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Environmental & Ecological Issue 
By Chandresh Dedhia –XMBA 54
Index 
•History 
•Causes 
•Major Issues 
•Forest and Conservation 
•Forest Categories 
•Legal Framework and Laws 
•Environ...
History 
•YajnavalkyaSmriti, a historic Indian text on statecraft and jurisprudence, suggested to have been written before...
STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE OF 1972 
•TheUNResolutionforestablishingtheUnitedNationsConferenceonHumanEnvironmentof1972,statedthat...
STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE OF 1972 
•ThemeetingagreeduponaDeclarationcontaining26principlesconcerningtheenvironmentanddevelopmen...
THE RIO DECLARATION OF 1992 
•TheUnitedNationsConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopment(UNCED),alsoknownastheRioSummit,RioConf...
PERIOD BETWEEN 1972-1992 
•Theperiodbetween1972and1992witnessedanumberoftragedies; 
•TheBhopalgasleakinIndia(1984) 
•Chern...
Causes 
•Some have cited economic development as the cause regarding the environmental issues. 
•Others believe economic d...
Major Issues 
•Growing Population 
•Poverty 
•Agriculture Growth 
•Ground Water 
•Developments and forests 
•Degradation o...
Growing Population 
July 22, 10 2012 Footer text here 
•A population of over thousands of millions is growing at 1.51% eve...
Poverty 
July 22, 11 2012 Footer text here 
•Indiahasoftenbeendescribedarichlandwithpoorpeople. 
•Thepovertyandenvironment...
Agriculture Growth 
•Thepeoplemustbeacquaintedwiththemethodstosustainandincreaseagriculturalgrowthwithdamagingtheenvironme...
Ground Water 
July 22, 13 2012 Footer text here 
•Itisessentialofrationalizingtheuseofgroundwater. 
•Factorslikecommunityw...
Developments and forests 
•Forests serve catchments for the rivers, with increasing demand of water, plan to harness the m...
Reduction in genetic diversity 
•At present most wild genetic stocks have been disappearing from nature. 
•Wilding includi...
Urbanization 
•Nearly27percentIndiansliveinurbanareas.Urbanizationandindustrializationhasgivenbirthtoagreatnumberofenviron...
Air Pollution 
•AirpollutioninIndiaisaseriousissuewiththemajorsourcesbeingfuelwoodandbiomassburning,fueladulteration,vehic...
Water Pollution 
•A2007studyfoundthatdischargeofuntreatedsewageisthesinglemostimportantsourceofpollutioninsurfaceandground...
Solid waste Pollution 
•TrashandgarbageisacommonsightinurbanandruralareasofIndia.Itisamajorsourceofpollution. 
•Inthecount...
Soil Pollution 
•SoilsinIndiacanbeclassifiedinto8categories:alluvial,black,red,laterite, forest,arid&desert,saline&alkalin...
Noise Pollution 
•NoisepollutioninIndiaisquiteabigproblemduetoexcessiveusageofhornsfornosensiblereasonwhatsoever. 
•Ifaper...
Greenhouse Gas Emission 
•Greenhousegasesarethosethatcanabsorbandemitinfraredradiation,butnotradiationinornearthevisiblesp...
National Forest Programme 
•Asearlyasthe1960s,theinternationalforestrycommunityhadidentifiedpolicyplanningasapriority,reco...
Forest and Conservation 
•Prior to the 1980s, India deployed a bureaucratic method to estimate forest coverage. 
•A land w...
Forest Categories 
•ForestCover:definedasalllands,morethanonehectareinarea,withatreecanopydensityofmorethan10percent.(They...
Forest Categories 
•NonForestLand:definedaslandswithoutanyforestcover 
•ScrubCover:Alllands,generallyinandaroundforestarea...
Legal Framework and laws 
July 22, 27 2012 Footer text here 
•The Forest Acts of 1865 and 1878 were pieces of colonial leg...
Legal Framework and laws 
•Pursuant to the Stockholm Conference in 1972, which adopted that natural resources, including f...
Environmental Issues and Judicial interventions 
•The TehriDam Project. 
