 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 33.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 159. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions159 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 1.068 V <3 V E-N voltage within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 160. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions160 UPS - 2, 4, 5 Common Incomer N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 57.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 17.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heating and losses
- 161. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions161 UPS - 3 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase Input: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 162. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions162 UPS - 3 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 44.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 163. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions163 UPS - 3 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.82 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 164. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions164 UPS - 3 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 41.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 165. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions165 UPS - 3 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.81 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 166. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions166 UPS - 3 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 40.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 167. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions167 UPS - 6 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.67 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 168. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions168 UPS - 6 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.16% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 59.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 169. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions169 UPS - 6 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.71 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 170. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions170 UPS - 6 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 59.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 171. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions171 UPS - 6 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.72 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 172. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions172 UPS - 6 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 56.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 173. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions173 UPS - 2 Input (120 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.74 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 174. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions174 UPS - 2 Input (120 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 6.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 51.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 175. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions175 UPS - 2 Input (120 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.77 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 176. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions176 UPS - 2 Input (120 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 6.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 49.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 177. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions177 UPS - 2 Input (120 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.75 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 178. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions178 UPS - 2 Input (120 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 6.5% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 48.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 179. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions179 UPS - 4 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.77 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Unstable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 180. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions180 UPS - 4 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 6.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 43.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 181. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions181 UPS - 4 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.83 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 182. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions182 UPS - 4 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 7.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% High Harmonics leads to equipment damage Current Harmonic 41.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 183. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions183 UPS - 4 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.77 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 184. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions184 UPS - 4 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 6.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 38.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 185. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions185 UPS - 5 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.79 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 186. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions186 UPS - 5 Input (160 kVA) R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 6.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 39.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 187. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions187 UPS - 5 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.83 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 188. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions188 UPS - 5 Input (160 kVA) Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 7.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 37.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 189. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions189 UPS - 5 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.79 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Causes heating of UPS thus results in less efficiency
- 190. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions190 UPS - 5 Input (160 kVA) B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 6.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% High harmonics leads to equipment damage Current Harmonic 35.6% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 191. Lighting and Raw Power Panel Main LT Panel
- 192. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions192 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw power R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.84 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 193. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions193 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 9.6% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 194. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions194 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.87 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 195. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions195 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 9.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 196. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions196 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.82 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 197. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions197 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 7.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 198. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions198 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 0.858 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Causes damage the equipments
- 199. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions199 Ground Floor Lighting and Raw Power N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 73.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 54.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 200. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions200 First Floor Lighting and Raw power R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.94 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 201. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions201 First Floor Lighting and Raw Power R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 12.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 202. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions202 First Floor Lighting and Raw Power Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.90 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 203. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions203 First Floor Lighting and Raw Power Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 204. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions204 First Floor Lighting and Raw Power B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.79 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 205. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions205 First Floor Lighting and Raw Power B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 7.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 206. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions206 First Floor Lighting and Raw Power N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 1.392 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Causes equipment damage
- 207. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions207 First Floor Lighting and Raw Power N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 43.4% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 30.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 208. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions208 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.84 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 209. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions209 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 10.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 210. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions210 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.88 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 211. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions211 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 10.6% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 212. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions212 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.84 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 213. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions213 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 9.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 214. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions214 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N voltage 1.368 V < 3 V E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Causes equipment damage
- 215. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions215 Second Floor Lighting and Raw Power N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 51.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 66.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 216. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions216 Elevator - 4 R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.09 > 0.95 PF within limits , No load Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 217. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions217 Elevator - 4 R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 35.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 218. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions218 Elevator - 4 Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.95 > 0.95 PF within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 219. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions219 Elevator - 4 Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.5% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 26.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses.
