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  1. 1. 119 Chapter 4 - Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolic Disease, and Shock Richard N. Mitchell MD, PhD* • Chapter 4 - Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolic Disease, and Shock – Edema » Increased Hydrostatic Pressure. » Reduced Plasma Osmotic Pressure. » Lymphatic Obstruction. » Sodium and Water Retention. » Morphology. » Clinical Correlation. – Hyperemia and Congestion » Morphology. – Hemorrhage – Hemostasis and Thrombosis » NORMAL HEMOSTASIS • Endothelium • Antithrombotic Properties • Prothrombotic Properties • Platelets • Coagulation Cascade » THROMBOSIS • Pathogenesis. • Endothelial Injury. • Alterations in Normal Blood Flow. • Hypercoagulability. • Morphology. • Fate of the Thrombus. • Clinical Correlations. • Venous Thrombosis (Phlebothrombosis). • Arterial and Cardiac Thrombosis. » DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC) – Embolism » PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM » SYSTEMIC THROMBOEMBOLISM » FAT EMBOLISM » AIR EMBOLISM » AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM – Infarction • Morphology.
  2. 2. • Clinical Correlations: Factors That Influence Development of an Infarct. – Shock » PATHOGENESIS OF SEPTIC SHOCK • Stages of Shock. • Morphology. Clinical Course The health of cells and organs critically depends on an unbroken circulation to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove wastes. However, the well-being of tissues also requires normal fluid balance; abnormalities in vascular permeability or hemostasis can result in injury even in the setting of an intact blood supply. This chapter will describe major disturbances involving hemodynamics and the maintenance of blood flow, including edema, hemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism, infarction, and shock. Normal fluid homeostasis encompasses maintenance of vessel wall integrity as well as intravascular pressure and osmolarity within certain physiologic ranges. Changes in vascular volume, pressure, or protein content, or alterations in endothelial function, all affect the net movement of water across the vascular wall. Such water extravasation into the interstitial spaces is called edema and has different manifestations depending on its location. In the lower extremities, edema mainly causes swelling; in the lungs, edema causes water to fill alveoli, leading to difficulty in breathing. Normal fluid homeostasis also means maintaining blood as a liquid until such time as injury necessitates clot formation. Clotting at inappropriate sites (thrombosis) or migration of clots (embolism) obstructs blood flow to tissues and leads to cell death (infarction). Conversely, inability to clot after vascular injury results in hemorrhage; local bleeding can compromise regional tissue perfusion, while more extensive hemorrhage can result in hypotension (shock) and death. Some of the failures of fluid homeostasis reflect a primary pathology in a discrete vascular bed (e.g., hemorrhage due to local trauma) or in systemic coagulation (thrombosis due to hypercoagulability disorders); others may represent a *The contributions of the late Dr. Ramzi Cotran to this chapter in previous editions are gratefully acknowledged. 120 secondary manifestation of some other disease process. Thus, pulmonary edema due to increased hydrostatic pressure may be a terminal complication of ischemic or valvular heart disease. Similarly, shock may be the fatal sequela of infection. Overall, disturbances in normal blood flow are major sources of human morbidity and mortality; thrombosis, embolism, and infarction underlie three of the most important causes of pathology in Western society—myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Thus, the hemodynamic disorders described in this chapter are important in a wide spectrum of human disease.
  3. 3. Edema Approximately 60% of lean body weight is water; two thirds of this water is intracellular, and the remainder is found in the extracellular space, mostly as interstitial fluid (only about 5% of total body water is in blood plasma). The term edema signifies increased fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces. In addition, depending on the site, fluid collections in the different body cavities are variously designated hydrothorax, hydropericardium, and hydroperitoneum (the last is more commonly called ascites). Anasarca is a severe and generalized edema with profound subcutaneous tissue swelling. Table 4-1 lists the pathophysiologic categories of edema. The mechanisms of inflammatory edema are largely related to TABLE 4-1 -- Pathophysiologic Categories of Edema Increased Hydrostatic Pressure Impaired venous return Congestive heart failure   Constrictive pericarditis   Ascites (liver cirrhosis)   Venous obstruction or   compression Thrombosis     External pressure (e.g.,     mass) Lower extremity inactivity with     prolonged dependency Arteriolar dilation Heat   Neurohumoral dysregulation   Reduced Plasma Osmotic Pressure (Hypoproteinemia) Protein-losing glomerulopathies (nephrotic syndrome) Liver cirrhosis (ascites) Malnutrition Protein-losing gastroenteropathy Lymphatic Obstruction Inflammatory
  4. 4. Neoplastic Postsurgical Postirradiation Sodium Retention Excessive salt intake with renal insufficiency Increased tubular reabsorption of sodium Renal hypoperfusion Increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone secretion Inflammation Acute inflammation Chronic inflammation Angiogenesis Modified from Leaf A, Cotran RS: Renal Pathophysiology, 3rd ed., New York, Oxford University Press, 1985, p 146. Used by permission of Oxford Press, Inc. local increases in vascular permeability and are discussed in Chapter 2 . The noninflammatory causes of edema are described in further detail below. Because of increased vascular permeability, inflammatory edema is a protein-rich exudate, with a specific gravity usually over 1.020. Conversely, the edema fluid occurring in hydrodynamic derangements is typically a protein-poor transudate, with a specific gravity below 1.012. In general, the opposing effects of vascular hydrostatic pressure and plasma colloid osmotic pressure are the major factors that govern movement of fluid between vascular and interstitial spaces. Normally the exit of fluid into the interstitium from the arteriolar end of the microcirculation is nearly balanced by inflow at the venular end; a small residuum of excess interstitial fluid is drained by the lymphatics. Either increased capillary pressure or diminished colloid osmotic pressure can result in increased interstitial fluid ( Fig. 4-1 ). As extravascular fluid accumulates, the increased tissue hydrostatic pressure and plasma colloid osmotic pressure eventually achieve a new equilibrium, and water reenters the venules. Any excess interstitial edema fluid is typically removed by lymphatic drainage, ultimately returning to the bloodstream via the thoracic duct (see Fig. 4-1 ); clearly, lymphatic obstruction (e.g., due to scarring or tumor) will also impair fluid drainage and result in edema. Finally, a primary retention of sodium (and its obligatory associated water) in renal disease also leads to edema. Increased Hydrostatic Pressure.
  5. 5. Local increases in hydrostatic pressure may result from impaired venous outflow. For example, deep venous thrombosis in the lower extremities leads to edema, which is restricted to the affected leg. Generalized increases in venous pressure, with resulting systemic edema, occur most commonly in congestive heart failure ( Chapter 12 ) affecting right ventricular cardiac function. Figure 4-1 Factors affecting fluid balance across capillary walls. Capillary hydrostatic and osmotic forces are normally balanced so that there is no net loss or gain of fluid across the capillary bed. However, increased hydrostatic pressure or diminished plasma osmotic pressure leads to a net accumulation of extravascular fluid (edema). As the interstitial fluid pressure increases, tissue lymphatics remove much of the excess volume, eventually returning it to the circulation via the thoracic duct. If the ability of the lymphatics to drain tissue is exceeded, persistent tissue edema results. 121 Although increased venous hydrostatic pressure is important, the pathogenesis of cardiac edema is more complex ( Fig. 4-2 ). Congestive heart failure is associated with reduced cardiac output and, therefore, reduced renal perfusion. Renal hypoperfusion, in turn, triggers the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, inducing sodium and water retention by the kidneys (secondary aldosteronism). This process is putatively designed to increase intravascular volume and thereby improve cardiac output (via the Frank-Starling law) with restoration of normal renal perfusion. If the failing heart cannot increase cardiac output, however, the extra fluid load results only in increased venous pressure and eventually edema.[1] Unless cardiac output is restored or renal water retention is reduced (e.g., by salt restriction, diuretics, or aldosterone antagonists), a cycle of renal fluid retention and worsening edema ensues. Although discussed here in the context of edema
  6. 6. in congestive heart failure, salt restriction, diuretics, and aldosterone antagonists may also be used to manage generalized edema arising from a variety of other causes. Reduced Plasma Osmotic Pressure. Reduced plasma osmotic pressure can result from excessive loss or reduced synthesis of albumin, the serum protein most responsible for maintaining colloid osmotic pressure. An important cause of albumin loss is the nephrotic syndrome ( Chapter 20 ), characterized Figure 4-2 Sequence of events leading to systemic edema due to primary heart failure, primary renal failure, or reduced plasma osmotic pressure (as in malnutrition, diminished hepatic protein synthesis, or loss of protein owing to the nephrotic syndrome). ADH, antidiuretic hormone; GFR, glomerular filtration rate. by a leaky glomerular capillary wall and generalized edema. Reduced albumin synthesis occurs in the setting of diffuse liver pathology (e.g., cirrhosis, Chapter 18 ) or as a consequence of protein malnutrition ( Chapter 9 ). In each case, reduced plasma osmotic pressure leads to a net movement of fluid into the interstitial tissues and a resultant plasma volume contraction. Predictably, with reduced intravascular volume, renal hypoperfusion with secondary aldosteronism follows. The retained salt and water cannot correct the plasma volume deficit because the primary defect of low serum proteins
  7. 7. persists. As with congestive heart failure, edema precipitated by hypoproteinemia is exacerbated by secondary salt and fluid retention. Lymphatic Obstruction. Impaired lymphatic drainage and consequent lymphedema is usually localized; it can result from inflammatory or neoplastic obstruction. For example, the parasitic infection filariasis often causes massive lymphatic and lymph node fibrosis in the inguinal region. The resulting edema of the external genitalia and lower limbs is so extreme that it is called elephantiasis. Cancer of the breast may be treated by removal or irradiation (or both) of the breast and the associated axillary lymph nodes. The resection of the lymphatic channels as well as scarring related to the surgery and radiation can result in severe edema of the arm. In carcinoma of the breast, infiltration and obstruction of superficial lymphatics 122 can cause edema of the overlying skin, giving rise to the so-called peau d'orange (orange peel) appearance. Such a finely pitted appearance results from an accentuation of depressions in the skin at the site of hair follicles. Sodium and Water Retention. Sodium and water retention are clearly contributory factors in several forms of edema; however, salt retention may also be a primary cause of edema. Increased salt, with the obligate accompanying water, causes both increased hydrostatic pressure (owing to expansion of the intravascular fluid volume) and diminished vascular colloid osmotic pressure. Salt (and water) retention may occur with any acute reduction of renal function, including glomerulonephritis and acute renal failure ( Chapter 20 ). Morphology. Edema is most easily recognized grossly; microscopically, edema fluid generally manifests only as subtle cell swelling, with clearing and separation of the extracellular matrix elements. Although any organ or tissue in the body may be involved, edema is most commonly encountered in subcutaneous tissues, the lungs, and the brain. Severe, generalized edema is called anasarca. Subcutaneous edema may have different distributions depending on the cause. It can be diffuse, or it may be relatively more conspicuous at the sites of highest hydrostatic pressures. In the latter case, the edema distribution is typically influenced by gravity and is termed dependent. Edema of the dependent parts of the body (e.g., the legs when standing, the sacrum when recumbent) is a prominent feature of congestive heart failure, particularly of the right ventricle. Edema as a result of renal dysfunction or nephrotic syndrome is generally more severe than cardiac edema and affects all parts of the body equally. It may, however, initially manifest itself in tissues with a loose connective tissue matrix, such as the eyelids; thus, periorbital edema is a characteristic