•The Narmada Valley Project 
July 22, 29 2012 Foo...
The TehriDam Project. 
•TheriversBhagirathiandBhilanganariseintheGarhwalHimalayasinUttaranchalandflowsouthtotheplainsasthe...
The TehriDam Project. 
•TheTehriprojectwasunsuccessfullychallengedintheSupremeCourtinawritpetitionfiledbytheTehriBandhViro...
The TehriDam Project. 
•TheSupremeCourtdismissedthepetitionin1990afteraverylimitedenquiry. 
•AlthoughtheEnvironmentalAppra...
The Narmada Valley Project 
•TheNarmadaRiverspringsfromaholypoolamidstHindutemplesontheAmarkantakplateauintheforestedShahd...
The Narmada Valley Project 
•TheNarmadaValleyProject,ifandwhencompleted,willrankasthelargestirrigationprojecteverplannedan...
The Narmada Valley Project 
•Thedamwillimpoundwaterina455foothighreservoirthatwillsubmerge37,000hectaresoflandinthethreeSt...
The Narmada Valley Project 
•The Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT) established specific conditions regarding the rese...
The Narmada Valley Project 
•In order to fully expose the incorrect Government claims, the NBA (Narmada BachaoAndolan) and...
Conclusion 
•India must pursue rural development and animal husbandry policies to address local communities need to find a...
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Environmental & Ecological Issue in India

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Environmental & Ecological Issue in India
History
Causes
Major Issues
Forest and Conservation
Forest Categories
Legal Framework and Laws
Environmental Issues and Judicial interventions

Published in: Environment
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Environmental & Ecological Issue in India

  1. 1. Environmental & Ecological Issue By Chandresh Dedhia –XMBA 54
  2. 2. Index •History •Causes •Major Issues •Forest and Conservation •Forest Categories •Legal Framework and Laws •Environmental Issues and Judicial interventions •Conclusion July 22, 2 2012 Footer text here
  3. 3. History •YajnavalkyaSmriti, a historic Indian text on statecraft and jurisprudence, suggested to have been written before the 5th century AD •It prohibited the cutting of trees and prescribed punishment for such acts. •Kautalya'sArthashastra, written in Mauryanperiod, emphasised the need for forest administration. •Ashokawent further, and his Pillar Edicts at Girnar(Gujarat) expressed his view about the welfare of environment and biodiversity. July 22, 3 2012 Footer text here
  4. 4. STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE OF 1972 •TheUNResolutionforestablishingtheUnitedNationsConferenceonHumanEnvironmentof1972,statedthattherewasadireneedforintensifiedActionatnationalandinternationalleveltolimit,andwherepossibletoeliminate,theimpairmentofthehumanenvironment. •TheStockholmDeclarationof1972hasgonedowninhistoryasthatglobalinstrumentwhichforthefirsttimeformallybroughtinternationalfocusonto‘SustainableDevelopment’,avitalconceptthatremainsfundamentaltocontemporaryenvironmentalregulation. July 22, 4 2012 Footer text here
  5. 5. STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE OF 1972 •ThemeetingagreeduponaDeclarationcontaining26principlesconcerningtheenvironmentanddevelopment;anActionPlanwith109recommendations,andaResolution. •TheIndianPrimeMinisterIndiraGandhiinherseminalspeechintheconferencebroughtforwardtheconnectionbetweenecologicalmanagementandpovertyalleviation.Itistobenotedthatshewastheonlyotherspeakerintheconferenceotherthanthehostingcountryprimeminister. July 22, 5 2012 Footer text here
  6. 6. THE RIO DECLARATION OF 1992 •TheUnitedNationsConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopment(UNCED),alsoknownastheRioSummit,RioConference,andEarthSummitwasamajorUnitedNationsconferenceheldinRiodeJaneirofrom3to14June1992. •TheRioDeclarationconsistedof27principlesintendedtoguidefuturesustainabledevelopmentaroundtheworld. •Principle16emphasizesthatnationalauthoritiesshouldendeavourtopromotetheinternalizationofenvironmentalcostsandtheuseofeconomicinstruments,takingintoaccounttheapproachthatthepollutershould, inprinciple,bearthecostofpollution. •Thiswastheclassic“polluterpays”principle. July 22, 6 2012 Footer text here
