There are many different theirs and sub-theory’s in psychology with numerous major topics, most of which should be covered in the following presentation. It starts with a break down of the major psychological perspectives, and then mentions a few of there most popular founders or theorists and their major contributions. I follow with the theories that I relate with the most compared to those that I do not find as reliable. I also talk about the ways in which these theories might effect the future of psychology, a new method to psychology and my worldview of today compared to that of before my psychology program.
Sigmund Freud is known as the founder of the psychodynamic perspective in psychology. He has several well known theories in the field of psychology. First is the theory of the Id, Ego, and Super-Ego. The Id is a form of personality that seeks immediate gratification, and is broke up into Freud theories of the life and death instinct known respectfully as Eros, and Thanatos, and make up the parts of the Id (AROPA, 1999-2013). The force that is said to move this Id construct is the libido. Then the Ego is said to be the control center of the person, dealing with the individuals environments and regulating the libido. Finally the Super-Ego acts as a moral regulator and judges the actions of the individual, rewarding or punishing behaviors based on held values and standards (AROPA, 1999-2013). The over-all functioning of this system in adulthood is based on the first found implications of development. Freud's theory of psychosexual development then comes in stages Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, and genital stages. Each is given a duration of time to complete before moving on. It was Freud's opinion that if a stage was not completed effectively that a fixation would occur and a child could be stuck in that stage for a longer period of time, or have an adult fixation with that stage. Freud also spoke of the Oedipus complex for boys and then later the Electra complex for girls given by Carl Jung (AROPA, 1999-2013). This is where young boys would be sexually attracted to their mothers and girls sexually attracted to their fathers, feelings of jealousy is created toward the parent of the same sex, but is then repressed because of love for the parent. Freud also brought up his idea that young girls have “penis envy” and therefore are angry with men for having what they do not have, and even angrier with their mothers who they blame as the cause (AROPA, 1999-2013). Most of the psychodynamic therapy used today is based on the theory's of the conscious and unconscious mind, where troubles from childhood may be repressed, and theory's such as free association, and dream analysis are used to bring these issues to the forefront of the mind, and aid in the persons well being.
Carl Jung’s work was a rebuttal to the of Freud, Jung was convinced that Freud's work was unnecessarily negative and wanted to apply a more positive approach. Still their works are relatively similar. Freud Calling Jung his successor, they stayed in contact for 6 years. The main differences in their theory's is that of the unconscious. Where Freud spoke of the existence of both a conscious mind and an unconscious mind, Jung thought there to be an even deeper collective unconscious mind. The collective unconscious mind is something that is shared among every individual, and is inherited. These preexistent forms are called archetypes, some of these include the persona, the anima, and the animus (AROPA,1999-2013). Erik Erikson was similar to Freud in his creation of developmental stages theory, but different in his approach. He created the Psychosocial developmental Theory, where personality and behaviors are then developed through a series of eight stages over the life span, Trust vs. mistrust, Autonomy vs. shame, Initiative vs. guilt, Industry vs. inferiority, Identity vs. role confusion, Intimacy vs. isolation, Generatively vs. stagnation, and Integrity vs. despair(Goodwin,2008).
The behavioral approach has several well known contributors. Ivan Pavlov is known for his experiments with dogs and their digestive systems, when he stumbled upon a new idea of classical conditioning. This is where an unconditioned Stimulus naturally creates an unconditioned response. The Unconditioned stimulus is then paired next to a conditioned stimulus of choosing. After several pairings an association is created and a conditioned response is then found to the conditioned stimulus alone (AllPsych & Heffner Media Group, Inc.,2011). Another contributor is Edward Thorndike, he developed the theory of the “Law of Effect” this theory states that if a behavior is followed by a positive outcome that behavior is more likely to be repeated while the opposite is also true, if a behavior is followed by a negative outcome then that behavior is less likely to be repeated. Following the “Law of Effect” came the workings of B. F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning, Operant conditioning uses Reinforcers. A positive reinforcement is something that is added to a situation when a desired behavior has occurred, such as praise. A negative reinforcement is where a negative thing is being taken away. Punishment is where negative things are added to the situation, and associated with bad behaviors, so they can be conditioned to not occur (AllPsych & Heffner Media Group, Inc.,2011). Each of these theories coincide with each other in one way or another. John B. Watson is also well know for his workings as a founder of behaviorism, and also in his experiments with “Little Albert” a small child who was exposed to different stimulates to determine and prove the fore mentioned theories. He is responsible for taking the different conditioning theories and applying them to childrearing.