  8. 8. finding in severe renal disease. Finger pressure over substantially edematous subcutaneous tissue displaces the interstitial fluid and leaves a finger-shaped depression, so-called pitting edema. Pulmonary edema is a common clinical problem ( Chapter 15 ) most typically seen in the setting of left ventricular failure but also occurring in renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome ( Chapter 15 ), pulmonary infections, and hypersensitivity reactions. The lungs are two to three times their normal weight, and sectioning reveals frothy, blood-tinged fluid representing a mixture of air, edema fluid, and extravasated red blood cells. Edema of the brain may be localized (e.g., owing to abscess or neoplasm) or may be generalized, as in encephalitis, hypertensive crises, or obstruction to the brain's venous outflow. Trauma may result in local or generalized edema depending on the nature and extent of the injury. With generalized edema, the brain is grossly swollen, with narrowed sulci and distended gyri, showing signs of flattening against the unyielding skull ( Chapter 28 ). Clinical Correlation. Effects of edema may range from merely annoying to fatal. Subcutaneous tissue edema in cardiac or renal failure is important primarily because it signals underlying disease; however, when significant, it can also impair wound healing or the clearance of infection. Pulmonary edema can cause death by interfering with normal ventilatory function. Not only does fluid collect in the alveolar septa around capillaries and impede oxygen diffusion, but edema fluid in the alveolar spaces also creates a favorable environment for bacterial infection. Brain edema is serious and can be rapidly fatal; if severe, brain substance can herniate (extrude) through, for example, the foramen magnum, or the brain stem vascular supply can be compressed. Either condition can injure the medullary centers and cause death ( Chapter 28 ). Hyperemia and Congestion The terms hyperemia and congestion both indicate a local increased volume of blood in a particular tissue. Hyperemia is an active process resulting from augmented tissue inflow because of arteriolar dilation, as in skeletal muscle during exercise or at sites of inflammation. The affected tissue is redder because of the engorgement of vessels with oxygenated blood. Congestion is a passive process resulting from impaired outflow from a tissue. It may occur systemically, as in cardiac failure, or it may be local, resulting from an isolated venous obstruction. The tissue has a blue-red color (cyanosis), particularly as worsening congestion leads to accumulation of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the affected tissues ( Fig. 4-3 ). Congestion and edema commonly occur together, primarily since capillary bed congestion can result in edema due to increased fluid transudation. In long-standing congestion, called chronic passive congestion, the stasis of poorly oxygenated blood also causes chronic hypoxia, which can result in parenchymal cell degeneration or death,
  9. 9. sometimes with microscopic scarring. Capillary rupture at these sites of chronic congestion may also cause small foci of hemorrhage; breakdown and phagocytosis of the red cell debris can eventually result in small clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Morphology. The cut surfaces of hyperemic or congested tissues are hemorrhagic and wet. Microscopically, acute pulmonary congestion is characterized by alveolar capillaries engorged with blood; there may be associated alveolar septal edema and/or focal intraalveolar hemorrhage. In chronic pulmonary congestion, the septa are thickened and fibrotic, and the alveolar spaces may contain numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages (heart failure cells). In acute hepatic congestion, the central vein and sinusoids are distended with blood, and there may even be central hepatocyte degeneration; the periportal hepatocytes, better oxygenated because of their proximity to hepatic arterioles, experience less severe hypoxia and may only develop fatty change. In chronic passive congestion of the liver, the central regions of the hepatic lobules are grossly red-brown and slightly depressed (owing to a loss of cells) and are accentuated against the surrounding zones of uncongested tan liver (nutmeg liver) ( Fig. 4-4A ). Microscopically, there is evidence of centrilobular necrosis with loss of hepatocytes dropout and hemorrhage, including hemosiderin-laden macrophages ( Fig. 4-4B ). In severe, long-standing hepatic congestion (most commonly associated with heart failure), there may even be grossly evident hepatic fibrosis (cardiac cirrhosis). 123
  10. 10. Figure 4-3 Hyperemia versus congestion. In both cases there is an increased volume and pressure of blood in a given tissue with associated capillary dilation and a potential for fluid extravasation. In hyperemia, increased inflow leads to engorgement with oxygenated blood, resulting in erythema. In congestion, diminished outflow leads to a capillary bed swollen with deoxygenated venous blood and resulting in cyanosis. Because the central portion of the hepatic lobule is the last to receive blood, centrilobular necrosis can also occur whenever there is reduced hepatic blood flow (including shock from any cause); there need not be previous hepatic congestion.
  11. 11. Figure 4-4 Liver with chronic passive congestion and hemorrhagic necrosis. A, Central areas are red and slightly depressed compared with the surrounding tan viable parenchyma, forming the so-called "nutmeg liver" pattern. B, Centrilobular necrosis with degenerating hepatocytes, hemorrhage, and sparse acute inflammation. (Courtesy of Dr. James Crawford, Department of Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.) Hemorrhage Hemorrhage generally indicates extravasation of blood due to vessel rupture. As described previously, capillary bleeding can occur under conditions of chronic congestion, and an increased tendency to hemorrhage from usually insignificant injury is seen in a wide variety of clinical disorders collectively called hemorrhagic diatheses ( Chapter 13 ). However, rupture of a large artery or vein is almost always due to vascular injury, including trauma, atherosclerosis, or inflammatory or neoplastic erosion of the vessel wall. Hemorrhage may be manifested in a variety of patterns, depending on the size, extent, and location of bleeding. • Hemorrhage may be external or may be enclosed within a tissue; accumulation of blood within tissue is referred to as a hematoma. Hematomas may be relatively insignificant (a bruise) or may be sufficiently large as to be fatal (e.g., a massive retroperitoneal hematoma resulting from rupture of a dissecting aortic aneurysm; Chapter 11 ). • Minute 1- to 2-mm hemorrhages into skin, mucous membranes, or serosal surfaces are denoted as petechiae ( Fig. 4-5A ) and are typically associated with locally increased intravascular pressure, low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia), defective platelet function (as in uremia), or clotting factor deficits. • Slightly larger (≥3 mm) hemorrhages are called purpura. These may be associated with many of the same disorders that cause petechiae and may also occur secondary to trauma, vascular inflammation (vasculitis), or increased vascular fragility (e.g., in amyloidosis). • Larger (>1 to 2 cm) subcutaneous hematomas (i.e., bruises) are called ecchymoses and are characteristically seen after trauma but may be exacerbated by any of the aforementioned conditions. The erythrocytes in these local hemorrhages are degraded and phagocytosed by macrophages; the hemoglobin
  12. 12. (red-blue color) is then enzymatically converted into bilirubin (blue-green color) and eventually into hemosiderin (gold-brown color), accounting for the characteristic color changes in a hematoma. • Large accumulations of blood in one or another of the body cavities are called hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemoperitoneum, or hemarthrosis (in joints). Patients with 124 extensive hemorrhage occasionally develop jaundice from the massive breakdown of red cells and systemic release of bilirubin. Figure 4-5 A, Punctate petechial hemorrhages of the colonic mucosa, seen here as a consequence of thrombocytopenia. B, Fatal intracerebral bleed. Even relatively inconsequential volumes of hemorrhage in a critical location, or into a closed space (such as the cranium), can have fatal outcomes. The clinical significance of hemorrhage depends on the volume and rate of bleeding. Rapid loss of up to 20% of the blood volume or slow losses of even larger amounts may have little impact in healthy adults; greater losses, however, may result in hemorrhagic (hypovolemic) shock (discussed later). The site of hemorrhage is also important; bleeding that would be trivial in the subcutaneous tissues may cause death if located in the brain ( Fig. 4-5B ) because the skull is unyielding and bleeding there can result in increased intracranial pressure and herniation ( Chapter 28 ). Finally, loss of iron and subsequent iron-deficiency anemia become a consideration in chronic or recurrent external blood loss (e.g., peptic ulcer or menstrual bleeding). In contrast, when red cells are retained, as in hemorrhage into body cavities or tissues, the iron can be reused for hemoglobin synthesis. Hemostasis and Thrombosis Normal hemostasis is the result of a set of well-regulated processes that accomplish two important functions: (1) They maintain blood in a fluid, clot-free state in normal vessels; and (2) They are poised to induce a rapid and localized hemostatic plug at a site of vascular injury. The pathologic opposite to hemostasis is thrombosis; it can be considered
  13. 13. an inappropriate activation of normal hemostatic processes, such as the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in uninjured vasculature or thrombotic occlusion of a vessel after relatively minor injury. Both hemostasis and thrombosis are regulated by three general components—the vascular wall, platelets, and the coagulation cascade. The following discussion begins with normal hemostasis and concludes with a description of the components that regulate normal coagulation processes. NORMAL HEMOSTASIS The general sequence of events in hemostasis at the site of vascular injury is shown in Figure 4-6 . [2] [3] • After initial injury, there is a brief period of arteriolar vasoconstriction, largely attributable to reflex neurogenic mechanisms and augmented by the local secretion of factors such as endothelin (a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor). The effect is transient, however, and bleeding would resume if not for activation of the platelet and coagulation systems (see Fig. 4-6A ). • Endothelial injury exposes highly thrombogenic subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM), which allows platelets to adhere and become activated, that is, undergo a shape change and release secretory granules. Within minutes, the secreted products have recruited additional platelets (aggregation) to form a hemostatic plug; this is the process of primary hemostasis (see Fig. 4-6B ). • Tissue factor, a membrane-bound procoagulant factor synthesized by endothelium, is also exposed at the site of injury. It acts in conjunction with the secreted platelet factors to activate the coagulation cascade, culminating in the activation of thrombin. In turn, thrombin converts circulating soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin, resulting in local fibrin deposition. Thrombin also induces further platelet recruitment and granule release. This sequence, secondary hemostasis, takes longer than the initial platelet plug (see Fig. 4-6C ). • Polymerized fibrin and platelet aggregates form a solid, permanent plug to prevent any further hemorrhage. At this stage, counterregulatory mechanisms (e.g., tissue plasminogen activator {t-PA}) are set into motion to limit the hemostatic plug to the site of injury (see Fig. 4-6D ). The following sections discuss the roles of endothelium, platelets, and the coagulation cascade in greater detail. Endothelium Endothelial cells modulate several—and frequently opposing—aspects of normal hemostasis. On the one hand, the normal flow of liquid blood is maintained by endothelial antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic properties. On the other hand, after injury or activation, endothelium exhibits several procoagulant activities ( Fig. 4-7 ). Endothelium may be activated by infectious agents, hemodynamic factors, plasma 125