  7. 7. PERIOD BETWEEN 1972-1992 •Theperiodbetween1972and1992witnessedanumberoftragedies; •TheBhopalgasleakinIndia(1984) •Chernobylblastresultinginradioactivity-relatedinjuriesin21countriesspreadinEurope(1986), •ThedioxinleakatSevesoinItaly(1986) •TheoilspillcausedbytheoiltankerAmocoCadiz(1978),theSandoztragedyinwhichtonsoftoxicchemicalswerewashedintotheRhineriverinEuropeasaresultofafireattheSandozwarehouseinSwitzerland. •Alltheseandotherheartrenderingaccidentshighlightedthedangersofunregulatedindustrializationaswellasthefactthatenvironmentalpollutionknowsnonationalboundaries. •Sotherewasfurthercentralisationofenvironmentalregulations,andtheGovernmentsdecidedtoadoptanumberofenvironmentalprotectionagreements,especiallytocontroltransboundaryenvironmentaldegradation. July 22, 7 2012 Footer text here
  8. 8. Causes •Some have cited economic development as the cause regarding the environmental issues. •Others believe economic development is key to improving India's environmental management and preventing pollution of the country. •It is also suggested that India's growing population is the primary cause of India's environmental degradation. •Systematic studies challenge this theory. •Empirical evidence from countries such as Japan, England and Singapore, each with population density similar or higher than India, yet each enjoying environmental quality vastly superior than India, suggests population density may not be the only factor affecting India's issues. July 22, 8 2012 Footer text here
  9. 9. Major Issues •Growing Population •Poverty •Agriculture Growth •Ground Water •Developments and forests •Degradation of land •Reorientation of institutions •Reduction in genetic diversity •Urbanization •Air Pollution •Water Pollution •Solid waste Pollution •Soil Pollution •Noise Pollution •Greenhouse Gas Emission July 22, 9 2012 Footer text here
  10. 10. Growing Population July 22, 10 2012 Footer text here •A population of over thousands of millions is growing at 1.51% every year. •It puts considerable pressure on its natural resources and reduces the gains of development. Hence, the greatest challenge before us is to limit the population growth. •Although population control does automatically lead to development, yet the development leads to a decrease in population growth rates. •This environmental degradation ultimately reduces agricultural yields and food availability, causes famines and diseases and death, thereby reducing the rate of population growth.
  11. 11. Poverty July 22, 11 2012 Footer text here •Indiahasoftenbeendescribedarichlandwithpoorpeople. •Thepovertyandenvironmentaldegradationhaveanexusbetweenthem. •Thevastmajorityofourpeoplearedirectlydependentonthenatureresourcesofthecountryfortheirbasicneedsoffood,fuelshelterandfodder. •About40%ofourpeoplearestillbelowthepovertyline. •Environmentdegradationhasadverselyaffectedthepoorwhodependupontheresourcesoftheirimmediatesurroundings. •Thus,thechallengeofpovertyandthechallengeenvironmentdegradationaretwofactsofthesamechallenge. •Thepopulationgrowthisessentiallyafunctionofpoverty. •Because,totheverypoor,everychildisanearnerandhelperandglobalconcernshavelittlerelevanceforhim.
  12. 12. Agriculture Growth •Thepeoplemustbeacquaintedwiththemethodstosustainandincreaseagriculturalgrowthwithdamagingtheenvironment.Highyieldingvarietieshavecausedsoilsalinityanddamagetophysicalstructureofsoil. •TheeconomiccontributionofagriculturetoIndia'sGDPissteadilydecliningwiththecountry'sbroad-basedeconomicgrowth. •Still,agricultureisdemographicallythebroadesteconomicsectorandplaysasignificantroleintheoverallsocio-economicfabricofIndia. July 22, 12 2012 Footer text here
  13. 13. Ground Water July 22, 13 2012 Footer text here •Itisessentialofrationalizingtheuseofgroundwater. •Factorslikecommunitywastes,industrialeffluentsandchemicalfertilizersandpesticideshavepollutedoursurfacewaterandaffectedqualityofthegroundwater. •Itisessentialtorestorethewaterqualityofourriversandotherwaterbodyaslakesisanimportantchallenge. •Itsofindingoursuitablestrategiesforconsecrationofwater,provisionofsafedrinkingwaterandkeepingwaterbodiescleanwhicharedifficultchallengesisessential.
