The Respiratory System By: Kristin Greene


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The Respiratory System By: Kristin Greene

  1. 1. TheThe RespiratoryRespiratory SystemSystem By: Kristin Greene
  2. 2. FunctionFunction  to supply the blood with oxygen so the blood can deliver oxygen to all the body parts
  3. 3. The process of respirationThe process of respiration “Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen enters the respiratory system through the mouth and the nose. The oxygen then passes through the larynx and the trachea which is a tube that enters the chest cavity.
  4. 4. Cont.Cont. In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides again forming the bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes lead directly into the lungs where they divide into many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The average adult's lungs contain about 300 million of these spongy, air-filled sacs that are surrounded by capillaries.
  5. 5. Cont.Cont. The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. Meanwhile, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon dioxide into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs when you exhale.”
  6. 6. The Respiratory system includes…The Respiratory system includes…
  7. 7. FactsFacts  The main organs of the respiratory system areThe main organs of the respiratory system are the Lungsthe Lungs  Yawning brings more air to the lungsYawning brings more air to the lungs  We breath 13 pints a minuteWe breath 13 pints a minute  we breath over 5000 times a daywe breath over 5000 times a day  Your right lung has 3 lobes while the left lungYour right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung only has 2only has 2  The speed of a sneeze over a 100 mph and aThe speed of a sneeze over a 100 mph and a cough is only 60 mphcough is only 60 mph  Lung cancer is the most common cancer in theLung cancer is the most common cancer in the worldworld
  8. 8. Respiratory system conditionsRespiratory system conditions  EmphysemaEmphysema  BronchitisBronchitis  Chronic obstructive pulmonaryChronic obstructive pulmonary diseasedisease  HistoplasmosisHistoplasmosis  Lung cancerLung cancer  PneumoniaPneumonia  Pulmonary fibrosisPulmonary fibrosis  TuberculosisTuberculosis  RSVRSV
  9. 9. Healthy lungsHealthy lungs
  10. 10. Infected lungsInfected lungs RSV The Flu Tuberculosis
  11. 11. BibliographyBibliography    
  12. 12. By LaToya Crandall
  13. 13. They’re paired organs in the chest that perform respiration. Each human has two lungs. Each lung is between 10 and 12 inches long
  14. 14. They transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and excrete carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.
  15. 15. • 90% of the lung is filled with air and only 10% is hard tissue. • The lung is the largest organ in the body. • Diseases that can affect the lungs are Emphysema, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Lung Cancer, and many more.
  16. 16. • Each day you take about 23,000 breaths. • With every breath, your lungs add fresh oxygen to your blood, which then carries into your cells.
  17. 17. • • • •
  18. 18. Bronchitis By Zack Miller
  19. 19. What is Bronchitis? • An obstructive pulmonary disease caused by inflammation of the of the lungs • It can be short term or long lasting
  20. 20. Symptoms • An expectorating cough • Dyspnea (shortness of Breath) • Fatigue and/or malaise • Mild fever • Mild chest pains
  21. 21. Diagnosis • Chest x-ray that reveals hyperinflation and increased bronchovascular markings • Pulmonary function test that shows an increase in the lung’s residual volume and a decreased vitals capacity
  22. 22. Diagnosis (cont.) • Arterial blood gases that show a decreased level of oxygen in the blood and an increased level of carbon dioxide • A sputum culture that has pathogenic microorganism and/or neutrophils
  23. 23. X-ray
  24. 24. Pathophysiology • Short term bronchitis often follows a cold or infection. It may be viral or bacterial • Long-lasting bronchitis last at least three months and is usually cause by environmental irritation of the bronchial tubes and is often caused by smoking
  25. 25. Minor Treatments • Rest • Lots of liquids • Aspirin • Tylenol for fever
  26. 26. Treatments • Oxygen therapy • Bronchodilator drugs • Antibiotics • Lung volume reduction surgery