  14. 14. Figure 4-6 Diagrammatic representation of the normal hemostatic process. A, After vascular injury, local neurohumoral factors induce a transient vasoconstriction. B, Platelets adhere to exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) via von Willebrand factor (vWF) and are activated, undergoing a shape change and granule release; released adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2 ) lead to further platelet aggregation to form the primary hemostatic plug. C, Local activation of the coagulation cascade (involving tissue factor and platelet phospholipids) results in fibrin polymerization, "cementing" the platelets into a definitive secondary hemostatic plug. D, Counter-regulatory mechanisms, such as release of tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) (fibrinolytic) and thrombomodulin (interfering with the coagulation cascade), limit the hemostatic process to the site of injury. mediators, and, most significantly, cytokines ( Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 ). The balance between endothelial antithrombotic and prothrombotic activities critically determines whether thrombus formation, propagation, or dissolution occurs.[4] [5] [6] Antithrombotic Properties Under most circumstances, endothelial cells maintain an environment conducive to liquid blood flow by mechanisms that block platelet adhesion and aggregation, interfere with the coagulation cascade, and actively lyse blood clots. • Antiplatelet effects.[5] An intact endothelium prevents platelets and plasma coagulation factors from meeting the highly thrombogenic subendothelial ECM. Nonactivated platelets do not adhere to the endothelium, a property intrinsic to endothelial plasma membrane. Moreover, even if platelets are activated after focal endothelial injury, they are inhibited from adhering to the surrounding uninjured endothelium by endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2 ) and nitric oxide ( Chapter 2 ). Both mediators are potent vasodilators and inhibitors of platelet aggregation; their synthesis by endothelial cells is stimulated by a number of factors (e.g., thrombin and various cytokines) produced during coagulation. Endothelial cells also express adenosine diphosphatase, which degrades ADP and thereby contributes to the inhibition of platelet aggregation (see below). • Anticoagulant effects. These effects are mediated by membrane-associated heparin-like molecules and by thrombomodulin, a specific thrombin receptor (see Fig. 4-7 ). The heparin-like molecules act indirectly; they are cofactors that interact with antithrombin III to inactivate thrombin, factor Xa, and several other coagulation factors (see below). Thrombomodulin also acts indirectly; it binds to thrombin, converting it from a procoagulant to an anticoagulant capable of activating protein C. Activated protein C, in turn, inhibits clotting by proteolytic cleavage of factors Va and VIIIa; it requires protein S, synthesized by endothelial cells, as a cofactor.[7] Endothelium is also a major synthetic source for tissue factor pathway inhibitor, a cell-surface protein that complexes and inhibits activated tissue factor-factor VIIa and factor Xa molecules.[8] • Fibrinolytic effects. Endothelial cells synthesize tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), promoting fibrinolytic activity to clear fibrin deposits from endothelial surfaces (see Fig. 4-6D ). [9] 126
  15. 15. Figure 4-7 Schematic illustration of some of the pro- and anticoagulant activities of endothelial cells. Not shown are the pro- and antifibrinolytic properties. vWF, von Willebrand factor; PGI2 , prostacyclin; NO, nitric oxide; t-PA, tissue plasminogen activator. Thrombin receptor is referred to as protease activated receptor (PAR; see text). Prothrombotic Properties While endothelium normally limits blood clotting, it can also become prothrombotic, with activities that affect platelets, coagulation proteins, and the fibrinolytic system. • Platelet effects. Recall that endothelial injury leads to adhesion of platelets to the underlying extracellular matrix; this is facilitated by endothelial production of von Willebrand factor (vWF), an essential cofactor for platelet binding to collagen and other surfaces.[10] It should be noted that vWF is a product of normal endothelium; it is not specifically synthesized after endothelial injury. • Procoagulant effects. Endothelial cells are also induced by bacterial endotoxin or by cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor [TNF] or interleukin-1 [IL-1]) to synthesize tissue factor, which, as we will see, activates the extrinsic clotting cascade.[11] By binding activated factors IXa and Xa, endothelial cells further augment the catalytic activities of these coagulation factors (see below). • Antifibrinolytic effects. Endothelial cells also secrete inhibitors of plasminogen activator (PAIs), which depress fibrinolysis (not shown in Fig. 4-7 ). [12] In summary, intact endothelial cells serve primarily to inhibit platelet adherence and blood clotting. Injury or activation of endothelial cells, however, results in a procoagulant phenotype that augments local clot formation. Platelets
  16. 16. Platelets play a central role in normal hemostasis.[13] When circulating, they are membrane-bound smooth discs expressing a number of glycoprotein receptors of the integrin family on their surfaces. Platelets contain two specific types of granules. Alpha granules express the adhesion molecule P-selectin on their membranes ( Chapter 2 ) and contain fibrinogen, fibronectin, factors V and VIII, platelet factor 4 (a heparin-binding chemokine), platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β. The other granules are dense bodies, or δ granules, which contain adenine nucleotides (ADP and adenosine triphosphate [ATP]), ionized calcium, histamine, serotonin, and epinephrine. After vascular injury, platelets encounter ECM constituents that are normally sequestered beneath an intact endothelium; these include collagen (most important), proteoglycans, fibronectin, and other adhesive glycoproteins. On contact with ECM, platelets undergo three general reactions: (1) adhesion and shape change; (2) secretion (release reaction); and (3) aggregation (see Fig. 4-6B ). • Platelet adhesion to extracellular matrix is mediated largely via interactions with vWF, which acts as a bridge between platelet surface receptors (e.g., glycoprotein Ib, complexed with serum factors V and IX) and exposed collagen ( Fig. 4-8 ). Although platelets can also adhere to other components of the ECM (e.g., fibronectin), vWF-glycoprotein Ib associations are the only interactions sufficiently strong to overcome the high shear forces of flowing blood. Thus, genetic deficiencies of vWF (von Willebrand disease; Chapter 13 ) or of its glycoprotein Ib (GpIb) receptor (Bernard-Soulier syndrome) result in defective platelet adhesion and bleeding disorders. • Secretion (release reaction) of the contents of both granule types occurs soon after adhesion. The process is initiated 127 by the binding of agonists to platelet surface receptors followed by an intracellular protein phosphorylation cascade. The release of the dense body contents is especially important because calcium is required in the coagulation cascade, and ADP is a potent mediator of platelet aggregation (platelets adhering to other platelets; see below). ADP also augments further ADP release from other platelets. Finally, platelet activation leads to the surface expression of phospholipid complexes, which provide critical nucleation and binding sites for calcium and coagulation factors in the intrinsic clotting pathway [14] (see below). • Platelet aggregation follows adhesion and secretion. Besides ADP, the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A2 (TxA2 ) ( Chapter 2 ), secreted by platelets, is also an important stimulus for platelet aggregation. ADP and TxA2 set up an autocatalytic reaction leading to build-up of an enlarging platelet aggregate, the primary hemostatic plug. This primary aggregation is reversible, but with activation of the coagulation cascade, thrombin is generated. Thrombin binds to a platelet surface receptor (PARs, see later) and, along with ADP and TxA2 , causes further aggregation. This is followed by platelet contraction, creating an irreversibly fused mass of platelets (viscous metamorphosis) constituting the definitive secondary hemostatic plug. At the same time, thrombin converts
  17. 17. fibrinogen to fibrin within and about the platelet plug, essentially cementing the platelets in place (see below). Thrombin is thus central in the formation of thrombi ( Fig. 4-6C ) and, as such, is a major target for therapeutic modulation of the thrombotic process.[15] Figure 4-8 Platelet adhesion and aggregation. von Willebrand factor functions as an adhesion bridge between subendothelial collagen and the GpIb platelet receptor complex (the functional complex is composed of GpIb in association with factors V and IX). Aggregation involves linking platelets via fibrinogen bridges bound to the platelet GpIIb-IIIa receptors. Noncleaved fibrinogen is also an important cofactor in platelet aggregation. ADP activation of platelets induces a conformational change of the platelet surface GpIIb-IIIa receptors so that they can bind fibrinogen. Fibrinogen then acts to connect multiple platelets together to form large aggregates (see Fig. 4-8 ). The importance of these interactions is demonstrated by the bleeding disorder seen in patients with congenitally deficient or inactive GpIIb-IIIa (Glanzmann thrombasthenia).[16] Recent therapeutic advances have also taken advantage of this interaction; small molecular weight GpIIb- IIIa inhibitors are being increasingly employed as potent anticoagulants and to prevent thrombosis following vascular procedures (e.g., angioplasty).[17] It is worth reiterating that the endothelium-derived PGI2 is a potent vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation, whereas the platelet-derived TxA2 is a potent vasoconstrictor and activates platelet aggregation (see also Chapter 2 ). The interplay of PGI2 and TxA2 constitutes an exquisitely balanced mechanism for modulating human platelet function:
  18. 18. In the normal state, it prevents intravascular platelet aggregation, but after endothelial injury, it favors the formation of hemostatic plugs. The clinical utility of aspirin in patients at risk for coronary thrombosis—aspirin irreversibly acetylates and inactivates cyclooxygenase—is largely due to its ability to block TxA2 synthesis. Nitric oxide, similar to PGI2 , also acts as a vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation (see Fig. 4- 7 ). Both erythrocytes and leukocytes are also found in hemostatic plugs; leukocytes adhere to platelets via the adhesion molecule P-selectin and to endothelium using a number of adhesion receptors ( Chapter 2 ); they contribute to the inflammatory response that accompanies thrombosis. Thrombin also directly stimulates neutrophil and monocyte adhesion and generates chemotactic fibrin split products from the cleavage of fibrinogen. The series of platelet events can be summarized as follows (see Fig. 4-6 ): • Platelets adhere to ECM at sites of endothelial injury and become activated. • On activation, they secrete granule products (e.g., ADP) and synthesize TxA2 . • Platelets also expose phospholipid complexes that are important in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. • Injured or activated endothelial cells expose tissue factor, which triggers the extrinsic coagulation cascade. • Released ADP stimulates the formation of a primary hemostatic plug, which is eventually converted (via ADP, thrombin, and TxA2 ) into a larger, definitive, secondary plug. • Fibrin deposition stabilizes and anchors the aggregated platelets. Coagulation Cascade The coagulation cascade constitutes the third component of the hemostatic process and is a major contributor to thrombosis. The pathways are schematically presented in Figure 4- 9 ; only general principles are discussed.[2] [3] [18] The coagulation cascade is essentially a series of enzymatic conversions, turning inactive proenzymes into activated enzymes and culminating in the formation of thrombin. Thrombin then converts the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen precursor into the insoluble fibrous protein fibrin. Each reaction in the pathway results from the assembly of a complex composed of an enzyme (activated coagulation factor), a substrate (proenzyme form of coagulation factor), 128
  19. 19. Figure 4-9 The coagulation cascade. Note the common link between the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways at the level of factor IX activation. Factors in red boxes represent inactive molecules; activated factors are indicated with a lower case "a" and a green box. PL, phospholipid surface; HMWK, high-molecular-weight kininogen. Not shown are the anticoagulant inhibitory pathways (see Fig. 4-7 and Fig. 4-12 ).