Darwin brought a lot of biological information to the table in psychology. He studied many different animals and their behaviors under similar stimuli compared to humans. He studied human and animal nervous systems and hormones, the different brain functioning's, and how the changes to the different structures of the brain can affect behavior and personality (pinel,2009). He also worked with the use of traits that may be inherited from parents and whether or not those different traits were based on nature or nurture. Harlow Phineas Gage was a American railroad construction foreman who survived an railroad accident where a large iron rod was completely embedded into his head. This accident had destroyed much of the left frontal lobe of his brain. Alone his survival is a medical marvel but the psychological debate that flowed is historic. After the accident many of Gage’s family did not recognize his personality, and claimed that they Gage they had once known was now gone (Pinel, 2009). This was a major advancement for the Biological approach to personality since creating brain lacerations in human trials is completely unethical. Although since then Many trials have been conducted on animals.
Sternberg's theory of intelligence was one of the first to take a more cognitive approach. This theory has three sub-theorys given the triarchic title of the theory. The three corners of the theory are the Componential/Analytical sub-theory, the Experiential/Creative sub-theory, and the Practical/ Contextual sub-theory (Willingham, 2007). The Analytical component covers meta-components, performance, and knowledge acquisition, this is the mostly tested for intelligence. The Experiential component covers Novelty and Automation, this shows that intelligence is interpreted along a continuum of experiences. The Contextual component covers adaptation, selection, and shaping, tis shows that intelligence is also based on the sociocultural situation, and a change of environment can show a shift in intelligence (Willingham, 2007). The Triarchic theory of love is similar with three categories Intimacy, Passion, and commitment. It was Sternberg's theory that equal parts of these three would result in consummate/ultimate love. Still other kinds of love exists with only one or possibly two components of love. The following are the different types, Non-love, Liking, Infatuation, Empty-love, Romantic love, companionate love, Fatuous love and ultimately consummate love (Willingham, 2007).
Abraham Maslow wrote a paper called the “A Theory of Human Motivation” in it he describes his theory of the Hierarchy of Needs (Deckers, L. (2010). This is where the individuals basic needs are listed. Maslow explains human needs that need to be met before other needs can then be met. The bottom of the pyramid starts with the physiological needs, or survival needs. Once the physical needs are met a person can move on to obtaining their safety needs, these needs may be represented as either physical safety or emotional safety (Maslow, 1943). Once a person satisfies their safety needs the love/ belongingness/social needs are next. This involves several kinds of relationships with people, and both giving and receiving love (Malsow,1943). Then follows the needs for esteem, self-esteem, and self-respect. In these stage of needs People desire accomplishment, and involves how they feel about themselves and often how other feel about them or at least how they feel others feel about them (Maslow,1943). Lastly once each of the other needs are met a person can achieve self actualization, this may be achieved differently for every person depending on their own desires and interests. Also it may be achieved several times in ones life, If some underlying needs are lost then they will have to be rebuilt up (Maslow, 1943).
I find that I prefer the theories represented by the behaviorist, biological, and cognitive approaches. I also find that the theories represented in the humanistic approach are not harmful. I think that the Behaviorist approach has a lot of sustainable information backing up its theories on classical, and operant conditioning. That these are tools that can be applied effectively in the use of childrearing and teaching, as well as individually made associations being claimed causes of fears and phobias and applied as treatments of these and other similar behavioral problems. There is no doubt in my mind that the biological approach has sustainable information in how brain functioning, the nervous system, and hormones affects personality and behavior, from numerous case studies from that of Phineas Gage to David Reimer. At the same time I believe that nurture is also an important part of human development and can and will have very lasting effects on an individuals overall personality and behavior. I also find that I like Sternberg's theory's of both intelligence and love, along with several other theory's of intelligence, where I do not believe these theories directly state the causes of either personality or behavior it seeks to define what kind of state of mind a person is in. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is also interesting, whether or not the information is an accurate representation of all individuals it does give a framework for what people need in their lives. The last theory stated here is the most interesting because I do not completely agree or disagree with either Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, or Erik Erikson. I do believe that humans go through several stages of development in which cases many different life long implications are made, but I do not think that either one or all of these theories explains how these stages occur. Still I believe that The stages of developmental theories should be known for a wider understanding of the subject.
