The roman civilization


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The roman civilization

  1. 1. Where is Rome? • Rome is located in Italy, a peninsula that sticks out into the Mediterranean Sea. It is build on seven small hills by the bank of the river Tiber. It is Italy's capital and the country's largest and most populated city and commune. Rome has a sovereign state located entirely in its city limits, the Vatican City, which is also the world’s smallest state.
  2. 2. History of Rome • According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by twin sons Romulus and Remus who were raised by a she-wolf. • During its twelve-century history, the Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to an oligarchic republic to a immense empire. • Since then it has been continuously inhabited, and, as headquarters first of the Roman Empire and then of the Roman Catholic Church, it has had an immense impact on the world.
  3. 3. • Rome reached its peak of power in the 2nd century around the year 117 AD under the rule of the great Roman emperor Trajan. • Virtually all of the coastline along the Mediterranean Sea was part of the Roman Empire. This included Spain, Italy, France, southern Britain, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, and northern Africa.
  4. 4. • The Fall of Rome didn't happen in a day, it happened over a long period of time. There are a number of reasons why the empire began to fail. Here are some of the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire: The politicians and rulers of Rome became more and more corrupt • Infighting and civil wars within the Empire • Attacks from barbarian tribes outside of the empire such as the Visigoths, Huns, Franks, and Vandals. • The Roman army was no longer a dominant force • The empire became so large it was difficult to govern.
  5. 5. • In 285 AD, Emperor Diocletian decided that the Roman Empire was too big to manage. He divided the Empire into two parts, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire. • Over the next hundred years or so, Rome would be reunited, split into three parts, and split in two again. Finally, in 395 AD, the empire was split into two for good. The Western Empire was ruled by Rome, the Eastern Empire was ruled by Constantinople. • The "fall" of Rome discussed here is referring to the Western Roman Empire which was ruled by Rome. The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantium Empire and remained in power for another 1000 years.
  6. 6. • The city of Rome was thought by many to be unconquerable. • However, in 410 AD, a Germanic barbarian tribe called the Visigoths invaded the city. • They looted the treasures, killed and enslaved many Romans, and destroyed many buildings. • This was the first time in 800 years that the city of Rome had been sacked.
  7. 7. Rome Falls • In 476 AD, a Germanic barbarian by the name of Odoacer took control of Rome. • He became king of Italy and forced the last emperor of Rome, Romulus Augustulus, to give up his crown. • Many historians consider this to be the end of the Roman Empire.
  8. 8. • With the fall of Rome, many changes occurred throughout Europe. • Rome had provided a strong government, education, and culture. • Now much of Europe fell into barbarianism. • The next 500 years would be known as the Dark Ages of Europe.
  9. 9. • The Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, fell in 1453 to the Ottoman Empire. • Many poor people were glad to see Rome fall. They were starving to death while being taxed heavily by Rome. • Near the end of the Roman Empire, the city of Rome was no longer the capital. The city of Mediolanum (now Milan) was capital for a while. Later, the capital was moved to Ravenna. • Rome was sacked once again in 455 AD by Geiseric, King of the Vandals. The Vandals were an Eastern Germanic tribe. The term "vandalism" comes from the Vandals.
  10. 10. • The Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheatre is a large ellipsoid arena built in the first century CE under the Roman emperors of the Flavian dynasty: Vespasian (6979 CE), Titus (79-81 CE) and Domitian (81-96 AD). • The arena was used to host spectacular public entertainment events such as gladiator fights, wild animal hunts and public executions from 80 CE to 404 CE. • The Colosseum in Rome could seat up to 50,000 people and was the largest amphitheatre in the Empire. It was here that people gathered to see the fights between gladiators, slaves, prisoners and wild animals like lions.
  11. 11. • The floor of the colosseum, where you might expect to see a smooth ellipse of sand, is instead a bewildering array of masonry walls shaped in concentric rings, whorls and chambers, like a huge thumbprint. • The confusion is compounded as you descend a long stairway at the eastern end of the stadium and enter ruins that were hidden beneath a wooden floor during the nearly five centuries the arena was in use, beginning with its inauguration in A.D. 80. • Weeds grow waist-high between flagstones; caper and fig trees sprout from dank walls, which are a patchwork of travertine slabs, tufa blocks and brickwork. • The walls and the floor bear numerous slots, grooves and abrasions, obviously made with great care, but for purposes that you can only guess.
  12. 12. • Diocletian's Palace is a building in Split, Croatia, that was built by the Roman emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD. • Diocletian built the massive palace in preparation for his retirement on 1 May 305 AD. • It lies in a bay on the south side of a short peninsula running out from the Dalmatian coast, four miles from Salona, the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia. • The terrain slopes gently seaward and is typical karst, consisting of low limestone ridges running east to west with marl in the clefts between them.
  13. 13. • The Romans engaged themselves in several activities just for fun. • Some of the activities that they participated in included hunting and playing board games; they also enjoyed fighting as gladiators in arenas, which their kings paid for. • They also were involved in theatre activities like circuses and plays.
  14. 14. Who was in the Roman army? • Only men could be in the Roman Army. No women. Every Roman soldier was a Roman citizen. He had to be at least 20 years old. He was not supposed to get married while he was a soldier. Most soldiers in the Roman Empire came from countries outside Italy. There were Roman soldiers from Africa, France, Germany, the Balkans, Spain and the Middle East. • Soldiers had to stay in the army for at least 25 years! Then they could retire, with a pension or a gift of land to farm. Old soldiers often settled down to old age together, in a military town or colonia.
  15. 15. What made the Roman army strong? • The Roman army was for a long time invincible because of its ability to adapt and maneuverability. It also had some of the best disciplined soldiers, outstanding tactics and amazing technology for the era.
  16. 16. What made the Roman armies so strong? • They had the best weapon. Also the high discipline the the roman legions were very famous for, and the extensive training a legionnaire had to go through before joining the ranks of the army. • Weapons and armor played a roll in improving the strength of the roman army as well.
  17. 17. How strong is the Roman army? • The Roman Army is incredibly strong. • Rome has controlled most of the land known at the time.
  18. 18. • Jupiter - King of the Gods • Juno - Queen of the Gods • • • Neptune - God of the Sea • Pluto - God of Death • Apollo - God of the Sun • Diana - Goddess of the Moon • Mars - God of War • Venus - Goddess of Love • Cupid - God of Love • Mercury - Messenger of the Gods • • • • • • • • • Ceres - The Earth Goddess Proserpine - Goddess of the Underworld Vulcan - The Smith God Bacchus - God of Wine Saturn - God of Time Vesta - Goddess of the Home Janus - God of Doors Uranus and Gaia - Parents of Saturn Maia - Goddess of Growth Flora - Goddess of Flowers Plutus - God of Wealth
  19. 19. Monsters • Cerberus - Dog of the Underworld • Gorgon - Turns you to stone