  20. 20. and a cofactor (reaction accelerator). These components are typically assembled on a phospholipid complex and held together by calcium ions. Thus, clotting tends to remain localized to sites where such assembly can occur (e.g., on the surface of activated platelets or endothelium).[3] Two such reactions, the sequential conversion of factor X to Xa and then II (prothrombin) to IIa (thrombin), are illustrated in Figure 4-10 . Traditionally, the blood coagulation scheme has been divided into extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, converging where factor X is activated (see Fig. 4-9 ). The intrinsic pathway may be initiated in vitro by the activation of Hageman factor (factor XII), while the extrinsic pathway is activated by tissue factor, a cellular lipoprotein exposed at sites of tissue injury.[8] [19] However, such a division is mainly an artifact of in vitro testing; there are, in fact, interconnections between the two pathways. For example, a tissue factor- factor VIIa complex also activates factor IX in the intrinsic pathway (see Fig. 4-9 ). In addition to catalyzing the final steps in the coagulation cascade, thrombin also exerts a wide variety of effects on the local vasculature and inflammation; it even actively participates in limiting the extent of the hemostatic process ( Fig. 4-11 ). Most of these effects are induced via binding to a family of protease-activated receptors (PARs) that belong to the seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor family[20] (see Fig. 4-7 ). The mechanism of receptor activation involves clipping the extracellular end of the thrombin receptor via the proteolytic activity of thrombin. This generates a tethered peptide, which then binds to the rest of the receptor and 129
  21. 21. Figure 4-10 Schematic illustration of the conversion of factor X to factor Xa, which in turn converts factor II (prothrombin) to factor IIa (thrombin). The initial reaction complex consists of an enzyme (factor IXa), a substrate (factor X), and a reaction accelerator (factor VIIIa), which are assembled on the phospholipid surface of platelets. Calcium ions hold the assembled components together and are essential for reaction. Activated factor Xa then becomes the enzyme part of the second adjacent complex in the coagulation cascade, converting the prothrombin substrate (II) to thrombin (IIa), with the cooperation of the reaction accelerator factor Va. (Modified from Mann KG: Clin Lab Med 4:217, 1984.) causes the conformational changes necessary to activate the associated G-protein. Thus, the interaction of thrombin and its receptor is essentially a catalytic process, which explains the impressive potency of even relatively small numbers of activated thrombin molecules in eliciting downstream effects. Figure 4-11 The central roles of thrombin in hemostasis and cellular activation. In addition to a critical function in generating cross-linked fibrin (via cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin and activation of factor XIII), thrombin also directly induces platelet aggregation and secretion (e.g., of TxA2 ). Thrombin also activates
  22. 22. endothelium to generate leukocyte adhesion molecules and a variety of fibrinolytic (t-PA), vasoactive (NO, PGI2 ), or cytokine (PDGF) mediators. Likewise, mononuclear inflammatory cells may be activated by the direct actions of thrombin. ECM, extracellular matrix; NO, nitric oxide; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; PGI2 , prostacyclin; TxA2 , thromboxane A2 ; t-PA, tissue type plasminogen activator. See Fig. 4-7 for additional anticoagulant modulators of thrombin activity, such as antithrombin III and thrombomodulin. (Modified with permission from Shaun Coughlin, MD, PhD, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco.) Once activated, the coagulation cascade must be restricted to the local site of vascular injury to prevent clotting of the entire vascular tree. Besides restricting factor activation to sites of exposed phospholipids, clotting is also regulated by three types of natural anticoagulants: 130 • Antithrombins (e.g., antithrombin III) inhibit the activity of thrombin and other serine proteases—factors IXa, Xa, XIa, and XIIa. Antithrombin III is activated by binding to heparin-like molecules on endothelial cells; hence the clinical usefulness of administering heparin to minimize thrombosis (see Fig. 4-7 ). • Proteins C and S, two vitamin K-dependent proteins, are characterized by their ability to inactivate factors Va and VIIIa. The activation of protein C by thrombomodulin was described earlier (see Fig. 4-7 ). • Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a protein secreted by endothelium (and other cell types), complexes to factor Xa and to tissue factor-VIIa and inactivates them to rapidly limit coagulation[21] (see Fig. 4-7 ). Besides inducing coagulation, activation of the clotting cascade also sets into motion a fibrinolytic cascade that limits the size of the final clot. This is primarily accomplished by the generation of plasmin. Plasmin is derived from enzymatic breakdown of its inactive circulating precursor plasminogen, either by a factor XII-dependent pathway (see Chapter 2 ) or by two distinct types of plasminogen activators (PAs; Fig. 4-12 ). The first is the urokinase-like PA (u-PA), present in plasma and various tissues and capable of activating plasminogen in the fluid phase. Plasmin, in turn, converts the inactive pro- urokinase precursor to the active u-PA molecule, thus creating an amplification loop. The second, and physiologically the most important, kind of PA is the tissue-type PA; t-PA is synthesized principally by endothelial cells and is most active when attached to fibrin. The affinity for fibrin makes t-PA a much more useful therapeutic reagent, because it targets the fibrinolytic enzymatic activity to sites of recent clotting. [9] Plasminogen can also be activated by the bacterial product streptokinase, which may have some significance in certain bacterial infections. Plasmin breaks down fibrin and interferes with its polymerization ( Fig. 4-12 ). The resulting fibrin split products (FSPs or so-called fibrin degradation products) can also act as weak anticoagulants. Elevated levels of FSPs (the fibrin split product characteristically measured by clinical laboratories is the fibrin D-dimer) are helpful in diagnosing abnormal thrombotic states, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), deep venous thrombosis, or pulmonary
  23. 23. Figure 4-12 The fibrinolytic system, illustrating the plasminogen activators and inhibitors. thromboembolism (described in detail later). Any free plasmin rapidly complexes to α2 -plasmin inhibitor and is inactivated. Endothelial cells further modulate the coagulation/anticoagulation balance by releasing plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAIs); these block fibrinolysis by inhibiting t-PA binding to fibrin and confer an overall procoagulant effect (see Fig. 4-12 ). The PAIs are increased by thrombin as well as certain cytokines and probably play a role in the intravascular thrombosis accompanying severe inflammation.[12] THROMBOSIS Having discussed the components of normal hemostasis, we now turn our attention to the dysregulation that underlies pathologic thrombus formation. Pathogenesis. Three primary influences predispose to thrombus formation, the so-called Virchow triad: (1) endothelial injury; (2) stasis or turbulence of blood flow; and (3) blood hypercoagulability ( Fig. 4-13 ). Endothelial Injury. This is the dominant influence; endothelial injury by itself can lead to thrombosis. It is particularly important for thrombus formation occurring in the heart or in the arterial circulation, where the normally high flow rates might otherwise hamper clotting by preventing platelet adhesion or diluting coagulation factors. Thus, thrombus formation within the cardiac chambers (e.g., following endocardial injury due to myocardial infarction), over ulcerated plaques in atherosclerotic arteries, or at sites of traumatic or inflammatory vascular injury (vasculitis) is largely due to endothelial injury. Clearly, physical loss of endothelium will lead to exposure of subendothelial ECM, adhesion of platelets, release of tissue factor, and local depletion of PGI2 and PAs. However, it is important to note that endothelium need not be denuded or physically disrupted to
  24. 24. contribute to the development of thrombosis; any perturbation in the dynamic balance of the pro- and antithrombotic effects of endothelium can influence local clotting events (see Fig. 4-7 ). Thus, dysfunctional endothelium may elaborate greater amounts of procoagulant factors (e.g., platelet adhesion molecules, tissue factor, PAI) or may synthesize less anticoagulant effectors (e.g., thrombomodulin, PGI2 , t-PA). Significant endothelial dysfunction (in 131 Figure 4-13 Virchow triad in thrombosis. Endothelial integrity is the single most important factor. Note that injury to endothelial cells can affect local blood flow and/or coagulability; abnormal blood flow (stasis or turbulence) can, in turn, cause endothelial injury. The elements of the triad may act independently or may combine to cause thrombus formation. the absence of endothelial cell loss) may occur due to the hemodynamic stresses of hypertension, turbulent flow over scarred valves, or bacterial endotoxins. Even relatively subtle influences, such as homocystinuria, hypercholesterolemia, radiation, or products absorbed from cigarette smoke may initiate endothelial injury. Alterations in Normal Blood Flow. Turbulence contributes to arterial and cardiac thrombosis by causing endothelial injury or dysfunction as well as by forming countercurrents and local pockets of stasis; stasis is a major factor in the development of venous thrombi.[5] [22] Normal blood flow is laminar such that the platelets flow centrally in the vessel lumen, separated from the endothelium by a slower-moving clear zone of plasma. Stasis and turbulence therefore (1) disrupt laminar flow and bring platelets into contact with the endothelium; (2) prevent dilution of activated clotting factors by fresh flowing blood; (3) retard the inflow of clotting factor inhibitors and permit the build-up of thrombi; and (4) promote endothelial cell activation,
  25. 25. predisposing to local thrombosis, leukocyte adhesion, and a variety of other endothelial cell effects.[23] Turbulence and stasis clearly contribute to thrombosis in a number of clinical settings. Ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques not only expose subendothelial ECM, but are also sources of turbulence. Abnormal aortic and arterial dilations called aneurysms cause local stasis and are favored sites of thrombosis ( Chapter 12 ). Myocardial infarctions not only have associated endothelial injury, but also have regions of noncontractile myocardium, adding an element of stasis in the formation of mural thrombi. Mitral valve stenosis (e.g., after rheumatic heart disease) results in left atrial dilation. In conjunction with atrial fibrillation, a dilated atrium is a site of profound stasis and a prime location for thrombus development. Hyperviscosity syndromes (such as polycythemia; Chapter 13 ) cause small vessel stasis; the deformed red cells in sickle cell anemia ( Chapter 13 ) cause vascular occlusions, with the resulting stasis predisposing to thrombosis. Hypercoagulability. Hypercoagulability contributes less frequently to thrombotic states but is nevertheless an important component in the equation. It is loosely defined as any alteration of the coagulation pathways that predisposes to thrombosis. The causes of hypercoagulability may be primary (genetic) and secondary (acquired) disorders ( Table 4-2 ).[24] [25] Of the inherited causes of hypercoagulability, mutations in the factor V gene and prothrombin gene are the most common. Approximately 2% to 15% of Caucasians carry a specific factor V mutation (called the Leiden mutation, after the city in the Netherlands where it was discovered), substituting a glutamine for the normal arginine residue at position 506 and rendering the protein resistant to cleavage by protein C. Such resistance to protein C-mediated inactivation of factor Va promotes unchecked coagulation (see Fig. 4-7 ). Among patients with recurrent deep venous thrombosis, the carrier frequency is considerably higher, approaching 60% in some series. A single nucleotide change (G to A transition) in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is a fairly common allele (1% to 2% of the population) that is associated with elevated prothrombin levels and an almost threefold increased risk of venous thromboses.[27] [28] Elevated levels of homocysteine contribute to arterial and venous thrombosis and indeed to the development of atherosclerosis, as is discussed in Chapter 11 . This effect is most likely due to inhibition of antithrombin III and endothelial thrombomodulin.[26] Hyperhomocystenemia may be inherited or acquired. Homozygosity for the C677T mutation in the methyltetrahydrofolate reductase gene causes mild homocystenemia in 5% to 15% of white and East Asian populations, thus matching the frequency of factor V Leiden. However, the relationship between the C677T mutation and thrombosis is less well established.[24] In addition to these well characterized point mutations, polymorphisms in coagulant factor genes also appear to impart an increased risk of venous thrombosis.[29] Other, less common, primary hypercoagulable states include inherited deficiencies of anticoagulants such as antithrombin III, protein C, or protein S; affected individuals typically present with venous thrombosis and recurrent thromboembolism in adolescence or early adult life.