This now gets into why I do not prefer the very controversial theories of both Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Freud has based much of his theories on sexual drives, both his theories of the Id, Ego, and Super-Ego, and the psychosexual developmental theory show that much of Freud's point of view is based on humans motivation being for sexual gratification. I do not disagree that some human motivation can be based on this drive, but I do disagree that every developmental stage and function of adult life is represented but human needs for sexual gratification or repressed feelings about or lack of gratifying childhood urges, or sexual feelings towards ones parents. I also as a women completely disregard Freud's belief that women have “penis envy”
These theories and many others help to formulate a basic understanding of human development, brain function, motivation, needs, desires, personality, normal and abnormal behaviors. Things to remember is that people are each different, they have unique backgrounds, cultures beliefs, biological implications, and environments that each play a part in formulating the individual. It is a respect for these differences that are found in the understanding of each psychological perspective and theory of today.
Researching each of these theories and several others over the span of my courses has with-out a doubt effected my world view. I believe that my understanding of children and development has greatly improved and that this will assist me in my goals to parent and teach children. Whether or not I agree with any one theory of development I know that the mentality of each theory stands with me to aid in creating a healthy environment for children that I am responsible for. I also have learned a lot about myself, my personality, and my belief systems. I also believe that I have acquired a reasonable understanding of biological, cognitive, cultural and environmental applications as they relate to psychology.
I used a lot of critical thinking while formulating this assignment. In one way I enjoyed looking back over my courses and bringing many of the major theories that were discussed into one place to see them next to each other, it allowed me the opportunity to remember a lot of what I had thought I had forgotten and bring it back into forethought. It also gave me the time to determine which ideas of psychology I really relate with vs. some that I may not, but at the same time respect there position in the field of psychology, and their usefullness.
In conclusion I believe that my understanding of these theories and several others that I have been introduced to over my program will be very helpful in my goals and life. The presentation broke down many major theoretical topics and explains why I like or dislike certain topics as it pertains to the field of psychology, as well as how I feel I can apply these components to my understanding of the world, environment, self and populations.
Core Content Knowledge
Introduction/ Outline Psychological Theories and major points Psychodynamic Behavioral Biological Cognitive Humanistic Theories I like Theories I dislike How these theories might influence the future New methods of psychology My changed worldview ConclusionIntroduction-Outline
Sigmund Freud Id, Ego, Superego Psychosexual development Fixation Oedipus and Electra complex The unconscious, conscious mindPsychodynamic Approach
Carl Jung Jungian archetypes Erik Erikson Theory of Psychosocial developmentPsychodynamicApproach continued
Behavioral Approach Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Edward Thorndike Law of Effect B. F. Skinner Operant Conditioning John B. Watson Little Albert
Darwin Effects of brain function Behaviors traits Harlow Phineas Gage Railroad construction accident Shows biological contributors to personalityBiological Approach
Robert Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence• Componential/ Analytical• Experiential/Creative• Practical/Contextual Triarchic Theory of Love• Intimacy – Passion - CommitmentCognitive Approach
Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Carl Rogers Client -Centered TherapyHumanistic Approach
Classical/Operant conditioning “Law of Effect” Biological Applications Nature vs. Nurture Sternbergs Triarchic Theorys of intelligence andlove Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of needs Theory of psychosocial developmentMy relatable Theories
Freud’s theory of the Id, Ego, and Super-Ego Freuds Psychosexual Development Carl Jungs- Jungian Archetype Freud and Jung’s Theory of the Oedipus and ElectracomplexUn-relatable Theories
Research Theories CulturesThe future of Psychology
Childrearing Different stages of development Understanding self Personality Behaviors Understanding abnormal behaviors TeachingMy Worldview
Bringing every theory into one place Reevaluating my belief systems Seeing where I stand in the field of psychologyCritical or Creative Thinking
AllPsych and Heffner Media Group, Inc.. (2011).AllPsych Online. Retrieved fromhttp://allpsych.com/psychology101/conditioning.html AROPA. (1999-2013). sigmund Freud - life and work.Retrieved from http://www.freudfile.org/ Deckers, L. (2010). Motivation:Biological, Psychological, and Environmental (3rded.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.References
Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A History of ModernPsychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of HumanMotivation. Psychological Review, 50(), 370-396.Retrieved fromhttp://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm Pinel, J. P. J. (2009). Biopsychology (7th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.References cont.
Willingham, D. T. (2007). Cognition: The thinkinganimal (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.References cont.