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Nurses responsibility administering medicine

Nurses Responsibility Administering Oral Medicine

Nurses responsibility administering medicine

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ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL
MEDICATION
INTRODUCTION: Medicine defined as a chemical substance used to
promote health ,to prevent illness, to diagnose, to alleviate or cure
diseases.
Some medication has two names Chemical names (medication’s
composition& molecular structure),e.g Ibuprofen- iso-butyl phenyl.
Trade name: is the registered name assigned by the manufacturer. One
drug may be manufactured by several companies and known by several
different trade names. E.g paracetamol---crocin , calpol, ifimo metacin
ABBREVIATION USED REGARDING TIME
OF ADMINISTRATION
• A.C :Before meals.
• P.C: After meals.
• O.D: once a day.
• O.N : Each night.
• H.S: At bed time.
• C.M : Tomorrow morning.
• P.R.N:When required.
• S.O.S: If necessary in emergency.
• BD / BID: Twice a day.
• T.DS/TID: Thrice a day.
• QDS/QID: Four times a day.
• STAT: At once/ Immediately.
CLASIFFICATION OF DRUG
ACCORDING TO THEIR ACTION
• Analgesic: To relieve pain..
• Antipyretic: To reduce fever.
• Antidotes: Substances used to counteract the effects of
poison.
• Anti inflammatory: To reduce the inflammation.
• Anti-coagulants: Substances which inhibit or decrease
the blood clotting process.
• Anti-histamine: To prevent or relieve allergies.
• Anti-convulsants: To prevent or treat convulsions.
• Antibiotics: To destroy or inhibit the growth of micro
organism.
• Anti emetics: Drugs preventing or relieving nausea &
vomiting.
• Bronchodilator: Medicines which relax muscles of the
bronchioles by reducing the smooth muscle spasm or
mucosal edema.
• Diuretics: Which increase the flow of urine.
• Anti- Hypertensive To lowering the blood pressure.
• Ionotropes: That drugs that strengthen cardiac
contraction. E.g. injection Dobutamin.
• Thrombolytic agent: Act by breaking down the fibrin
frame work of fresh blood clot.
ABBREVIATIONS USED REGARDING
PREPERATION OF THE DRUG
• Dil: Dilute.
• Liq: Liquid
• Lot: Lotion
• Mist: Mixture
• Ol : Oil
Pulv: Powder
• Syr: Syrup
• Tr: Tincture
• Ung: Ointment.
• Inj: Injection.
REGARDING AMOUNT
• Gr: Grain.
• Gtt: a drop
• M: Minim
• Kg: Kilogram
• O : A pint.
• Oz : Ounce
• Ib : Pound
• Cap :Capsule
• Tab : Tablet
• Tsp :Tea Spoon Full (5 ml)
• Tbsp: Table spoon
• Sol : Solution.
• Gal : Gallon
• L : Litre.
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Nurses responsibility administering medicine