  26. 26. Although individually these inherited disorders are uncommon, collectively they are significant for two reasons. First, the mutations underlying these inherited thrombophilias may be co-inherited, and the effect of having two mutations on the risk of thrombosis is much more than additive.[24] Second, those with such mutations have a much higher risk than normal individuals of developing venous thrombosis when acquired causes of hypercoagulability, such as pregnancy, are also present. Inherited causes of hypercoagulability must be considered in patients under the age of 50 who present with thrombosis in the absence of any acquired predisposition. Unlike these uncommon hereditary disorders, the pathogenesis of the acquired thrombotic diatheses in a number of common clinical settings (see Table 4-2 ) is more complicated and multifactorial. In some situations (e.g., cardiac failure or trauma), factors such as stasis or vascular injury may be most important. In other cases (e.g., oral contraceptive use and the hyperestrogenic state of pregnancy), hypercoagulability may be partly caused by increased hepatic synthesis of many coagulation factors and reduced synthesis of antithrombin III; [30] heterozygosity for factor V Leiden may also be an underlying contributory component. In disseminated cancers, release of procoagulant tumor products predisposes to thrombosis.[31] [32] The hypercoagulability seen with advancing age may be due 132 TABLE 4-2 -- Hypercoagulable States Primary (Genetic) Common Mutation in factor V gene (factor V   Leiden) Mutation in prothrombin gene   Mutation in methyltetrahydrofolate   gene Rare Antithrombin III deficiency   Protein C deficiency   Protein S deficiency   Very rare Fibrinolysis defects   Secondary (Acquired) High risk for thrombosis
  27. 27. Prolonged bed rest or   immobilization Myocardial infarction   Atrial fibrillation   Tissue damage (surgery, fracture,   burns) Cancer   Prosthetic cardiac valves   Disseminated intravascular   coagulation Heparin-induced   thrombocytopenia Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome   (lupus anticoagulant syndrome) Lower risk for thrombosis Cardiomyopathy   Nephrotic syndrome   Hyperestrogenic states   (pregnancy) Oral contraceptive use   Sickle cell anemia   Smoking   to increased susceptibility to platelet aggregation and reduced PGI2 release by endothelium. Smoking and obesity promote hypercoagulability by unknown mechanisms. Among the acquired causes of thrombotic diatheses, the so-called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (previously called the lupus anticoagulant syndrome) deserve special mention. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome. [33] [34] Seen in upward of 5% of the population, this syndrome occurs when administration of unfractionated heparin (for purposes of therapeutic anticoagulation) induces formation of antibodies that bind to molecular complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 membrane protein. This antibody can also bind to similar complexes present on platelet and endothelial surfaces; the result is platelet activation, endothelial injury, and a prothrombotic state. To reduce this problem, specially manufactured low-molecular-weight heparin preparations—which retain anticoagulant activity but do not interact with platelets—are used. These have the additional benefit of a prolonged serum half-life. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. [35] [36] This syndrome has protean clinical presentations, including multiple thromboses; the clinical manifestations are associated
  28. 28. with high titers of circulating antibodies directed against anionic phospholipids (e.g., cardiolipin) or, more accurately, against plasma protein epitopes that are unveiled by binding to such phospholipids (e.g., prothrombin). Patients with anticardiolipin antibodies also have a false-positive serologic test for syphilis because the antigen in the standard tests is embedded in cardiolipin. In vitro these antibodies interfere with the assembly of phospholipid complexes and thus inhibit coagulation. However, in vivo, the antibodies induce a hypercoagulable state. Patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome fall into two categories. Many have a well-defined autoimmune disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus ( Chapter 6 ) and have secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (such patients previously carried the designation of lupus anticoagulant syndrome). The remainder show no evidence of other autoimmune disorder and exhibit only the manifestations of a hypercoagulable state (primary antiphospholipid syndrome). Occasionally the syndrome can occur in association with certain drugs or infections. How antiphospholipid antibodies lead to hypercoagulability is not clear, but possible explanations include direct platelet activation, inhibition of PGI2 production by endothelial cells, or interference with protein C synthesis or activity. Although antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with thrombotic diatheses, they have also been identified in 5% to 15% of apparently normal individuals and may therefore be necessary but not sufficient to cause full-blown antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Individuals with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome present with an extreme variety of clinical manifestations; these are typically characterized by recurrent venous or arterial thrombi but also include repeated miscarriages, cardiac valvular vegetations, or thrombocytopenia. [37] Venous thromboses occur most commonly in deep leg veins, but renal, hepatic, and retinal veins are also susceptible. Arterial thromboses typically occur in the cerebral circulation, but coronary, mesenteric, and renal arterial occlusions have also been described. Depending on the vascular bed involved, the clinical presentations can vary from pulmonary embolism (due to a lower extremity venous thrombus), to pulmonary hypertension (from recurrent subclinical pulmonary emboli), to stroke, bowel infarction, or renovascular hypertension. Fetal loss is attributable to antibody-mediated inhibition of t-PA activity necessary for trophoblastic invasion of the uterus. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is also a cause of renal microangiopathy, resulting in renal failure owing to multiple capillary and arterial thromboses ( Chapter 20 ). Patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome are at increased risk of a fatal event (upward of 7% in one series of patients with lupus erythematosus, particularly with arterial thromboses or thrombocytopenia). Current treatment includes anticoagulation therapy (aspirin, heparin, and warfarin) and immunosuppression in refractory cases. [35] [37] [38] Morphology. Thrombi may develop anywhere in the cardiovascular system: within the cardiac chambers; on valve cusps; or in arteries, veins, or capillaries. They are of variable size and shape, depending on the site of origin and the circumstances leading to their development. Arterial or cardiac thrombi usually begin at a site of endothelial injury
  29. 29. (e.g., atherosclerotic plaque) or turbulence (vessel bifurcation); venous thrombi characteristically occur in sites of stasis. An area of attachment to the underlying vessel or heart wall, frequently firmest at the point of origin, is characteristic of all thromboses. Arterial thrombi tend to grow in a retrograde direction from the point of attachment, whereas venous thrombi extend in the direction of blood flow (i.e., toward the heart). The propagating tail may not be well attached and, particularly in veins, is prone to fragmentation, creating an embolus. 133 When formed in the heart or aorta, thrombi may have grossly (and microscopically) apparent laminations, called lines of Zahn; these are produced by alternating pale layers of platelets admixed with some fibrin and darker layers containing more red cells. Lines of Zahn are significant only in that they imply thrombosis at a site of blood flow; in veins or in smaller arteries, the laminations are typically not as apparent, and, in fact, thrombi formed in the sluggish flow of venous blood usually resemble statically coagulated blood (similar to blood clotted in a test tube). Nevertheless, careful evaluation generally reveals irregular, somewhat ill-defined laminations. When arterial thrombi arise in heart chambers or in the aortic lumen, they usually adhere to the wall of the underlying structure and are termed mural thrombi. Abnormal myocardial contraction (arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, or myocardial infarction) leads to cardiac mural thrombi ( Fig. 4-14A ), while ulcerated atherosclerotic plaque and aneurysmal dilation are the precursors of aortic thrombus formation ( Fig. 4-14B ). Arterial thrombi are usually occlusive; the most common sites, in descending order, are coronary, cerebral, and femoral arteries. The thrombus is usually superimposed on an atherosclerotic plaque, although other forms of vascular injury (vasculitis, trauma) may be involved. The thrombi are typically firmly adherent to the injured arterial wall and are gray-white and friable, composed of a tangled mesh of platelets, fibrin, erythrocytes, and degenerating leukocytes. Venous thrombosis, or phlebothrombosis, is almost invariably occlusive; the thrombus often creates a long cast of the vein lumen. Because these thrombi form in a relatively static environment, they tend to contain more enmeshed erythrocytes and are therefore known as red, or stasis, thrombi. Phlebothrombosis most commonly affects the veins of the lower extremities (90% of cases). Less commonly, venous thrombi may develop in the upper extremities, periprostatic plexus, or the ovarian and periuterine veins; under special circumstances, they may be found in the dural sinuses, the portal vein, or the hepatic vein. At autopsy, postmortem clots may be