  27. 27. Prognosis • Short bronchitis usually last ten to eleven days • It is contagious, and starts out with a dry cough, which may be accompanied by a low grade fever, fatigue, and headache
  28. 28. Prevention • Short term – lots of rest – Lots of fluids • Long-lasting – Eliminate exposure to cigarette smoke and other environmentally hazard fumes
  29. 29.  Inflammation of theInflammation of the lungslungs  Caused by a bacterial,Caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungalviral, or fungal infectioninfection  Ranges from mild toRanges from mild to severe to even fatalsevere to even fatal  Severity depends onSeverity depends on age and health of theage and health of the personperson
  30. 30.  Anyone can get pneumoniaAnyone can get pneumonia  Hospital patients more prone becauseHospital patients more prone because of weaker immune systemsof weaker immune systems
  31. 31.  Cough with greenish or yellow phlegmCough with greenish or yellow phlegm  Fever with shaking chillsFever with shaking chills  Sharp chest painSharp chest pain  Rapid, shallow breathingRapid, shallow breathing  Shortness of breathShortness of breath  HeadacheHeadache
  32. 32.  Excessive sweatingExcessive sweating  Clammy skinClammy skin  Loss of appetiteLoss of appetite  Excessive fatigueExcessive fatigue  Confusion in elderly peopleConfusion in elderly people
  33. 33.  Chest X-raysChest X-rays  CBC to check white blood cell countCBC to check white blood cell count  CAT Scan of the chestCAT Scan of the chest
  34. 34.  Antibiotics if the cause is bacteriaAntibiotics if the cause is bacteria  In hospital: Intravenous antibiotics &In hospital: Intravenous antibiotics & oxygen therapyoxygen therapy  In home: Drink fluids to loosenIn home: Drink fluids to loosen secretions and bring up phlegm, getsecretions and bring up phlegm, get lots of rest, control fevers with aspirinlots of rest, control fevers with aspirin
  35. 35.  65 years or older65 years or older  MaleMale  Children under 2Children under 2  Having HIV or AIDSHaving HIV or AIDS  People with their spleen removedPeople with their spleen removed
  36. 36.  SmokingSmoking  Alcohol AbuseAlcohol Abuse  Being around certain chemicalsBeing around certain chemicals  Living in certain parts of the countryLiving in certain parts of the country  Being hospitalized in ICUBeing hospitalized in ICU
  37. 37.  Wash hands frequentlyWash hands frequently  Do not smokeDo not smoke  Wear a mask when cleaning dusty orWear a mask when cleaning dusty or moldy areasmoldy areas
  38. 38.    cy/article/000145.htmcy/article/000145.htm
  39. 39. Huffing And Puffing withHuffing And Puffing with AsthmaAsthma By: John HunterBy: John Hunter
  40. 40. Normal bronchiole/Normal bronchiole/ Asthmatic bronchioleAsthmatic bronchiole
  41. 41. What is asthma?What is asthma? Asthma is a chronic (long-term)Asthma is a chronic (long-term) disease that makes it hard todisease that makes it hard to breathe. Asthma can't be cured, butbreathe. Asthma can't be cured, but it can be managed. With properit can be managed. With proper treatment, people with asthma cantreatment, people with asthma can lead normal, active lives.lead normal, active lives.
  42. 42. How asthma worksHow asthma works If you have asthma, your airwaysIf you have asthma, your airways (breathing passages) are extra sensitive.(breathing passages) are extra sensitive. When you are around certain things, yourWhen you are around certain things, your extra-sensitive airways can:extra-sensitive airways can: Become red and swollenBecome red and swollen - your airways- your airways get inflamed inside. They fill up withget inflamed inside. They fill up with mucus. The swelling and mucus makemucus. The swelling and mucus make your airways narrower, so it's harder foryour airways narrower, so it's harder for the air to pass through.the air to pass through.
  43. 43. Cont.Cont. Become "twitchy" and go intoBecome "twitchy" and go into spasmspasm - the muscles around your- the muscles around your airways squeeze together andairways squeeze together and tighten. This makes your airwaystighten. This makes your airways narrower, leaving less room for thenarrower, leaving less room for the air to pass through.air to pass through. The more red and swollen yourThe more red and swollen your airways are, the more twitchy theyairways are, the more twitchy they become.become.