  14. 14. Developments and forests •Forests serve catchments for the rivers, with increasing demand of water, plan to harness the mighty river through large irrigation projects were made. •These would submerge forests; displace local people, damage flora and fauna. •Eg; the dams on the river Narmada, Bhagirathi and elsewhere have become areas of political and scientific debate. •Forests in India have been shrinking for several centuries owing to pressures of agriculture and other uses. •Vast areas that were once green, stand today as wastelands. These areas are to be brought back under vegetative cover. •The tribal communities inhabiting forests respects the trees and birds and animal that gives them sustenance. •We must recognize the role of these people in restoring and conserving forests. •The modern knowledge and skills of the forest deptshould be integrated with the traditional knowledge and experience of the local communities. •The strategies for the joint management of forests should be evolved in a well planned way. July 22, 14 2012 Footer text here
  15. 15. Reduction in genetic diversity •At present most wild genetic stocks have been disappearing from nature. •Wilding including the Asiatic Lion are facing problem of loss of genetic diversity. •The protected areas network like sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves are isolating populations. S •so, they are decreasing changes of one group breeding with another. Remedial steps are to be taken to check decreasing genetic diversity. July 22, 15 2012 Footer text here
  16. 16. Urbanization •Nearly27percentIndiansliveinurbanareas.Urbanizationandindustrializationhasgivenbirthtoagreatnumberofenvironmentalproblemsthatneedurgentattention. •Over30percentofurbanIndiansliveinslums.OutofIndia’s3,245townsandcities,only21havepartialorfullsewerageandtreatmentfacilities. •Copingwithrapidurbanizationisamajorchallenge. July 22, 16 2012 Footer text here
  17. 17. Air Pollution •AirpollutioninIndiaisaseriousissuewiththemajorsourcesbeingfuelwoodandbiomassburning,fueladulteration,vehicleemissionandtrafficcongestion. •AirpollutionisalsothemaincauseoftheAsianbrowncloud, whichiscausingthemonsoontobedelayed. •Indiaistheworld'slargestconsumeroffuelwood,agriculturalwasteandbiomassforenergypurposes. •Traditionalfuel(fuelwood,cropresidueanddungcake) dominatesdomesticenergyuseinruralIndiaandaccountsforabout90%ofthetotal •Vehicleemissionsareanothersourceofairpollution.Vehicleemissionsareworsenedbyfueladulterationandpoorfuelcombustionefficienciesfromtrafficcongestionandlowdensityofquality,highspeedroadnetworkper1000people. •TheAir(PreventionandControlofPollution)Actwaspassedin1981toregulateairpollutionandtherehavebeensomemeasurableimprovements. •However,the2012EnvironmentalPerformanceIndexrankedIndiaashavingthepoorestrelativeairqualityoutof132countries. July 22, 17 2012 Footer text here
  18. 18. Water Pollution •A2007studyfoundthatdischargeofuntreatedsewageisthesinglemostimportantsourceofpollutioninsurfaceandgroundwaterinIndia. •ThereisalargegapbetweengenerationandtreatmentofdomesticwastewaterinIndia. •TheproblemisnotonlythatIndialackssufficienttreatmentcapacitybutalsothatthesewagetreatmentplantsthatexistdonotoperateandarenotmaintained. •In2008,thewaterqualitymonitoringfoundalmostallriverswithhighlevelsofBOD. •RiversYamuna,Ganga,Gomti,GhagharaRiver,Chambal,Mahi,VardhaareamongsttheothermostcoliformpollutedwaterbodiesinIndia. •FloodingduringmonsoonsworsensIndia'swaterpollutionproblem,asitwashesandmovessolidwasteandcontaminatedsoilsintoitsriversandwetlands. July 22, 18 2012 Footer text here