  30. 30. Figure 4-14 Mural thrombi. A, Thrombus in the left and right ventricular apices, overlying a white fibrous scar. B, Laminated thrombus in a dilated abdominal aortic aneurysm. confused for venous thrombi. Postmortem clots are gelatinous with a dark red dependent portion where red cells have settled by gravity and a yellow chicken fat supernatant resembling melted and clotted chicken fat; they are usually not attached to the underlying wall. In contrast, red thrombi are firmer, almost always have a point of attachment, and on transection reveal vague strands of pale gray fibrin. Under special circumstances, thrombi may form on heart valves. Bacterial or fungal blood-borne infections may establish a foothold, leading to valve damage and the development of large thrombotic masses, or vegetations (infective endocarditis; Chapter 12 ). Sterile vegetations can also develop on noninfected valves in patients with hypercoagulable states, so-called nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis ( Chapter 12 ). Less commonly, noninfective, verrucous (Libman-Sacks) endocarditis attributable to elevated levels of circulating immune complexes may occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus ( Chapter 6 ). Fate of the Thrombus. If a patient survives the immediate effects of a thrombotic vascular obstruction, thrombi undergo some combination of the following four events in the ensuing days to weeks ( Fig. 4-15 ): • Propagation. The thrombus may accumulate more platelets and fibrin (propagate), eventually leading to vessel obstruction. • Embolization. Thrombi may dislodge and travel to other sites in the vasculature. • Dissolution. Thrombi may be removed by fibrinolytic activity. • Organization and recanalization. Thrombi may induce inflammation and fibrosis (organization) and may eventually become recanalized; that is, may reestablish vascular flow, or may be incorporated into a thickened vascular wall. Propagation and embolization are discussed further below. As for dissolution, activation of the fibrinolytic pathways can lead to rapid shrinkage and even total lysis of recent
  31. 31. thrombi. With older thrombi, extensive fibrin polymerization renders the thrombus substantially more resistant to proteolysis, and 134 Figure 4-15 Potential outcomes of venous thrombosis. lysis is ineffectual. This is important because therapeutic infusions of fibrinolytic agents such as t-PA (e.g., for pulmonary thromboemboli or coronary thrombosis) are likely to be effective for only a short time after thrombi form. Older thrombi tend to become organized. This refers to the ingrowth of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts into the fibrin-rich thrombus. In time, capillary channels are formed, which may anastomose to create conduits from one end of the thrombus to the other, re-establishing, to a limited extent, the continuity of the original lumen. Although the channels may not successfully restore significant flow to many obstructed vessels, such recanalization can potentially convert the thrombus into a vascularized mass of connective tissue ( Fig. 4-16 ). With time and contraction of the mesenchymal cells (and particularly for smaller thrombi), the connective tissue may be incorporated as a subendothelial swelling of the vessel wall; eventually, only a fibrous lump may remain to mark the original thrombus site. Occasionally, instead of organizing,
  32. 32. the center of a thrombus undergoes enzymatic digestion, presumably as a result of the release of lysosomal enzymes from trapped leukocytes and platelets. This is particularly likely in large thrombi within aneurysmal dilations or the cardiac chambers. If bacterial seeding occurs, such a degraded thrombus is an ideal culture medium, resulting, for example, in a so-called mycotic aneurysm ( Chapter 11 ). Clinical Correlations. Thrombi are significant because they cause obstruction of arteries and veins, and they are possible sources of emboli. The significance of each depends on where the thrombus occurs. Thus, while venous thrombi may cause congestion and edema in vascular beds distal to an obstruction, a far graver consequence is that they may embolize to the lungs, causing death. Conversely, although arterial thrombi can embolize, their role in vascular obstruction at critical sites (e.g., coronary arteries resulting in myocardial infarction) is much more important. Venous Thrombosis (Phlebothrombosis). The great preponderance of venous thrombi occur in either the superficial or the deep veins of the leg.[39] Superficial venous thrombi usually occur in the saphenous system, particularly when there are varicosities. Such thrombi may cause local congestion, and swelling, pain, and tenderness along the course of the involved vein but rarely embolize. Nevertheless, the local edema and impaired venous drainage do predispose the involved overlying skin to infections from slight trauma and to the development of varicose ulcers. Deep thrombi in the larger leg veins at or above the knee (e.g., popliteal, femoral, and iliac veins) are more serious because they may embolize. Although they may cause local pain and distal edema, the venous obstruction may be rapidly offset by collateral bypass channels. Consequently, deep vein thromboses are entirely asymptomatic in approximately 50% of 135 Figure 4-16 Low-power view of a thrombosed artery. A, H&E-stained section. B, Stain for elastic tissue. The original lumen is delineated by the internal elastic lamina (arrows) and is totally filled with organized
  33. 33. thrombus, now punctuated by a number of small recanalized channels. affected patients and are recognized only in retrospect after they have embolized. Deep venous thrombosis may occur with stasis and in a variety of hypercoagulable states as described earlier ( Table 4-2 ). Cardiac failure is an obvious reason for stasis in the venous circulation. Trauma, surgery, and burns usually result in reduced physical activity, injury to vessels, release of procoagulant substances from tissues, and/or reduced t-PA activity. Many factors act in concert to predispose to thrombosis in the puerperal and postpartum states. Besides the potential for amniotic fluid infusion into the circulation at the time of delivery, late pregnancy and the postpartum period are also associated with hypercoagulability. Tumor-associated procoagulant release is largely responsible for the increased risk of thromboembolic phenomena seen in disseminated cancers, so-called migratory thrombophlebitis or Trousseau syndrome. Regardless of the specific clinical setting, advanced age, bed rest, and immobilization increase the risk of deep venous thrombosis, particularly in those who have inherited susceptibility states ( Table 4-2 ); reduced physical activity diminishes the milking action of muscles in the lower leg and so slows venous return. Arterial and Cardiac Thrombosis. Atherosclerosis is a major initiator of thromboses, related to the associated abnormal vascular flow and loss of endothelial integrity (see Fig. 4-14B) . Cardiac mural thrombi can arise in the setting of myocardial infarction related to dyskinetic contraction of the myocardium as well as damage to the adjacent endocardium (see Fig. 4-14A ). Rheumatic heart disease may result in atrial mural thrombi due to mitral valve stenosis, followed by left atrial dilation; concurrent atrial fibrillation augments atrial blood stasis. In addition to the local obstructive consequences, cardiac and arterial (in particular, aortic) mural thrombi can also embolize peripherally. Virtually any tissue may be affected, but the brain, kidneys, and spleen are prime targets because of their large flow volume. While we clearly understand a number of conditions that predispose to thrombosis, the phenomenon remains somewhat unpredictable. It continues to occur at a distressingly high frequency in healthy, ambulatory individuals without apparent provocation or underlying pathology. DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC) A variety of disorders ranging from obstetric complications to advanced malignancy may be complicated by DIC, the sudden or insidious onset of widespread fibrin thrombi in the microcirculation. Although these thrombi are not usually visible on gross inspection, they are readily apparent microscopically and can cause diffuse circulatory insufficiency, particularly in the brain, lungs, heart, and kidneys. With the development of the multiple thrombi, there is a rapid concurrent consumption of platelets and coagulation proteins (hence the synonym consumption coagulopathy); at the same time, fibrinolytic mechanisms are activated, and as a result an initially thrombotic disorder can evolve into
  34. 34. a serious bleeding disorder. It should be emphasized that DIC is not a primary disease but rather a potential complication of any condition associated with widespread activation of thrombin.[40] It is discussed in greater detail along with other bleeding diatheses in Chapter 13 . Embolism An embolus is a detached intravascular solid, liquid, or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin. Almost all emboli represent some part of a dislodged thrombus, hence the commonly used term thromboembolism. Rare forms of emboli include droplets of fat, bubbles of air or nitrogen, atherosclerotic debris (cholesterol emboli), tumor fragments, bits of bone marrow, or even foreign bodies such as bullets. However, unless otherwise specified, an embolism should be considered to be thrombotic in origin. Inevitably, emboli lodge in vessels too small to permit further passage, resulting in partial or complete vascular occlusion. The potential consequence of such thromboembolic events is the ischemic necrosis of distal tissue, known as infarction. Depending on the site of origin, emboli may lodge anywhere in the vascular tree; the clinical outcomes are best understood from the standpoint of whether emboli lodge in the pulmonary or systemic circulations. 136 PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM Pulmonary embolism has an incidence of 20 to 25 per 100,000 hospitalized patients.[41] [42] Although the rate of fatal pulmonary emboli (as assessed at autopsy) has declined from 6% to 2% over the last quarter century,[43] pulmonary embolism still causes about 200,000 deaths per year in the United States. In more than 95% of instances, venous emboli originate from deep leg vein thrombi above the level of the knee as described previously. They are carried through progressively larger channels and usually pass through the right side of the heart into the pulmonary vasculature. Depending on the size of the embolus, it may occlude the main pulmonary artery, impact across the bifurcation (saddle embolus), or pass out into the smaller, branching arterioles ( Fig. 4-17 ). Frequently, there are multiple emboli, perhaps sequentially or as a shower of smaller emboli from a single large mass; in general, the patient who has had one pulmonary embolus is at high risk of having more. Rarely, an embolus may pass through an interatrial or interventricular defect to gain access to the systemic circulation (paradoxical embolism). A more complete discussion of pulmonary emboli is presented in Chapter 15 ; an overview is offered here.[43] [44] • Most pulmonary emboli (60% to 80%) are clinically silent because they are small. With time, they undergo organization and are incorporated into the vascular wall (see Fig. 4-14 ); in some cases, organization of the thromboembolus leaves behind a delicate, bridging fibrous web. • Sudden death, right heart failure (cor pulmonale). or cardiovascular collapse occurs when 60% or more of the pulmonary circulation is obstructed with emboli.