  44. 44. SymptomsSymptoms Hard breathing caused by irritantsHard breathing caused by irritants Asthma inducersAsthma inducers: If you breathe in: If you breathe in something you're allergic to- forsomething you're allergic to- for example, dust or pollen- or if youexample, dust or pollen- or if you have a viral infection- for example, ahave a viral infection- for example, a cold or the flu- your airways cancold or the flu- your airways can become inflamed (red and swollen).become inflamed (red and swollen).
  45. 45. Cont.Cont. Asthma triggersAsthma triggers: If you breathe in an: If you breathe in an asthma trigger like cold air or smoke, or ifasthma trigger like cold air or smoke, or if you exercise, the muscles around youryou exercise, the muscles around your airways can go into spasm and squeezeairways can go into spasm and squeeze together tightly. This leaves less room fortogether tightly. This leaves less room for air to pass through.air to pass through. It's important for every person withIt's important for every person with asthma to know what they triggers andasthma to know what they triggers and inducers are.inducers are.
  46. 46. Normal Swelled Asthma Tightened Asthma
  47. 47. CausesCauses Work-related asthma (occupationalWork-related asthma (occupational exposure)exposure): People who work in certain: People who work in certain types of jobs can get asthma from thingstypes of jobs can get asthma from things they work with. For example:they work with. For example: Laboratory workers can get asthma fromLaboratory workers can get asthma from lab animals: rats, mice, guinea-pigslab animals: rats, mice, guinea-pigs Spray painters can get asthma fromSpray painters can get asthma from isocyanatesisocyanates Grain handlers can get asthma from grainGrain handlers can get asthma from grain dustdust Crab processors can get asthma from crabCrab processors can get asthma from crab dustdust
  48. 48. TreatmentsTreatments InhalersInhalers These devices (sometimes called 'puffers')These devices (sometimes called 'puffers') contain a gas that will propel the correctcontain a gas that will propel the correct dose of medication when the top isdose of medication when the top is pressed down. This is inhaled into yourpressed down. This is inhaled into your airways. There are two basic categories ofairways. There are two basic categories of inhaler medicines that are used forinhaler medicines that are used for asthma:asthma: relievers - which treat your symptomsrelievers - which treat your symptoms preventers - which can prevent yourpreventers - which can prevent your symptomssymptoms
  49. 49. In case of an attackIn case of an attack take your reliever treatment immediately,take your reliever treatment immediately, preferably with a spacerpreferably with a spacer sit down (don't lie down) and try to relaxsit down (don't lie down) and try to relax wait 5-10 minutes - if your symptoms disappearwait 5-10 minutes - if your symptoms disappear you do not need to do anythingyou do not need to do anything if your symptoms do not go away, then youif your symptoms do not go away, then you should call a doctor or an ambulanceshould call a doctor or an ambulance continue taking your reliever, preferably with acontinue taking your reliever, preferably with a spacer, every few minutes until helps arrivesspacer, every few minutes until helps arrives If you go to hospital, take details of your asthmaIf you go to hospital, take details of your asthma treatments with you.treatments with you.
  50. 50. BibliographyBibliography
  51. 51.  airborne infection  caused by bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis  spreads person to person or through air  most are infected but do not develop the disease  form small black lesions in the lungs
  52. 52.  ongoing cough  constantly tired  loss of weight  loss of appetite  fever  night sweats  coughing up blood
  53. 53.  Racial/ethnic minorities  Foreigners  Hospital, prison, and nursing home workers  Homeless people  IV drug users  Alcoholics  Those with Diabetes, AIDS, or others with immunity problems
  54. 54.  has no symptoms  does not feel sick  cannot spread TB  Usually positive for skin test  has normal chest X-ray and sputum test  continuous bad cough  chest pain  coughing up blood or sputum  weakness or fatigue  loss of weight and appetite  chills, fever, night sweats  positive skin test  may have abnormal chest X- ray, or positive sputum smear or culture
  55. 55.   