  19. 19. Solid waste Pollution •TrashandgarbageisacommonsightinurbanandruralareasofIndia.Itisamajorsourceofpollution. •Inthecountryareproducedeveryyear226.6milliontonsandIndiancitiesalonegeneratemorethan100milliontonsofsolidwasteayear. •Streetcornersarepiledwithtrash.Publicplacesandsidewalksaredespoiledwithfilthandlitter,riversandcanalsactasgarbagedumps. •Inpart,India'sgarbagecrisisisfromrisingconsumption. India'swasteproblemalsopointstoastunningfailureofgovernance. •In2000,India'sSupremeCourtdirectedallIndiancitiestoimplementacomprehensivewaste-managementprogrammethatwouldincludehouseholdcollectionofsegregatedwaste, recyclingandcomposting. •Thesedirectionshavesimplybeenignored.NomajorcityrunsacomprehensiveprogrammeofthekindenvisionedbytheSupremeCourt. July 22, 19 2012 Footer text here
  20. 20. Soil Pollution •SoilsinIndiacanbeclassifiedinto8categories:alluvial,black,red,laterite, forest,arid&desert,saline&alkalineandpeaty&organicsoils. •InMarch2009,theissueofUraniumpoisoninginPunjabattractedpresscoverage. •Itwasallegedtobecausedbyflyashpondsofthermalpowerstations, whichreportedlyleadtoseverebirthdefectsinchildrenintheFaridkotandBhatindadistrictsofPunjab. •Thenewsreportsclaimedtheuraniumlevelsweremorethan60timesthemaximumsafelimit. •In2012,theGovernmentofIndiaconfirmedthatthegroundwaterinMalwabeltofPunjabhasuraniummetalthatis50%abovethetracelimitssetbytheUnitedNations'WorldHealthOrganization. •Scientificstudies,basedonover1000samplesfromvarioussamplingpoints,couldnottracethesourcetoflyashandanysourcesfromthermalpowerplantsorindustryasoriginallyalleged. •ThestudyalsorevealedthattheuraniumconcentrationingroundwaterofMalwadistrictisnot60timestheWHOlimits,butonly50%abovetheWHOlimitin3locations. •Thishighestconcentrationfoundinsampleswaslessthanthosefoundnaturallyingroundwaterscurrentlyusedforhumanpurposeselsewhere, suchasFinland. •Researchisunderwaytoidentifynaturalorothersourcesfortheuranium. July 22, 20 2012 Footer text here
  21. 21. Noise Pollution •NoisepollutioninIndiaisquiteabigproblemduetoexcessiveusageofhornsfornosensiblereasonwhatsoever. •Ifapersonistoherehornsofsuchhighvolumesthroughoutthedaythennaturallyasageadvanceshearingwillbecomedifficultandwillslowlyleadtodeafness. •Thistoocanbeeradicatedslowlybutsteadilythrougheducation. •Peopleneedtounderstandthathonkingsomuchandthattoounnecessarilyisharmfulandnotsafe. •TheSupremeCourtofIndiawhichisinNewDelhigaveasignificantverdictonnoisepollutionin2005. •Unnecessaryhonkingofvehiclesmakesforahighdecibellevelofnoiseincities. •Theuseofloudspeakersforpoliticalpurposesandforsermonsbytemplesandmosquesmakesnoisepollutioninresidentialareasworse. •InJanuary2010,GovernmentofIndiapublishednormsofpermissiblenoiselevelsinurbanandruralareas. July 22, 21 2012 Footer text here
  22. 22. Greenhouse Gas Emission •Greenhousegasesarethosethatcanabsorbandemitinfraredradiation,butnotradiationinornearthevisiblespectrum.Inorder,themostabundantgreenhousegasesinEarth'satmosphereare: •Watervapor(H2O),Carbondioxide(CO2) •Methane(CH4),Nitrousoxide(N2O) •Ozone(O3),CFCs •Indiawasthethirdlargestemitterofcarbondioxidein2009at1.65Gtperyear,afterChina(6.9Gtperyear)andtheUnitedStates(5.2Gtperyear). •With17percentofworldpopulation,Indiacontributedsome5percentofhuman-sourcedcarbondioxideemission;comparedtoChina's24percentshare. •Onpercapitabasis,Indiaemittedabout1.4tonsofcarbondioxideperperson,incomparisontotheUnitedStates’17tonsperperson,andaworldaverageof5.3tonsperperson. July 22, 22 2012 Footer text here