- 220. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions220 Elevator - 4 B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.04 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 221. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions221 Elevator - 4 B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 50.8% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 222. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions222 Elevator - 4 N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact N-E 0.830v < 3v E-N voltage is within limits Waveform Unstable Stable Causes equipment damage
- 223. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions223 Elevator - 4 N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 65.7 IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% causes equipment damage Current Harmonic 98.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 224. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions224 Terrace and Cafeteria R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.89 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable No bad impact on loads
- 225. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions225 Terrace and Cafeteria R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.6% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 7.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 226. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions226 Terrace and Cafeteria Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.86 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad impact
- 227. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions227 Terrace and Cafeteria Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 7.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 228. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions228 Terrace and Cafeteria B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.87 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad impact
- 229. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions229 Terrace and Cafeteria B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 6.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 230. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions230 Terrace and Cafeteria N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact E-N Voltage 1.356v < 3 V E-N voltage within limits Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad impact on loads
- 231. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions231 Terrace and Cafeteria N-E: Voltage, Current and Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 41.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 11.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 232. AC power Panel Main LT Panel
- 233. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions233 First Floor PAC Load R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.81 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 234. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions234 First Floor PAC Load R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 9.5% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 235. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions235 First Floor PAC Load Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.80 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 236. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions236 First Floor PAC Load Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 9.0% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 237. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions237 First Floor PAC Load B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.77 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 238. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions238 First Floor PAC Load B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 51% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 239. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions239 First Floor PAC Load N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact N-E Votage 1.114 V < 3 V N-E voltage within limits N Current 12.01 0A High neutral current is due to load unbalancing
- 240. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions240 First Floor PAC Load N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 49.6% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 46.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Increases the cable losses
- 241. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions241 Ground Floor A/C R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.76 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 242. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions242 Ground Floor A/C R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 243. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions243 Ground Floor A/C Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 244. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions244 Ground Floor A/C Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.2% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 7.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 245. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions245 Ground Floor A/C B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.75 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and no bad Impact on loads
- 246. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions246 Ground Floor A/C B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.6% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 247. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions247 Ground Floor A/C N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact N-E Voltage 1.254 V < 3 V NE voltage is in limits N Current 8.84 A 0 High neutral current is due to unbalanced load
- 248. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions248 Ground Floor A/C N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 35.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 20.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Increases cable losses and heating
- 249. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions249 First Floor A/C R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.72 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad Impact on loads
- 250. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions250 First Floor A/C R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.9% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 251. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions251 First Floor A/C Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.74 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad Impact on loads
- 252. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions252 First Floor A/C Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.7% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 253. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions253 First Floor A/C B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.71 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad Impact on loads
- 254. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions254 First Floor A/C B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 255. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions255 First Floor A/C N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact N-E Voltage 1.041 V < 3 V N-E voltage is within limits N Current 6.27 A 0 High neutral current is due to unbalanced load
- 256. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions256 First Floor A/C N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 47.1% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Neutral getting heated Current Harmonic 8.2% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 257. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions257 Second Floor A/C R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.72 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad Impact on loads
- 258. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions258 Second Floor A/C R-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.7% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 259. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions259 Second Floor A/C Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.75 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad Impact on loads
- 260. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions260 Second Floor A/C Y-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 5.0% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 261. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions261 Second Floor A/C B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.75 > 0.95 Low PF leads to high input current and harmonics Waveform Stable Stable Normal and No bad Impact on loads
- 262. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions262 Second Floor A/C B-Phase: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 4.8% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 8.4% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 263. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions263 Second Floor A/C N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact N-E Voltage 1.082 V < 3 V N-E voltage within limits N current 3.42 A 0 High neutral current is due to load unbalancing Waveform Unstable Stable Leads to equipment damage
- 264. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions264 Second Floor A/C N-E: Voltage and Current Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 57.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 3.3% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Harmonics within limits
- 265. Ground Floor
- 266. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions266 Ground Floor Readings UPS Output panel Lighting and Raw Power panel AC panel
- 267. UPS Output Panel
- 268. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions268 UPS Output Breaker - 1 R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.77 > 0.95 Use PF corrected SMPS to improve PF Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 269. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions269 UPS Output Breaker - 1 R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 1.4% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 63.1% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 270. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions270 UPS Output Breaker - 1 Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 > 0.95 Use PF corrected SMPS to improve PF Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 271. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions271 UPS Output Breaker - 1 Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 1.1 % IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 59.5 % IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 272. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions272 UPS Output Breaker - 1 B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.41 > 0.95 Use PF corrected SMPS to improve PF Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 273. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions273 UPS Output Breaker - 1 B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 1.5% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 99.9 % IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 274. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions274 UPS Output Breaker - 1 N-E: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 1 > 0.95 PF within limits Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 275. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions275 UPS Output Breaker - 2 R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 > 0.95 Use PF corrected SMPS to improve PF Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 276. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions276 UPS Output Breaker - 2 R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 1.3% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 62.6 % IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 277. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions277 UPS Output Breaker - 2 Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.74 > 0.95 Use PF corrected SMPS to improve PF Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 278. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions278 UPS Output Breaker - 2 Y-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Harmonics Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 1.2 % IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 66.4 % IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 279. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions279 UPS Output Breaker - 2 B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.75 > 0.95 Use PF corrected SMPS to improve PF Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs
- 280. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions280 UPS Output Breaker - 2 B-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Harmonics Parameter Readin g Standard Observation/Impact Voltage Harmonic 1.5% IEEE 519 harmonic limit is 3-5% Harmonics within limits Current Harmonic 64.9% IEC 61000-3-12 current harmonic limit is 15% for current in the range 16-75 A Causes heat and losses
- 281. © 2008-09 Choice Solutions281 UPS Output Breaker - 3 R-Phase: Voltage, Current and Power Parameter Reading Standard Observation/Impact PF 0.78 > 0.95 Use PF corrected SMPS to improve PF Waveform Unstable Stable If unstable, leads to flickering/damaging of CRTs

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