  56. 56. Emphysema By Nishan Moghal
  57. 57. Background • chronic (long-lasting or recurrent) lung disease • usually caused by exposure to or inhalation of toxic chemicals and tobacco smoke • loss of elasticity of lung tissue
  58. 58. Background (cont.) • destruction of supporting structures of alveoli (sacs in the lungs that allow for gas exchange) • destruction of capillaries that allow blood flow to alveoli • collapse of smaller airways during expiration
  59. 59. Symptoms • shortness of breath (on exertion) • hyperventilation (arises in order to maintain proper oxygen levels in the body) • clubbing of the fingers (which is associated with many lung and heart diseases)
  60. 60. Process • toxins (such as smoke) inhaled • particles – trapped by hairs and cannot be exhaled • inflammatory response results -consists of enzymes such as elastase breaking down the alveolar walls
  61. 61. Process (cont.) • fewer but larger alveoli with smaller surface areas -leads to decreased ability of alveoli to take up oxygen and lose carbon dioxide • end result – irreversible and degenerative condition
  62. 62. Healthy Lung • elastic • clean • many alveoli with large surface areas • healthy capillaries • clear airways
  63. 63. Emphysema Lung • loss of elasticity • filled with toxins from tobacco smoke • fewer alveoli with smaller surface areas • destroyed capillaries • blocked airways
  64. 64. Prevention and Treatment • no smoking • avoiding other lung irritants • supplemental oxygen is taken by patient • lung transplant (very dangerous operation)
  65. 65. Sources • sema • ? q=lung&hl=en&btnG=Search+Ima ges • pic654.htm
  66. 66. Black Lung DiseaseBlack Lung Disease Sarah CanadaySarah Canaday
  67. 67. What is Black LungWhat is Black Lung Disease?Disease? • Name for disease isName for disease is PneumonoconiosisPneumonoconiosis • Caused by inhalation of coal dustCaused by inhalation of coal dust over many yearsover many years
  68. 68. What is Black Lung Disease?What is Black Lung Disease? (continued)(continued) • Typically affects workers over ageTypically affects workers over age 5050 • Number of black lung cases haveNumber of black lung cases have sharply fallen since the Federalsharply fallen since the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act ofCoal Mine Health and Safety Act of 19691969
  69. 69. What are the symptoms?What are the symptoms? • Once coal dust particles are in theOnce coal dust particles are in the lung, they can not be removed,lung, they can not be removed, causing build upcausing build up • Primary symptom is shortness ofPrimary symptom is shortness of breathbreath
  70. 70. What are the symptoms?What are the symptoms? (continued)(continued) • An enlargement and strain of theAn enlargement and strain of the right side of the heart which mayright side of the heart which may cause right-side heart failurecause right-side heart failure • Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicov-Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicov- olcanoconiosisolcanoconiosis • EmphysemaEmphysema
  71. 71. How can I prevent it?How can I prevent it? • The only way to prevent Black LungThe only way to prevent Black Lung Disease is to stay out of exposure toDisease is to stay out of exposure to coal dust.coal dust. • Since 1969, conditions in coal minesSince 1969, conditions in coal mines have become much safer, and now runhave become much safer, and now run low in the risk of Black Lung.low in the risk of Black Lung.