  23. 23. National Forest Programme •Asearlyasthe1960s,theinternationalforestrycommunityhadidentifiedpolicyplanningasapriority,recognizingtheimportanceofhavingsoundpolicytoguideeffortstoimprovetheforestsector'sperformanceincountriesandprovidemorestrategicorientationtowardsforestdevelopment. •Inthe1980s,inresponsetoworldwideconcernoverdeforestationinthetropics,itinitiatedthefirstsetofinternationallyconcertedactionplans,includingtropicalforestactionplans(TFAPs),forestrysectormasterplansandforestrysectorreviews. July 22, 23 2012 Footer text here •The lessons learned from TFAPs and other planning frameworks had significant impact on the subsequent international forest policy dialogue.
  24. 24. Forest and Conservation •Prior to the 1980s, India deployed a bureaucratic method to estimate forest coverage. •A land was notified as covered under Indian Forest Act, and then officials deemed this land area as recorded forest even if it was devoid of vegetation •In the 1980s, space satellites were deployed for remote sensing of real forest cover. •In 1985, India created the Ministry of Environment and Forests. •This was followed by a National Forest Policy and the major government reforms of the early 1990s. •Standards were introduced in 1980’s to classify India's forests into different Categories July 22, 24 2012 Footer text here
  25. 25. Forest Categories •ForestCover:definedasalllands,morethanonehectareinarea,withatreecanopydensityofmorethan10percent.(Theymayormaynotbestatutorilynotifiedasforestarea). •VeryDenseForest:Alllands,withaforestcoverwithcanopydensityof70percentandabove •ModeratelyDenseForest:Alllands,withaforestcoverwithcanopydensityof40–70percent •OpenForest:Alllands,withforestcoverwithcanopydensityoftentofortypercent •MangroveCover:Mangroveforestissalttolerantforestecosystemfoundmainlyintropicalandsub-tropicalcoastaland/orinter-tidalregions.Mangrovecoveristheareacoveredundermangrovevegetationasinterpreteddigitallyfromremotesensingdata.Itisapartofforestcoverandalsoclassifiedintothreeclassesviz.verydense, moderatelydenseandopen. July 22, 25 2012 Footer text here
  26. 26. Forest Categories •NonForestLand:definedaslandswithoutanyforestcover •ScrubCover:Alllands,generallyinandaroundforestareas,havingbushesandorpoortreegrowth,chieflysmallorstuntedtreeswithcanopydensitylessthan10percent •TreeCover:Landwithtreepatches(blocksandlinear)outsidetherecordedforestareaexclusiveofforestcoverandlessthantheminimummapableareaofonehectare •TreesOutsideForests:TreesgrowingoutsideRecordedForestAreas July 22, 26 2012 Footer text here
  27. 27. Legal Framework and laws July 22, 27 2012 Footer text here •The Forest Acts of 1865 and 1878 were pieces of colonial legislation. •Both the Acts restricted the access of the tribal communities to forest resources and gave exclusive ownership and control over the forests to the colonial masters. In 1927, The Forest Act was passed, repealing the Forest Acts of 1865 and 1878. •The Forest Act of 1927 too vests the ownership and control over forest resources in the Government and not in the village communities. •The rapid drift towards deforestation during the Second World War and the post- independence developmental Activities further aggravated environmental degradation. So, in 1952, the national policy laid down that one third of the total geographical area in India should be brought under tree cover.