  • 1. ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL MEDICATION INTRODUCTION: Medicine defined as a chemical substance used to promote health ,to prevent illness, to diagnose, to alleviate or cure diseases. Some medication has two names Chemical names (medication’s composition& molecular structure),e.g Ibuprofen- iso-butyl phenyl. Trade name: is the registered name assigned by the manufacturer. One drug may be manufactured by several companies and known by several different trade names. E.g paracetamol---crocin , calpol, ifimo metacin
  • 2. ABBREVIATION USED REGARDING TIME OF ADMINISTRATION • A.C :Before meals. • P.C: After meals. • O.D: once a day. • O.N : Each night. • H.S: At bed time. • C.M : Tomorrow morning. • P.R.N:When required. • S.O.S: If necessary in emergency. • BD / BID: Twice a day. • T.DS/TID: Thrice a day. • QDS/QID: Four times a day. • STAT: At once/ Immediately.
  • 3. CLASIFFICATION OF DRUG ACCORDING TO THEIR ACTION • Analgesic: To relieve pain.. • Antipyretic: To reduce fever. • Antidotes: Substances used to counteract the effects of poison. • Anti inflammatory: To reduce the inflammation. • Anti-coagulants: Substances which inhibit or decrease the blood clotting process. • Anti-histamine: To prevent or relieve allergies. • Anti-convulsants: To prevent or treat convulsions.
  • 4. • Antibiotics: To destroy or inhibit the growth of micro organism. • Anti emetics: Drugs preventing or relieving nausea & vomiting. • Bronchodilator: Medicines which relax muscles of the bronchioles by reducing the smooth muscle spasm or mucosal edema. • Diuretics: Which increase the flow of urine. • Anti- Hypertensive To lowering the blood pressure. • Ionotropes: That drugs that strengthen cardiac contraction. E.g. injection Dobutamin. • Thrombolytic agent: Act by breaking down the fibrin frame work of fresh blood clot.
  • 5. ABBREVIATIONS USED REGARDING PREPERATION OF THE DRUG • Dil: Dilute. • Liq: Liquid • Lot: Lotion • Mist: Mixture • Ol : Oil Pulv: Powder • Syr: Syrup • Tr: Tincture • Ung: Ointment. • Inj: Injection.
  • 6. REGARDING AMOUNT • Gr: Grain. • Gtt: a drop • M: Minim • Kg: Kilogram • O : A pint. • Oz : Ounce • Ib : Pound • Cap :Capsule • Tab : Tablet • Tsp :Tea Spoon Full (5 ml) • Tbsp: Table spoon • Sol : Solution. • Gal : Gallon • L : Litre.
  • 7. WEIGHT & MEASURES • 1 Dram : 4 grams / 1 Tsf • 1 Ounce: 30 ml • 1 Liter: 1000ml / 2 pint . • 1cc : 1 ml. • 1 minim: 1 drop. • 1 pint : 500 ml • 1 pound: 16 ounces. • 1 kg : 2.2 Ibs. • 1 tsf : 5 ml. • 1 Tbs : 3 tsf / 15 ml. • 1 glass full : 8 ounce.
  • 8. TYPES OF ORDERS • Standing orders: It should be carried out for a specific number of days Or until another order cancels it . • PRN Orders : When needed ( good judgment needed) e.g Pain killer / Laxatives. • One time order / single order : Only one time eg Preoperative medication. • Stat order : Administered immediately & only one time . Eg Inj .Lasix 1 amp (20 mg) IV stat. • Telephone orders / Verbal order.
  • 9. CALCULATION OF PAEDIATRIC DOSAGE A) Young’s Rule :(for children over 1 yr of age up to 12 yrs ) • Child f dose= Age of the child (in yrs) X Adult dose Age of the child (In yrs) + 12 • Clark’s Rule (use for children in all age) Child’s dose = Weight of the child in pounds X Adult dose 150 • Fried’s Rule (Children under 1yr of age) Child Dose=Age of the child( in months) x Adult Dose 150
  • 10. SAFETY MEASURES • The ‘’six Rights’’ ensures safety in giving drugs: • Right Client : Read the clients name on the client’s chart & on the medicine card. • Call the client by name & ask him to repeat his name. • Right Drugs : To study the correct name of the drug and compare with the consultants order & medicine card. • The name of the drugs should be checked three times before giving---- • Taking the drugs from the locker. • Before pouring or open it. • When returning the strip or bottle.
  • 11. • Right Dose :The correct dose of medicine should compare with medicine card.then read the strength of medicine on the strip& should observe date of expiry. • Right Time : Should know the time e.g B.D ,T.D.S etc & know the hospital routines for the intervals. • Right Method: To determine the route of administration e.g orally, parenterally, rectally etc. • Right Documentation : Documentation should be done immediate after giving medication.
  • 12. NURSES RESPONSIBILITY IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL MEDICATION • Assessment: • Check the diagnosis & age of the patient. • Check the medication order. • Check the diet & fluid order : To avoid medication If the patient is kept nil orally in preparation for surgery &diagnostic tests .But in case of anticonvulsants, Antidiabetics, Antihypertensive drugs ,Digoxin etc better to talked to concerned physicians
  • 13. • Laboratory values: To be monitor serum drug levels , medication effects & side effects. Before giving Anticoagulants -check the P Time& before chemotherapy blood count is monitored , as these drugs can cause severe leucopenia/ thrombocytopenia ect. • Physical assessment Check the abilities & limitations swallowing the medications. check the vital signs –heart rate before giving Digoxin & BP – before giving Antihypertensive& Respiratory rate before giving opium. • Check the articles available in the patient’s unit.
  • 14. ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR ORAL MEDICATION • A tray containing : • Ounce glass teaspoon,dropper small container etc. • Drinking water in a glass or Feeding cup. • Pestle. • Duster or towel to wipe the out side of the bottle after pouring the medication. • Kidney tray . • Medicine card.
  • 15. STEPS OF PROCEDURE • Explain the procedure to the patient. • Keep the patient in suitable position according to the condition of the patient. • Give the mouth wash if necessary. • Protect the bed clothes & garments with a towel placed under the chin across the chest. • Wash hands. • Read the doctor’s order& compare with medicine cards. • After reading the medicine cards take the appropriate medicine from the locker.Check three times before giving the medication & follow the’ Five Right’.
  • 16. • Give the water to the patient to moisten the mouth. • Give medications one at a time. Stay with the patient until he has taken the medication. • Check the patient’s mouth when indicated to verify that medications are swallowed. • Provide water to drink after the medicines are administered.
  • 17. AFTER CARE OF THE PATIENT & ARTICLES • Remove the towel & wipe the face with it. • Position the patient & tidy up the bed. • Take articles in the utility room and wash, dry , &kept in proper place. • Record medications given & signature on the medicine card. • Return to the patient side & observe any reactions. • Return the medication cards to the nurses station.
  • 18. Formulas • Drop calculation: Total volume x drop factor Hours x 60
  • 19. Formulas • BSA: Height in cm x weight in KG 3600
  • 20. Formulas • BMI Weight in Kg Height in Meter square • IBW: For Male: 50 Kg+2.3 kg (Height in Cm/2.54- 60) For Female: 45 Kg+2.3 kg (Height in Cm/2.54- 60)