MISSISSIPPI’S POULTRY Feeding the world since 1937 INDUSTRY
EARLY PRODUCTION YEARS In the early 1900’s chickens where mainly raised for household egg production The birds were kept as backyard flocks Primary focus was on breeding The meat was a by -product of male and culled females It was more of adelicacy for Sunday Dinnersrather than an everyday meal. Year round poultryproduction was limited.
EARLY PRODUCTION YEARS In 1923, Mr s. Wilmer Steel of Delaware became the pioneer of the commercial broiler industr y. She received a flock of 500 chicks instead of 50 chicks. She raised them as meat chickens, now known as the broiler. Her little business was so profitable that, by 1926, Mr s. Steele was able to build a broiler house with a capacity of 10,000 birds. By 1928, there were 500 farms in the Delmar va peninsula with an average capacity of 2,000 birds per farm. By the 1930’s, poultr y production increased tremendously. The increase in production raised more concern about disease.
THE MISSISSIPPI POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN In 1935, the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) was initiated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to provide better control and eventual eradication of disease. Mississippi adopted the guidelines from the NPIP to form the Mississippi Poultry Improvement Plan, which was administered through Mississippi A&M College (Mississippi State University) and the Mississippi Livestock Sanitary Board (Mississippi Board of Animal Health). In 1937, the Mississippi Poultry Improvement Association was formed to promote, advance and protect the poultry industry in Mississippi by enforcing the federal and state poultry improvement plans. The Mississippi Poultry Improvement Association is now known as the Mississippi Poultry Association (MPA).
1940’S-1950’S: THE START OF AN INDUSTRY WWII promoted larger flocks for eggs and meat to feed troops; rationing of meat increased egg consumption. Due to the increased demand for poultr y production, the industr y expanded from the Delmar va Peninsula down into the southern United States. This shif t was caused by the high demand for poultr y in order in to fill soldier s’ rations while at war. Mississippi’s poultr y industr y had already begun to grow as poultr y companies emerged in the state in the late 30’s and early 40’s. Mississippi State Univer sity established the Poultr y Science depar tment in the 1946 -47 School Session
1950’S-1970’S: INDUSTRY INTEGRATION Production was all over the state Feed companies began to dominate the industr y Feed companies introduced “ser vice men” who would of fer advice to grower s Contracts with grower s became more prevalent, in order to guarantee payments The companies owned the chickens, supplied feed, and pay based on weight. Growers built the houses and provided maintenance and utility costs. Consumers began to demand chicken par ts rather than whole chickens.
1950’S-1970’S: INDUSTRY INTEGRATION In 1954, The National Broiler Council was established to stimulate consumer demand. In 1990, the name was changed to the National Chicken Council. In 1957, commercial egg production begins in Mississippi Vertical Integration and consolidation became a big part of the industry in our state. In the 1960’s and 70’s the industry matured. Several companies were purchased by larger companies in order to improve efficiencies or increase production. Companies began to handle the production, processing and marketing of birds. Also, new pharmaceutical, biological and production technologies allowed the growing industry to become more efficient, responsive and profitable. Companies began to build brand recognition with private labeling.
1970’S-1990’S: ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS Un i ver sit y re s e a rc h c o n duc te d o n di s e ases, g e n et i cs, h o us i ng, l i g ht ing a n d ve n t ila t ion i m provement s. Co m pa nies we re c o n s t a nt ly s e a rc h in g fo r way s to ke e p t h e c o n s um er’s c o s t s l ow. Rus s ian m a rket o pe n e d fo r U. S. l e g q ua r te r s . In 1 9 8 0 , fur t h e r pro c e s s e d po ul t r y i s i n t ro duc e d Co n sume r pre fe re n c es s h i f t towa rd c o nvenien ce i te m s ( c ut - up m e a t a n d fur t h e r pro c e s s e d) a s c o m pa re d to purc h a s ing w h o l e bi rds In 1 9 8 5 , c o n s um er de m a n d fo r po ul t r y s urpa s ses po rk Po ul t r y be c a m e t h e to p a g ri c ul t ural c o m m odit y i n M i s sissippi. Co n sume r de m a n d ex pl o de d w i t h fa s t fo o d Chicken Nugget Buffalo Wing
1990’S: GROWING PAINS The industry in the state continued to grow. New companies entered the state, causing the number of plants and growers to grow. The vertically integrated industry in Mississippi is located in Central and Southern Mississippi. The poultry industry continued to be the largest income producing agricultural commodity in Mississippi. In 1996, the poultry industry produced $1 .35 billion in farm value products and contributed more than $8.5 billion dollars annually to Mississippi’s economy.
2000’S: CONTINUED GROWTH Technology continued to improve by building upon the advances of the 1990’s, the industry moved toward automation and innovative technology. Chicken houses become computerized to maintain optimal conditions. Exports count for nearly 20% of poultry production nationally. Mississippi becomes 4 th in broiler production nationwide.
ECONOMIC IMPACT Mississippi has 2,000 poultry growers who are paid more than $2.5 billion annually. There are 22 processing plants, which create hourly wage and salaried jobs for many workers. More than 55,000 direct and indirect jobs have been created in the state Total economic impact is between $6 -$8 billion annually. On average, Mississippi can produce 800 million broilers per year, or close to 1 ,500 per minute. Mississippi is home to the largest egg processor in the world. Mississippi poultry has a national and global reach, reaching many dif ferent states and foreign countries.
2012 AND BEYOND: LOOKING INTO THE FUTURE The change in demand has become more event driven over the years The Mississippi poultry industry will continue to adapt and be on the forefront of creating and adopting new technology to improve ef ficiency and add value. Consumers can remain confident that chicken and egg products will remain a safe, delicious and economical protein source for future generations. Research is being tested for alternative energy sources made from broiler litter, solar energy and plant sludge. Using these alternate sources will help growers and integrators remain competitive in strenuous economic conditions. Stewardship of the environment and natural resources will continue to be a top priority for the poultry industry.
Looking BackFOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE FEEL FREE TO at the years CONTACT: Mississippi Poultry Association, Inc. (MPA) 110 Airport Road South, Suite C Pearl, MS 39208 (601)932-7560 OR ON THE WEB AT: www.mspoultry.org