  35. 35. • Embolic obstruction of medium-sized arteries may result in pulmonary hemorrhage but usually does not cause pulmonary infarction because of the dual blood flow into the area from the bronchial circulation. A similar embolus in the setting of left-sided cardiac failure (i.e., with sluggish bronchial artery flow), however, may result in a large infarct. • Embolic obstruction of small end-arteriolar pulmonary branches usually does result in associated infarction. • Multiple emboli over time may cause pulmonary hypertension with right heart failure. Figure 4-17 Large embolus derived from a lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and now impacted in a pulmonary artery branch. SYSTEMIC THROMBOEMBOLISM Systemic thromboembolism refers to emboli traveling within the arterial circulation. Most (80%) arise from intracardiac mural thrombi, two thirds of which are associated with left ventricular wall infarcts and another quarter with dilated and fibrillating left atria (e.g., secondary to mitral valve disease; Chapter 12 ). The remainder originate from aortic aneurysms, thrombi on ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques, or fragmentation of a valvular vegetation ( Chapter 12 ), with a small fraction due to paradoxical emboli; 10% to 15% of systemic emboli are of unknown origin. In contrast to venous emboli, which tend to lodge primarily in one vascular bed (the lung), arterial emboli can travel to a wide variety of sites; the point of arrest depends on the source of the thromboembolus and the volume of blood flow through the downstream tissues. The major sites for arteriolar embolization are the lower extremities (75%) and the brain (10%), with the intestines, kidneys, spleen, and upper extremities involved to a lesser extent. The consequences of
  36. 36. systemic emboli depend on the extent of collateral vascular supply in the affected tissue, the tissue's vulnerability to ischemia, and the caliber of the vessel occluded; in general, arterial emboli cause infarction of tissues downstream of the obstructed vessel. FAT EMBOLISM Microscopic fat globules may be found in the circulation after fractures of long bones (which have fatty marrow) or, rarely, in the setting of soft tissue trauma and burns. Presumably the fat is released by marrow or adipose tissue injury and enters the circulation by rupture of the marrow vascular sinusoids or of venules. Although traumatic fat embolism occurs in some 90% of individuals with severe skeletal injuries ( Fig. 4- 18 ), less than 10% of such patients have any clinical findings. Fat embolism syndrome is characterized by pulmonary insufficiency, neurologic symptoms, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Symptoms typically begin 1 to 3 days after injury, with sudden onset of tachypnea, dyspnea, and tachycardia. Neurologic symptoms include irritability and restlessness, with progression to delirium or coma. Patients may present with thrombocytopenia, presumably caused by platelets adhering to the myriad fat globules and being removed from the circulation; anemia may result as a consequence of erythrocyte aggregation and hemolysis. A diffuse petechial rash in nondependent areas (related to rapid onset of thrombocytopenia) is seen in 20% to 50% of cases and is useful in establishing a diagnosis. In its full-blown form, the syndrome is fatal in up to 10% of cases. The pathogenesis of fat emboli syndrome probably involves both mechanical obstruction and biochemical injury.[45] [46] Microemboli of neutral fat cause occlusion of the pulmonary and cerebral microvasculature, aggravated by local platelet 137 Figure 4-18 Bone marrow embolus in the pulmonary circulation. The cleared vacuoles represent marrow fat that is now impacted in a distal vessel along with the cellular hematopoietic precursors.
  37. 37. and erythrocyte aggregation; this is further exacerbated by release of free fatty acids from the fat globules, causing local toxic injury to endothelium. Platelet activation and recruitment of granulocytes (with free radical, protease, and eicosanoid release; Chapter 2 ) complete the vascular assault. Because lipids are dissolved out of tissue preparations by the solvents routinely used in paraffin embedding, the microscopic demonstration of fat microglobules (i.e., in the absence of accompanying marrow) typically requires specialized techniques, including frozen sections and fat stains. AIR EMBOLISM Gas bubbles within the circulation can obstruct vascular flow (and cause distal ischemic injury) almost as readily as thrombotic masses can. Air may enter the circulation during obstetric procedures or as a consequence of chest wall injury. Generally, in excess of 100 cc is required to have a clinical effect; the bubbles act like physical obstructions and may coalesce to form frothy masses sufficiently large to occlude major vessels.[47] [48] A particular form of gas embolism, called decompression sickness, occurs when individuals are exposed to sudden changes in atmospheric pressure.[49] [50] Scuba and deep sea divers, underwater construction workers, and individuals in unpressurized aircraft in rapid ascent are all at risk. When air is breathed at high pressure (e.g., during a deep sea dive), increased amounts of gas (particularly nitrogen) become dissolved in the blood and tissues. If the diver then ascends (depressurizes) too rapidly, the nitrogen expands in the tissues and bubbles out of solution in the blood to form gas emboli. The rapid formation of gas bubbles within skeletal muscles and supporting tissues in and about joints is responsible for the painful condition called the bends (so named in the 1880s because afflicted individuals characteristically arched their backs in a manner reminiscent of a then popular women's fashion called the Grecian Bend). Gas emboli may also induce focal ischemia in a number of tissues, including brain and heart. In the lungs, edema, hemorrhages, and focal atelectasis or emphysema may appear, leading to respiratory distress, the so-called chokes. Treatment of gas embolism requires placing the individual in a compression chamber where the barometric pressure may be raised, thus forcing the gas bubbles back into solution. Subsequent slow decompression theoretically permits gradual resorption and exhalation of the gases so that obstructive bubbles do not re-form. A more chronic form of decompression sickness is called caisson disease (named for the pressurized vessels used in the construction of the base of the Brooklyn Bridge in New York; workers digging in these vessels suffered both acute and chronic forms of decompression sickness). In caisson disease, persistence of gas emboli in the skeletal system leads to multiple foci of ischemic necrosis; the more common sites are the heads of the femurs, tibia, and humeri. AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM Amniotic fluid embolism is a grave but fortunately uncommon complication of labor and the immediate postpartum period (1 in 50,000 deliveries). It has a mortality rate of 20%
  38. 38. to 40%, and as other obstetric complications (e.g., eclampsia, pulmonary embolism) have been better managed, amniotic fluid embolism has become an important cause of maternal mortality. The onset is characterized by sudden severe dyspnea, cyanosis, and hypotensive shock, followed by seizures and coma. If the patient survives the initial crisis, pulmonary edema typically develops, along with (in half the patients) DIC, owing to release of thrombogenic substances from amniotic fluid.[51] [52] The underlying cause is the infusion of amniotic fluid or fetal tissue into the maternal circulation via a tear in the placental membranes or rupture of uterine veins. The classic findings are therefore the presence in the pulmonary microcirculation of squamous cells shed from fetal skin, lanugo hair, fat from vernix caseosa, and mucin derived from the fetal respiratory or gastrointestinal tract. There is also marked pulmonary edema and changes of diffuse alveolar damage ( Chapter 15 ) as well as systemic fibrin thrombi indicative of DIC. Infarction An infarct is an area of ischemic necrosis caused by occlusion of either the arterial supply or the venous drainage in a particular tissue. Infarction involving different organs is a common and extremely important cause of clinical illness. In the United States, more than half of all deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease, and most of these are attributable to myocardial or cerebral infarction. Pulmonary infarction is a common complication in a number of clinical settings, bowel infarction is frequently fatal, and ischemic necrosis of the extremities (gangrene) is a serious problem in the diabetic population. Nearly 99% of all infarcts result from thrombotic or embolic events, and almost all result from arterial occlusion. Occasionally, infarction may also be caused by other mechanisms, such as local vasospasm, expansion of an atheroma owing to hemorrhage within a plaque, or extrinsic compression of a vessel (e.g., by tumor). Other uncommon causes include twisting of the vessels (e.g., in testicular torsion or bowel volvulus), compression of the blood supply by edema or by entrapment in a hernia sac, or traumatic rupture of the blood supply. Although venous thrombosis may cause infarction, 138 it more often merely induces venous obstruction and congestion. Usually, bypass channels rapidly open after the thrombosis, providing some outflow from the area, which, in turn, improves the arterial inflow. Infarcts caused by venous thrombosis are more likely in organs with a single venous outflow channel, such as the testis and ovary. Morphology. Infarcts are classified on the basis of their color (reflecting the amount of hemorrhage) and the presence or absence of microbial infection. Therefore, infarcts may be either red (hemorrhagic) or white (anemic) and may be either septic or bland.
  39. 39. • Red (hemorrhagic) infarcts occur (1) with venous occlusions (such as in ovarian torsion); (2) in loose tissues (such as lung), which allow blood to collect in the infarcted zone; (3) in tissues with dual circulations (e.g., lung and small intestine), permitting flow of blood from the unobstructed vessel into the necrotic zone (obviously such perfusion is not sufficient to rescue the ischemic tissues); (4) in tissues that were previously congested because of sluggish venous outflow; and (5) when flow is re-established to a site of previous arterial occlusion and necrosis (e.g., following fragmentation of an occlusive embolus or angioplasty of a thrombotic lesion) ( Fig. 4-19A ). • White (anemic) infarcts occur with arterial occlusions in solid organs with end- arterial circulation (such as heart, spleen, and kidney), where the solidity of the tissue limits the amount of hemorrhage that can seep into the area of ischemic necrosis from adjoining capillary beds ( Fig. 4-19B ). Most infarcts tend to be wedge-shaped, with the occluded vessel at the apex and the periphery of the organ forming the base (see Fig. 4-19 A and B ); when the base is a serosal surface, there is often an overlying fibrinous exudate. The lateral margins may be irregular, reflecting the pattern of vascular supply from adjacent vessels. At the outset, all infarcts are poorly defined and slightly hemorrhagic. The margins of both types of infarcts tend to become better defined with time by a narrow rim of hyperemia attributable to inflammation at the edge of the lesion. Figure 4-19 Examples of infarcts. A, Hemorrhagic, roughly wedge-shaped pulmonary infarct. B, Sharply demarcated white infarct in the spleen. In solid organs, the extravasated red cells from the limited hemorrhage are lysed. The released hemoglobin remains in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin within macrophages; this can microscopically identify sites of previous infarction but does not grossly impart any significant color to the tissue. White infarcts resulting from arterial occlusions typically become progressively more pale and sharply defined with time (see Fig. 4-19B ). By comparison, in spongy organs the hemorrhage is too extensive to permit
  40. 40. the lesion ever to become pale (see Fig. 4-19A ). Over the course of a few days, it does, however, become more firm and brown, as the extensive bleeding progressively degrades into hemosiderin pigment. The dominant histologic characteristic of infarction is ischemic coagulative necrosis ( Chapter 1 ). It is important to recall that if the vascular occlusion has occurred shortly (minutes to hours) before the death of the patient, no demonstrable histologic changes may be evident; if the patient survives even 12 to 18 hours, the only change present may be hemorrhage. An inflammatory response begins to develop along the margins of infarcts within a few hours and is usually well defined within 1 or 2 days. Inflammation at these sites is incited by the necrotic material; given sufficient time, there is gradual degradation of the dead tissue with phagocytosis of the cellular debris by neutrophils and macrophages. Eventually the inflammatory response is followed by a reparative response beginning in the preserved margins ( Chapter 2 ). In stable or labile tissues, some parenchymal regeneration may occur at the periphery where the underlying stromal architecture has been spared. However, most infarcts are ultimately replaced by scar tissue ( Fig. 4-20 ). The brain is an exception to these generalizations; as with all other causes of cell death, ischemic injury in the central nervous system results in liquefactive necrosis ( Chapter 1 ). Septic infarctions may develop when embolization occurs by fragmentation of a bacterial vegetation from a heart valve or when microbes seed an area of necrotic tissue. In these cases, the infarct is converted into an abscess, with a correspondingly greater inflammatory response ( Chapter 2 ). The eventual sequence of organization, however, follows the pattern already described. 139
  41. 41. Figure 4-20 Remote kidney infarct, now replaced by a large fibrotic cortical scar. Clinical Correlations: Factors That Influence Development of an Infarct. The consequences of a vascular occlusion can range from no or minimal effect, all the way up to death of a tissue or even the individual. The major determinants include: (1) the nature of the vascular supply; (2) the rate of development of the occlusion; (3) the vulnerability of a given tissue to hypoxia; and (4) the blood oxygen content. • Nature of the vascular supply. The availability of an alternative blood supply is the most important factor in determining whether occlusion of a vessel will cause damage. Lungs, for example, have a dual pulmonary and bronchial artery blood supply; thus, obstruction of a small pulmonary arteriole does not cause infarction in an otherwise healthy individual with an intact bronchial circulation. Similarly, the liver, with its dual hepatic artery and portal vein circulation, and the hand and forearm, with their dual radial and ulnar arterial supply, are all relatively insensitive to infarction. In contrast, renal and splenic circulations are end-arterial, and obstruction of such vessels generally causes infarction. • Rate of development of occlusion. Slowly developing occlusions are less likely to cause infarction because they provide time for the development of alternative perfusion pathways. For example, small interarteriolar anastomoses—normally with minimal functional flow—interconnect the three major coronary arteries in the heart. If one of the coronaries is only slowly occluded (i.e., by an encroaching atherosclerotic plaque), flow within this collateral circulation may increase sufficiently to prevent infarction, even though the major coronary artery is eventually occluded.