  72. 72. Can I reverse the effects?Can I reverse the effects? • Chest x-rays can show signs of blackChest x-rays can show signs of black lung before any symptoms are presentlung before any symptoms are present • No treatment or cure for this diseaseNo treatment or cure for this disease exists, although there are treatments forexists, although there are treatments for some complicationssome complications • Further exposure to coal dust must beFurther exposure to coal dust must be stoppedstopped
  73. 73. Healthy LungsHealthy Lungs • Pink in colorPink in color • Light weightLight weight
  74. 74. PneumonoconiosisPneumonoconiosis
  75. 75. Lung withLung with PneumonoconiosisPneumonoconiosis
  76. 76. Lungs with PneumonoconiosisLungs with Pneumonoconiosis (continued)(continued)
  77. 77. Sources CitedSources Cited • www.healthatoz/Atoz/ency/black_lung_diwww.healthatoz/Atoz/ency/black_lung_dis • • • http://www.courier-http://www.courier-
  78. 78. Lung Cancer Sakala Rutherford
  79. 79. So What Exactly is Lung Cancer?  Lung cancer- carcinoma of the lungs; one of the most common forms of cancer  aka an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs
  80. 80. Strictly Statistics  More than 87% of lung cancer cases are smoking related  13% of lung cancer is caused by things such as asbestos, and radon gas  More Americans in 2005 died from lung cancer than any colon/rectal, breast, and prostate cancer  Between 1960 and 1990, deaths from lung cancer in women increased more than 400%
  81. 81. More Statistics  Lung cancer kills more African Americans than any other cancer  Both African American men and women have a higher rate of getting lung cancer than any other ethnicity  After abstaining from smoking for at least 10 years you decrease your chance of developing lung cancer anywhere from 20 to 50%
  82. 82. Fun Facts  Today we can detect changes in the cells of the base lining of the lungs from normal to precancerous (dysplasia)  The addiction to nicotine can be compared to the addiction to heroine or even stronger  There is currently no way to screen and see if a person has lung cancer until late stages  There is a lot of discussion about whether or not marijuana causes lung cancer, its still undecided
  83. 83. Prevention  Not smoking  Daily exercise  Low fat high fiber diet  Moderate if any alcohol consumption
  84. 84. Non Small Cell Lung Cancer  Accounts for 80% of all cancer cases  - Squamos Cell Carcinoma– forms in bronchial tubes *more prevalent in men*  -Adenocarcinoma- forms in mucus glands *more prevalent in women and non-smoking individuals  Bronchioalveolar- forms near the lungs’ air sacs
  85. 85. More non-small cell lung cancer  Large-Cell Undifferentiated Carcinomas-near edges of lungs, spreads rapidly, and sometimes spreads by the time diagnosed
  86. 86. Small Cell Lung Cancer  20% of all lung cancers, multiply more rapidly than all other cancers and form large tumors that can spread throughout the body, smoking is almost always the cause of small cell cancer
  87. 87. Surgical Treatments  Segmental Resection (wedge resection)- removes only a small part of the lung that the tumor is isolated in  Lobectomy- the surgical removal of an entire lobe of the lung  Pneumonectomy- the surgical removal of an entire lung
  88. 88. Non-Surgical Treatments  Chemotherapy- drugs given through the mouth or injection to kill cancer  Radiation Therapy- the use of an x-ray to kill or shrink cancer cells  Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)- a special chemical that is injected into the body and absorbed by all cells  Clinical Trials- any type of new tests that may treat the disease
  89. 89. Graphs
  90. 90. Pictures  Counter clockwise:  cigarette, healthy lung, smokers lung, tumor in trachea, cancerous lung, cancerous lung
  91. 91. More Pictures Clock wise: cancer detected in x-ray, non- small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer diseased lung, small cell site healthy body
  92. 92. Bibliography    facts/lungfacts.php  
  94. 94. WHAT IS METASTASIS????
  95. 95. • / . . . / p a g e s / l u n g m e t s 2 . j p g 4 3 0 x 3 8 4 p i x e l s - 1 4 k  the spreading of a disease to another part of the body  the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
  96. 96. What Are The Signs And Symptoms
  97. 97.  Cough  Weight Loss  Confusion  Weakness  Shortness of breath  Jaundice
  99. 99. TREATMENTS Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy
  100. 100. How Does The Cancer Move in Metastasis????
  101. 101. spread to remote sites by being carried through either the lymph system, the bloodstream, or other fluids.
  102. 102. WEB SITES  q=metastasis+of+the+lungs&qsrc=1&o=0 q=question+mark&svnum=10&hl=een&lr=&safe=active&start=20&sa =N&ndsp=20
  103. 103. Blood is a really bright red liquid. It runs around your body, helping it to work properly. It also helps stop some nasty bugs
  104. 104.  Your brain like a big grey jelly. It’s all spongy.
  105. 105.  Your eyes help you to see everything.  They make these into something your brain can understand
  106. 106.  When you eat some food, it goes into your digestive system.  This is where your food is turned into something your body can use.
  107. 107.  Your lungs help you to breath.  Lungs help you to breathe in nice clean air and breathe out old air.