Where is Rome?
• Rome is located in Italy, a peninsula that sticks
out into the Mediterranean Sea. It is build on
seven small hills by the bank of the river Tiber.
It is Italy's capital and the country's largest
and most populated city and commune. Rome
has a sovereign state located entirely in its city
limits, the Vatican City, which is also the
world’s smallest state.
History of Rome
• According to legend, Rome was
founded in 753 BC by twin sons
Romulus and Remus who were raised
by a she-wolf.
• During its twelve-century history, the
Roman civilization shifted from a
monarchy to an oligarchic republic to
a immense empire.
• Since then it has been continuously
inhabited, and, as headquarters first
of the Roman Empire and then of the
Roman Catholic Church, it has had an
immense impact on the world.
• Rome reached its peak of power in the 2nd
century around the year 117 AD under the
rule of the great Roman emperor Trajan.
• Virtually all of the coastline along the
Mediterranean Sea was part of the Roman
Empire. This included
Spain, Italy, France, southern
Britain, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, and northern
• The Fall of Rome didn't happen in a day, it happened
over a long period of time. There are a number of
reasons why the empire began to fail. Here are some of
the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire: The
politicians and rulers of Rome became more and more
• Infighting and civil wars within the Empire
• Attacks from barbarian tribes outside of the empire
such as the Visigoths, Huns, Franks, and Vandals.
• The Roman army was no longer a dominant force
• The empire became so large it was difficult to govern.
• In 285 AD, Emperor Diocletian decided that the Roman
Empire was too big to manage. He divided the Empire into
two parts, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western
• Over the next hundred years or so, Rome would be
reunited, split into three parts, and split in two again.
Finally, in 395 AD, the empire was split into two for good.
The Western Empire was ruled by Rome, the Eastern
Empire was ruled by Constantinople.
• The "fall" of Rome discussed here is referring to the
Western Roman Empire which was ruled by Rome. The
Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantium
Empire and remained in power for another 1000 years.
• The city of Rome was thought by many to be
• However, in 410 AD, a Germanic barbarian
tribe called the Visigoths invaded the city.
• They looted the treasures, killed and enslaved
many Romans, and destroyed many buildings.
• This was the first time in 800 years that the
city of Rome had been sacked.
• In 476 AD, a Germanic barbarian by the name
of Odoacer took control of Rome.
• He became king of Italy and forced the last
emperor of Rome, Romulus Augustulus, to
give up his crown.
• Many historians consider this to be the end of
the Roman Empire.
• With the fall of Rome, many changes occurred
• Rome had provided a strong
government, education, and culture.
• Now much of Europe fell into barbarianism.
• The next 500 years would be known as the
Dark Ages of Europe.
• The Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, fell in 1453 to
the Ottoman Empire.
• Many poor people were glad to see Rome fall. They were
starving to death while being taxed heavily by Rome.
• Near the end of the Roman Empire, the city of Rome was
no longer the capital. The city of Mediolanum (now Milan)
was capital for a while. Later, the capital was moved to
• Rome was sacked once again in 455 AD by Geiseric, King of
the Vandals. The Vandals were an Eastern Germanic tribe.
The term "vandalism" comes from the Vandals.
• The Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheatre is a large
ellipsoid arena built in the first century CE under the
Roman emperors of the Flavian dynasty: Vespasian (6979 CE), Titus (79-81 CE) and Domitian (81-96 AD).
• The arena was used to host spectacular public
entertainment events such as gladiator fights, wild
animal hunts and public executions from 80 CE to 404
• The Colosseum in Rome could seat up to 50,000 people
and was the largest amphitheatre in the Empire. It was
here that people gathered to see the fights between
gladiators, slaves, prisoners and wild animals like lions.
• The floor of the colosseum, where you might expect to see a
smooth ellipse of sand, is instead a bewildering array of masonry
walls shaped in concentric rings, whorls and chambers, like a huge
• The confusion is compounded as you descend a long stairway at the
eastern end of the stadium and enter ruins that were hidden
beneath a wooden floor during the nearly five centuries the arena
was in use, beginning with its inauguration in A.D. 80.
• Weeds grow waist-high between flagstones; caper and fig trees
sprout from dank walls, which are a patchwork of travertine slabs,
tufa blocks and brickwork.
• The walls and the floor bear numerous slots, grooves and abrasions,
obviously made with great care, but for purposes that you can only
• Diocletian's Palace is a building in Split, Croatia, that
was built by the Roman emperor Diocletian at the turn
of the fourth century AD.
• Diocletian built the massive palace in preparation for
his retirement on 1 May 305 AD.
• It lies in a bay on the south side of a short peninsula
running out from the Dalmatian coast, four miles from
Salona, the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia.
• The terrain slopes gently seaward and is typical
karst, consisting of low limestone ridges running east
to west with marl in the clefts between them.
• The Romans engaged themselves in several
activities just for fun.
• Some of the activities that they participated in
included hunting and playing board games;
they also enjoyed fighting as gladiators in
arenas, which their kings paid for.
• They also were involved in theatre activities
like circuses and plays.
Who was in the Roman army?
• Only men could be in the Roman Army. No women. Every
Roman soldier was a Roman citizen. He had to be at least
20 years old. He was not supposed to get married while he
was a soldier. Most soldiers in the Roman Empire came
from countries outside Italy. There were Roman soldiers
from Africa, France, Germany, the Balkans, Spain and the
• Soldiers had to stay in the army for at least 25 years! Then
they could retire, with a pension or a gift of land to farm.
Old soldiers often settled down to old age together, in a
military town or colonia.
What made the Roman army strong?
• The Roman army was for a long time invincible
because of its ability to adapt and
maneuverability. It also had some of the best
disciplined soldiers, outstanding tactics and
amazing technology for the era.
What made the Roman armies so
• They had the best weapon. Also the high
discipline the the roman legions were very
famous for, and the extensive training a
legionnaire had to go through before joining
the ranks of the army.
• Weapons and armor played a roll in improving
the strength of the roman army as well.
How strong is the Roman army?
• The Roman Army is incredibly strong.
• Rome has controlled most of the land known
at the time.
• Jupiter - King of the Gods
• Juno - Queen of the Gods
• Neptune - God of the Sea
• Pluto - God of Death
• Apollo - God of the Sun
• Diana - Goddess of the
• Mars - God of War
• Venus - Goddess of Love
• Cupid - God of Love
• Mercury - Messenger of
Ceres - The Earth Goddess
Proserpine - Goddess of the
Vulcan - The Smith God
Bacchus - God of Wine
Saturn - God of Time
Vesta - Goddess of the Home
Janus - God of Doors
Uranus and Gaia - Parents of
Maia - Goddess of Growth
Flora - Goddess of Flowers
Plutus - God of Wealth
• Cerberus - Dog of the Underworld
• Gorgon - Turns you to stone