WAMS Analytical Approach


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Presented during the Madhya Pradesh Capacity Building Workshop at Jabalpur on 26th November,2012

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WAMS Analytical Approach

  1. 1. WAMSAnalytical ApproachBy :Chandan KumarEngineer ,WRLDC
  2. 2. What is WAMS In WAMS Few Real Whats WAMS WR Grid Application Time More on Under Application the Way Development at WRLDC15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  3. 3. What is WAMS ? • It’s a collective technology to monitor power system dynamics in real time, identify system stability related weakness and helps to design and implement countermeasures . (IEEE) • It is based on Phasor measurement units (PMUs) which can deliver precisely time synchronized values of voltage and current phasors and other power system related quantities like frequency, ROCOF, breaker positions.15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  4. 4. Components of WAMS •Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) •Phasor Data Concentrator(PDC) •Global Positioning System (GPS for Time Synchronization of the phasors) • Communication channel( Preference to optical fiber cable ) •Visualization and analysis tools •Wide area situational awareness system. •Wide area protection and control15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  5. 5. Advantage of PMU • More number of Samples(25-100 Phasors/sec) 1 • GPS Time Synchronized data to Control Centre from All Locations 2 • Finer View of the Electrical System 3 • Adaptive protection system can be developed 4 • Post Disturbance analysis with more accuracy which helps in planning. 5 • Many more ….. 615-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  6. 6. Lets Have a closer view of SCADA and PMUs Attribute SCADA PMUs Measurement Analogue Digital Resolution 2-4 samples per second Up to 100 samples per second Observability Steady State Dynamic/Transient Monitoring Local Wide- Area Phasor Angle Measurement No Yes15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  7. 7. SCADA and PMU Data from Present SCADA Millisecond Information with time(Second Information , No time synchronization) synchronization X-Ray vs. MRI of the GRID 15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  8. 8. PMU+Visulization+Analysis+ GIS + Data(Source : California ISO and OSIsoft LLC) 15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  9. 9. Technology can Change what we See : Lets See How Situational Awareness : Be preplanned rather than to wait(Source : Space Time Insight) 15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  10. 10. On our Path to Make the grid Smart and safely operate we have :• PMU data• RTU data• GIS data• Meteorological dept data• Outage data• Market data So now We have BIG DATA Need to Analyse Process VisualizeOperate15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  11. 11. Lets visit the world of PMU Advancement More Visual Aids rather than Watching Number for Operators : A change that is required with increase in the system Complexity and Big Data Real-time Applications •Wide-area situational awareness •Frequency stability monitoring and trending •Power oscillation monitoring •Voltage monitoring and trending •Alarming and setting system operating limits, event detection and avoidance •Resource integration •Real time Dynamic State estimation •Dynamic line ratings and congestion management •Outage restoration •Operations planning15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  12. 12. Contd.. Offline Application • Base lining power system performance • Event analysis • Dynamic system model calibration and validation • Power plant model validation • Load characterization • Special protection schemes and islanding • Primary frequency (governing) response15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  13. 13. WAMS in Western Region• 5 PMUs(1 Nos. Bhadrawati, 2 Nos. Jabalpur, 2Nos Raipur)• Different Vendors : GE,SEL,NI (More on way like Hitachi, Qualitrol)• PDC : OpenPDC, GE PDC (planning for iPDC and OSIpi)15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  14. 14. Application under development @ WRLDC Data Analysis Information Planning Decision Implementation15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  15. 15. •Oscillation Monitoring Systems •Model validation. •Dynamic Line Loadability. •Voltage stability analysis. •Dynamic & hierarchical State estimation •Wide area situational awareness. •Online stability assessment – Early warning.15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  16. 16. Application 1 : Oscillation in Grid •In Similar manner electrical grid has electrical inertia connected by AC lines. So have modes of Spring Mass System oscillation due to non-linearity of It oscillates with frequency the system. f = 1/2π (√(k/m))Only one mode of frequency •In similar manner system connected with DC lines do not oscillate with each other Mass-Rod system No oscillation 15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  17. 17. What oscillation are observed in Electrical Grid ? Small Signal Stability Local Global (Intra Area) (Inter Area)Local plant very low Higher Inter-Unit mode frequency frequency (1.5-3.0 Hz)(0.7 - 2.0 Hz) (0.1 to 0.3 Hz) (0.4 to 0.7 Hz) 15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  18. 18. What Methods are used by WRLDC ? Event Techniques Methods Prony Modal Matrix PMU Data Pencil FDD (Frequency Domain FFT Decomposition)15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  19. 19. Why such oscillations poses threat to the system• In normal power system state such LFO (Low frequency Oscillations ) are well damped.• However they get excited during any small disturbance in the system and lead to oscillation in power system parameters like rotor velocity, voltages, currents and power flows.• Due to oscillations in parameters, protection of equipments may operate leading to cascade tripping in power system.• That’s why the observation of such modes is very essential in respect to system reliability and security.• Among these parameters the rotor velocities of the generators and the power flows in the network are the most important.• The rotor velocity variation causes strain to mechanical parts in the power plant and should be limited.• The power flow oscillations may amount to the entire rating of a power line as if they are superimposed on the stationary line flow it will limit the transfer capacity by requiring increased safety margins.15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  20. 20. Actions Required to Damp such Oscillations • HVDC Damping Controller • TCSC POD Tuning • PSS Tuning of generators • Proper Planning of transmission lines to Strengthen the transmission network. • Need to adapt Global PSS Tuning15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  21. 21. Application 2 : GRID INERTIA CALCULATION •Incident :Talcher-Kolar Pole 2 Blocked on 19-05-12 16:14Hrs. •System Frequency before operation of SPS(fo) : 50.21121 Hz •Generation Loss(PL-PG) : 716.875 MW (SPS Operation) •Generation of NEW grid after Tripping (PG): 81092.99 •df/dt observed from PMU =-0.02455 Hz/sec H= 9.04 Seconds (Nearly matched with the calculated Value) Help in defining the response required from generation and load during such disturbance15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  22. 22. Application 3 : Phase Angle Measurements and its importance What Causes Power to Flow in the Grid Load DC power system - Power flows from a point of high voltage to a point of low voltage. Generation AC power system - Power flows from a point of high voltage angle to a point of low voltage angle. The higher the angle the greater the power flow.15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  23. 23. What more we are working on Collective effort from Operators-Academia-Industry to develop good PMU tools for analysis Cloud computing for analysis Performance of PMUs from different vendors Latency rate of PMUs depending on communication channel used  Establishment of WAMS Lab Voltage collapse analysis using PMUs Looking for collaboration from all. Please Find more detail on application in “Synchrophasors Initiative in India” By POSOCO.15-Feb-13 WRLDC ,POSOCO
  24. 24. Thank You  : chandan.wrldc@yahoo.com WRLDC ,POSOCO : 0986925146015-Feb-13 Mob No