  42. 42. • Vulnerability to hypoxia. The susceptibility of a tissue to hypoxia influences the likelihood of infarction. Neurons undergo irreversible damage when deprived of their blood supply for only 3 to 4 minutes. Myocardial cells, although hardier than neurons, are also quite sensitive and die after only 20 to 30 minutes of ischemia. In contrast, fibroblasts within myocardium remain viable even after many hours of ischemia ( Chapter 12 ). • Oxygen content of blood. The partial pressure of oxygen in blood also determines the outcome of vascular occlusion. Partial flow obstruction of a small vessel in an anemic or cyanotic patient might lead to tissue infarction, whereas it would be without effect under conditions of normal oxygen tension. In this way, congestive heart failure, with compromised flow and ventilation, could cause infarction in the setting of an otherwise inconsequential blockage Shock Shock, or cardiovascular collapse, is the final common pathway for a number of potentially lethal clinical events, including severe hemorrhage, extensive trauma or burns, large myocardial infarction, massive pulmonary embolism, and microbial sepsis. Regardless of the underlying pathology, shock gives rise to systemic hypoperfusion caused by reduction either in cardiac output or in the effective circulating blood volume. The end results are hypotension, followed by impaired tissue perfusion and cellular hypoxia. Although the hypoxic and metabolic effects of hypoperfusion initially cause only reversible cellular injury, persistence of shock eventually causes irreversible tissue injury and can culminate in the death of the patient. Shock may be grouped into three general categories ( Table 4-3 ). The mechanisms underlying cardiogenic and hypovolemic shock are fairly straightforward, essentially involving low cardiac output. Septic shock, by comparison, is substantially more complicated and is discussed in further detail below. • Cardiogenic shock results from myocardial pump failure. This may be caused by intrinsic myocardial damage (infarction), ventricular arrhythmias, extrinsic compression (cardiac tamponade; Chapter 12 ), or outflow obstruction (e.g., pulmonary embolism). • Hypovolemic shock results from loss of blood or plasma volume. This may be caused by hemorrhage, fluid loss from severe burns, or trauma. • Septic shock is caused by systemic microbial infection. Most commonly, this occurs in the setting of gram-negative infections (endotoxic shock), but it can also occur with gram-positive and fungal infections. Less commonly, shock may occur in the setting of anesthetic accident or spinal cord injury (neurogenic shock), owing to loss of vascular tone and peripheral pooling of blood. Anaphylactic shock, initiated by a generalized IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response, is associated with systemic vasodilation and increased vascular permeability ( Chapter 6 ).
  43. 43. In these instances, widespread vasodilation causes a sudden increase in the vascular bed capacitance, which is not adequately filled by the normal circulating blood volume. Thus, hypotension, tissue hypoperfusion, and cellular anoxia result. PATHOGENESIS OF SEPTIC SHOCK Septic shock, with a 25% to 50% mortality rate, ranks first among the causes of mortality in intensive care units and is 140 TABLE 4-3 -- Three Major Types of Shock Type of Shock Clinical Examples Principal Mechanisms Cardiogenic Myocardial infarction Failure of myocardial pump owing to intrinsic myocardial damage, extrinsic pressure, or obstruction to outflow Ventricular rupture Arrhythmia Cardiac tamponade Pulmonary embolism Hypovolemic Hemorrhage Inadequate blood or plasma volume Fluid loss, e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, burns, or trauma Septic Overwhelming microbial infections Peripheral vasodilation and pooling of blood; endothelial activation/injury; leukocyte-induced damage; disseminated intravascular coagulation; activation of cytokine cascades Endotoxic shock Gram-positive septicemia Fungal sepsis
  44. 44. TABLE 4-3 -- Three Major Types of Shock Type of Shock Clinical Examples Principal Mechanisms Superantigens estimated to account for over 200,000 deaths annually in the United States.[53] Moreover, the reported incidence of sepsis syndromes has increased dramatically in the past two decades, owing to improved life support for high-risk patients, increasing use of invasive procedures, and growing numbers of immunocompromised hosts (secondary to chemotherapy, immunosuppression, or human immunodeficiency virus infection). Septic shock results from spread and expansion of an initially localized infection (e.g., abscess, peritonitis, pneumonia) into the bloodstream. Most cases of septic shock (approximately 70%) are caused by endotoxin-producing gram-negative bacilli ( Chapter 8 ), hence the term endotoxic shock. Endotoxins are bacterial wall lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that are released when the cell walls are degraded (e.g., in an inflammatory response). LPS consists of a toxic fatty acid (lipid A) core and a complex polysaccharide coat (including O antigens) unique to each bacterial species. Analogous molecules in the walls of gram-positive bacteria and fungi can also elicit septic shock. All of the cellular and resultant hemodynamic effects of septic shock may be reproduced by injection of LPS alone. Free LPS attaches to a circulating LPS-binding protein, and the complex then binds to a cell-surface receptor (called CD14), followed by binding of the LPS to a signal-transducing protein called mammalian Toll-like receptor protein 4 (TLR-4). (Toll is a Drosophila protein involved in fly development; a variety of molecules with homology to Toll [i.e., "Toll-like"] participate in innate immune responses to different microbial components; see Box 6-1 , Chapter 6.) Signals from TLR-4 can then directly activate vascular wall cells and leukocytes or initiate a cascade of cytokine mediators, which propagates the pathologic state. [54] [55] Engagement of TLR-4 on endothelial cells can lead directly to down-regulation of natural anticoagulation mechanisms, including diminished synthesis of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and thrombomodulin. Engagement of the receptor on monocytes and macrophages (even at doses of LPS as minute as 10 picograms/ml) causes profound mononuclear cell activation with the subsequent production of potent effector cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF ( Chapter 6 ). Presumably, this series of responses helps to isolate organisms and to trigger elements of the innate immune system to efficiently eradicate invading microbes. Unfortunately, depending on the dosage and numbers of macrophages that are activated, the secondary effects of LPS release can also cause severe pathologic changes, including fatal shock. • At low doses, LPS predominantly serves to activate monocytes and macrophages, with effects intended to enhance their ability to eliminate invading bacteria. LPS can also directly activate complement, which likewise contributes to local bacterial eradication. The mononuclear phagocytes respond to LPS by
  45. 45. producing cytokines, mainly TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines. TNF and IL-1 both act on endothelial cells to stimulate the expression of adhesion molecules ( Chapter 2 ; Fig. 4-21 ) and the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Thus, the initial release of LPS results in a circumscribed cytokine cascade doubtless intended to enhance the local acute inflammatory response and improve clearance of the infection. • With moderately severe infections, and therefore with higher levels of LPS (and a consequent augmentation of the cytokine cascade), cytokine-induced secondary effectors (e.g., nitric oxide; Chapter 2 ) become significant. In addition, systemic effects of the cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 may begin to be seen; these include fever and increased synthesis of acute phase reactants ( Chapter 2 ; Fig. 4-21 ). LPS at higher doses also results in diminished endothelial cell production of thrombomodulin and TFPI, tipping the coagulation cascade toward thrombosis. • Finally, at still higher levels of LPS, the syndrome of septic shock supervenes ( Fig. 4-22 ); the same cytokines and secondary mediators, now at high levels, result in: • Systemic vasodilation (hypotension) • Diminished myocardial contractility • Widespread endothelial injury and activation, causing systemic leukocyte adhesion and pulmonary alveolar capillary damage (acute respiratory distress syndrome; Chapter 15 ) • Activation of the coagulation system, culminating in DIC The hypoperfusion resulting from the combined effects of widespread vasodilation, myocardial pump failure, and DIC induces multiorgan system failure affecting the liver, kidneys, 141
  46. 46. Figure 4-21 Cytokine cascade in sepsis. After release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from invading gram- negative microorganisms, there are successive waves of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 secretion. (Modified from Abbas AK, et al: Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 4th ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2000.) and central nervous system, among others.[56] [57] Unless the underlying infection (and LPS overload) is rapidly brought under control, the patient usually dies. Of note, mice lacking LPS-binding protein, CD14, or the mammalian TLR-4 are protected against the effects of LPS. Clinical efforts to take advantage of these insights and induce pharmacologic blockade of the same pathways (e.g., soluble CD14 or antibodies to LPS-binding protein) have yet to bear fruit. Antibodies or antagonists to IL-1 or TNF (or their receptors), or pharmacologic inhibitors of various other secondary mediators (e.g., nitric oxide or prostaglandins) have some efficacy in animal models of septic shock, but they have not shown significant clinical benefit in human disease.[54] [56] [58] Indeed such failure of "anti- inflammatory" therapy in human shock has caused some investigators to challenge the model presented here (see Fig. 4-22 ). Instead, it has been argued that in later stages, sepsis is associated with a state of immunosuppression (rather than uncontrolled inflammation).[59] These observations may dictate different forms of therapy, but this remains to be tested. An interesting group of bacterial proteins called superantigens also cause syndromes similar to septic shock. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, produced by staphylococci and responsible for the toxic shock syndrome. Superantigens are polyclonal T-lymphocyte activators that induce systemic inflammatory cytokine cascades similar to those occurring downstream in septic shock.[60] [61] Their actions can result in a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from a diffuse rash to vasodilation, hypotension, and death. [62] [63]