  28. 28. Legal Framework and laws •Pursuant to the Stockholm Conference in 1972, which adopted that natural resources, including forests, should be safeguarded, the subject of forests was deleted from the State list and included in the Concurrent List by the Constitutional (42nd Amendment) Act of 1976. •In 1988, pursuant to IX World Forestry Conference, the Indian Government amended the Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980 and also formulated a 22 Vedas literally means ‘knowledge’. •They are the first records of the ancient Indians on history, law, economics, religion, philosophy, ethics, environment, aesthetics and other subjects. •There are yet other laws that deal with wildlife protection such as The Elephants’ Preservation Act of 1879; and The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act of 1912. July 22, 28 2012 Footer text here
  29. 29. Environmental Issues and Judicial interventions •The TehriDam Project. •The Narmada Valley Project July 22, 29 2012 Footer text here
  30. 30. The TehriDam Project. •TheriversBhagirathiandBhilanganariseintheGarhwalHimalayasinUttaranchalandflowsouthtotheplainsastheGanga. •Athreebilliondollarclaycore,rockfilldamisbeingconstructedattheconfluenceoftheBhagirathiandBhilangana,closetotheGarhwaltownofTehri. •Itwouldsubmergenearly100villages,includingTehri,ahistoricalcapital.Asmanyas85,600familieswillberelocatedasaresult. •Thecompleteddamwilldisplacemanypeopleandsubmergeseveraltowns,amongthemthetownofTehri;theregionisvulnerabletoearthquakesandthedammaybestructurallyincapableofwithstandingthem. •Ofparticularconcernwerethe1,70,000inhabitantsofthedownstreamsHinduholytownsofHardwarandRishikesh July 22, 30 2012 Footer text here
  31. 31. The TehriDam Project. •TheTehriprojectwasunsuccessfullychallengedintheSupremeCourtinawritpetitionfiledbytheTehriBandhVirodhiSangarashSamiti(TBVSS)in1985. •InApril1987theIndianNationalTrustforArtandCulturalHeritage(INTACH),an‘intervener’inthispetitionandaleadingnon-Governmentalorganizationinthefieldofconservation,sponsoredanindependentassessmentoftheeconomicfeasibilityofthedam. July 22, 31 2012 Footer text here •Inaddition,in1986,theSovietUnionagreedtohelpfundtheprojectwithloansatextremelyconcessionalterms. •AsapartoftheagreementwiththeIndianGovernment,Sovietexpertsconductedareviewoftheproposedprojectandmadeseveralominousfindings,themostfrighteningofwhichwasthatthehighseismicityoftheTehriareahadnotbeenadequatelytakenintoconsiderationbyIndianplanners.
  32. 32. The TehriDam Project. •TheSupremeCourtdismissedthepetitionin1990afteraverylimitedenquiry. •AlthoughtheEnvironmentalAppraisalCommitteehadunanimouslyconcludedthattheTehriprojectshouldnotbeapproved,theCentralGovernmentreliedinsteadonanopinionoftheDepartmentofMinestoconvinceitselfandthecourtthattheprojectwassound. July 22, 32 2012 Footer text here
  33. 33. The Narmada Valley Project •TheNarmadaRiverspringsfromaholypoolamidstHindutemplesontheAmarkantakplateauintheforestedShahdoldistrictofMadhyaPradesh,andthenwindswestwardsalonga1,300-ki1ometrecoursetodrainintotheArabiansea. •TheNarmadaisoneofIndia’smostsacredrivers. •AlthoughtheNarmadaValleyProjectwasconceivedin1946,finalplanningandworkonitcommencedonlyaftertheNarmadaWaterDisputesTribunalpasseditsfinalordersin1978. •ThisTribunalwasestablishedin1969underIndia’sInterstateWaterDisputesActof1956toresolvethedisputeonriverwatersharingamongtheriparianStatesofMadhyaPradesh,GujaratandMaharashtra. •Thetribunalalsolaiddownconditionsregardingresettlementandrehabilitationofthepeopletobedisplacedbythesubmergence- the‘oustees.’ July 22, 33 2012 Footer text here
  34. 34. The Narmada Valley Project •TheNarmadaValleyProject,ifandwhencompleted,willrankasthelargestirrigationprojecteverplannedandimplementedasasingleunitanywhereintheworld. •Bytheyear2040,theprojectauthoritieshopetocomplete31majordams(11ontheNarmadaand20onitstributaries),135mediumdamsand3000minordams. July 22, 34 2012 Footer text here •Outofthe31majordams,theonesmostcontroversialaretheSardarSarovarProject(SSP)inGujaratandtheNarmada(Indira)SagarProject(NSP)inMadhyaPradesh. •TheNSP,whichhasthelargestsubmergencezoneandwillcreatebiggestartificialreservoirinIndia,isyearsbehindtheSSPinconstruction. •TheSSPisintendedtobringdrinkingwatertoKutchandotherdrought-riddenregionsofGujarat.
