ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL
INTRODUCTION: Medicine defined as a chemical substance used to
promote health ,to prevent illness, to diagnose, to alleviate or cure
Some medication has two names Chemical names (medication’s
composition& molecular structure),e.g Ibuprofen- iso-butyl phenyl.
Trade name: is the registered name assigned by the manufacturer. One
drug may be manufactured by several companies and known by several
different trade names. E.g paracetamol---crocin , calpol, ifimo metacin
ABBREVIATION USED REGARDING TIME
• A.C :Before meals.
• P.C: After meals.
• O.D: once a day.
• O.N : Each night.
• H.S: At bed time.
• C.M : Tomorrow morning.
• P.R.N:When required.
• S.O.S: If necessary in emergency.
• BD / BID: Twice a day.
• T.DS/TID: Thrice a day.
• QDS/QID: Four times a day.
• STAT: At once/ Immediately.
CLASIFFICATION OF DRUG
ACCORDING TO THEIR ACTION
• Analgesic: To relieve pain..
• Antipyretic: To reduce fever.
• Antidotes: Substances used to counteract the effects of
• Anti inflammatory: To reduce the inflammation.
• Anti-coagulants: Substances which inhibit or decrease
the blood clotting process.
• Anti-histamine: To prevent or relieve allergies.
• Anti-convulsants: To prevent or treat convulsions.
• Antibiotics: To destroy or inhibit the growth of micro
• Anti emetics: Drugs preventing or relieving nausea &
• Bronchodilator: Medicines which relax muscles of the
bronchioles by reducing the smooth muscle spasm or
• Diuretics: Which increase the flow of urine.
• Anti- Hypertensive To lowering the blood pressure.
• Ionotropes: That drugs that strengthen cardiac
contraction. E.g. injection Dobutamin.
• Thrombolytic agent: Act by breaking down the fibrin
frame work of fresh blood clot.
ABBREVIATIONS USED REGARDING
PREPERATION OF THE DRUG
• Dil: Dilute.
• Liq: Liquid
• Lot: Lotion
• Mist: Mixture
• Ol : Oil
• Syr: Syrup
• Tr: Tincture
• Ung: Ointment.
• Inj: Injection.
• Gr: Grain.
• Gtt: a drop
• M: Minim
• Kg: Kilogram
• O : A pint.
• Oz : Ounce
• Ib : Pound
• Cap :Capsule
• Tab : Tablet
• Tsp :Tea Spoon Full (5 ml)
• Tbsp: Table spoon
• Sol : Solution.
• Gal : Gallon
• L : Litre.
TYPES OF ORDERS
• Standing orders: It should be carried out for a
specific number of days Or until another order
cancels it .
• PRN Orders : When needed ( good judgment
needed) e.g Pain killer / Laxatives.
• One time order / single order : Only one time eg
• Stat order : Administered immediately & only
one time . Eg Inj .Lasix 1 amp (20 mg) IV stat.
• Telephone orders / Verbal order.
CALCULATION OF PAEDIATRIC DOSAGE
A) Young’s Rule :(for children over 1 yr of age up to 12 yrs )
• Child f dose= Age of the child (in yrs) X Adult dose
Age of the child (In yrs) + 12
• Clark’s Rule (use for children in all age)
Child’s dose = Weight of the child in pounds X Adult dose
• Fried’s Rule (Children under 1yr of age)
Child Dose=Age of the child( in months) x Adult Dose
• The ‘’six Rights’’ ensures safety in giving drugs:
• Right Client : Read the clients name on the client’s chart & on the
• Call the client by name & ask him to repeat his name.
• Right Drugs : To study the correct name of the drug and compare
with the consultants order & medicine card.
• The name of the drugs should be checked three times before
• Taking the drugs from the locker.
• Before pouring or open it.
• When returning the strip or bottle.
• Right Dose :The correct dose of medicine should
compare with medicine card.then read the strength of
medicine on the strip& should observe date of expiry.
• Right Time : Should know the time e.g B.D ,T.D.S etc &
know the hospital routines for the intervals.
• Right Method: To determine the route of administration
e.g orally, parenterally, rectally etc.
• Right Documentation : Documentation should be done
immediate after giving medication.
NURSES RESPONSIBILITY IN THE
ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL
• Check the diagnosis & age of the patient.
• Check the medication order.
• Check the diet & fluid order : To avoid
medication If the patient is kept nil orally in
preparation for surgery &diagnostic tests .But in
case of anticonvulsants, Antidiabetics,
Antihypertensive drugs ,Digoxin etc better to
talked to concerned physicians
• Laboratory values: To be monitor serum drug levels ,
medication effects & side effects. Before giving
Anticoagulants -check the P Time& before
chemotherapy blood count is monitored , as these drugs
can cause severe leucopenia/ thrombocytopenia ect.
• Physical assessment
Check the abilities & limitations swallowing the
check the vital signs –heart rate before giving Digoxin &
BP – before giving Antihypertensive& Respiratory rate
before giving opium.
• Check the articles available in the patient’s unit.
ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR ORAL
• A tray containing :
• Ounce glass teaspoon,dropper small container
• Drinking water in a glass or Feeding cup.
• Duster or towel to wipe the out side of the bottle
after pouring the medication.
• Kidney tray .
• Medicine card.
STEPS OF PROCEDURE
• Explain the procedure to the patient.
• Keep the patient in suitable position according to the
condition of the patient.
• Give the mouth wash if necessary.
• Protect the bed clothes & garments with a towel placed
under the chin across the chest.
• Wash hands.
• Read the doctor’s order& compare with medicine cards.
• After reading the medicine cards take the appropriate
medicine from the locker.Check three times before giving
the medication & follow the’ Five Right’.
• Give the water to the patient to moisten the mouth.
• Give medications one at a time. Stay with the patient
until he has taken the medication.
• Check the patient’s mouth when indicated to verify that
medications are swallowed.
• Provide water to drink after the medicines are
AFTER CARE OF THE PATIENT &
• Remove the towel & wipe the face with it.
• Position the patient & tidy up the bed.
• Take articles in the utility room and wash, dry ,
&kept in proper place.
• Record medications given & signature on the
• Return to the patient side & observe any
• Return the medication cards to the nurses
• Drop calculation:
Total volume x drop factor
Hours x 60
Height in cm x weight in KG
Weight in Kg
Height in Meter square
For Male: 50 Kg+2.3 kg (Height in Cm/2.54- 60)
For Female: 45 Kg+2.3 kg (Height in Cm/2.54- 60)