  35. 35. The Narmada Valley Project •Thedamwillimpoundwaterina455foothighreservoirthatwillsubmerge37,000hectaresoflandinthethreeStatesofGujarat,MaharashtraandMadhyaPradesh. •Itwillalsodivert9.5millionacrefeet(MAF)ofwaterintoacanalandirrigationsystem. •Thecanalisthebiggestintheworld-450kilometerlong. July 22, 35 2012 Footer text here
  36. 36. The Narmada Valley Project •The Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT) established specific conditions regarding the resettlement and rehabilitation of the people that would be displaced by the creation of the SardarSarovardam. •The language of the Tribunal award clearly States that all ‘Project Affected Families’ would be re-established as communities with access to water, education, and health (Clause 1V(1" on a ‘land-for- land basis’ •On 5 June 1995 the Supreme Court granted a stay, citing the questionable rehabilitation process. Construction was suspended at a height of 81.5 meters. •After four years of investigations and mounds of further litigation, the Supreme Court surprised many by issuing an interim order on 18 February 1999, which permitted the resumption of construction on the dam up to a height of 85 metres. •One of the major reasons the Court allowed work to resume was based on an affidavit provided by the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat that all ousteeshad been fully rehabilitated and indicating that arrangements had been made for those to be displaced by the increase of 3.5 metres in dam height. July 22, 36 2012 Footer text here
  37. 37. The Narmada Valley Project •In order to fully expose the incorrect Government claims, the NBA (Narmada BachaoAndolan) and a host of other concerned groups representing oustees, women, dalits, tribals, farmers and other downtrodden people, organized marches and sit ins throughout India, aimed particularly at dam sites and Government buildings. •Their purpose was to force the Government to admit its untruths concerning the availability of land for the displaced. •The campaigns conducted by citizen groups are having some positive outcomes. •In March, 1999 the Government of Maharashtra admitted that there was not land to sufficiently rehabilitate the families who would be submerged by the court sanctioned five meter rise in dam height. •Remember that Maharashtra authorities had made earlier claims in the Supreme Court that there was land available for project-affected families. •Authorities have admitted that the number of displaced families they had cited in the affidavit submitted to the court was based on numbers of a survey conducted in 1983-1984. •This figure represented only one tenth of the Actual number of displacees July 22, 37 2012 Footer text here
  38. 38. Conclusion •India must pursue rural development and animal husbandry policies to address local communities need to find affordable cattle fodder and grazing. •To avoid destruction of local forest cover, fodder must reach these communities on reliable roads and other infrastructure, in all seasons year round. •The Forest Rights Bill is likely to be harmful to forest conservation and ecological security. The Forest Rights Bill became a law since 2007. •The government should work closely with mining companies. Revenue generated from lease of mines must be pooled into a dedicated fund to conserve and improve the quality of forests in the region where the mines are located. •Power to declare ecologically sensitive areas must be with each Indian state. •The mandate of State Forest Corporations and government owned monopolies must be changed. •Government should reform regulations and laws that ban felling of trees and transit of wood within India. Sustainable agro-forestry and farm forestry must be encouraged through financial and regulatory reforms, particularly on privately owned lands. July 22, 38 2012 Footer text here
  39. 39. Thank you

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