MAJOR BLACKOUT IN THE WORLD By: Chandan Kumar ET ,WRLDC
MAJOR BLACKOUT IN THE WORLD MILLIONS OFNAME OF BLACKOUT PEOPLE REGION DURATION AFFECTED NORTH EASTERN PART OF NORTH 09-11-1965NORTHEAST BLACKOUT 1965 30 AMERICA, SOUTH-EASTERN PART OF CANADA 12 HoursSOUTHERN BRAZIL BLACKOUT SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN 11-03-1999 97 BRAZIL1999 30 Hours 14-08-2003/15-08-2003 NORTH EASTERN REGION OF 55 NORTH AMERICAAMERICA 16 HoursNORTHEAST BLACKOUT 2003 ITALY, 28-09-2003ITALY BLACKOUT 2003 55 PARTS OF SWITZERLAND 3 Hours 18-08-2005JAVA BALI BLACKOUT 2005 100 INDONESIA 7 Hours CENTRAL, SOUTH AND SOUTH-BRAZIL AND PARAGUAY 10-11-2009/11-11-2009 87 EASTERN BRAZIL AND ALLBLACKOUT 2009 PARAGUAY 5 Hours
NORTH EAST BLACKOUT 1965THE EVENT It all started with the tripping of single transmission line from Niagara generating station . Within 2.5 seconds, four other transmission lines became overloaded and tripped, isolating 1,800 MW of generation at Niagara Station. After their isolation, the generators became unstable and tripped off-line. The northeast power system became unstable and separated into isolated power systems (islands) within 4 seconds.CAUSE Human Error lead to Incorrect setting of relay at Niagara generator leading to line tripping Line overloading on rest of four 230KV line leading to their outage.. Earlier no study was done on Reliability of Interconnected systemLESSON LEARNT Planning for Unexpected Events. Commissioning of NERC,NYPP,NPCC to develop industry standards for equipment testing and reserve generation capacity, as well as preventative measures governing interconnection and reliability . Introduction of SCADA/EMS And Auto-Reclosure of CB.
SOUTHERN BRAZIL BLACKOUT 1999THE EVENT Bus fault at the 440 kV Bus bar of Bauru substation due to Lightening .Due to Failure of Bus-Bar protection remote transmission line protection systems were activated. Six 440 kV circuits were tripped which initiated a process of oscillation that ended with the cascading shutdown and loss of 2300 MW of Generation. 500 kV lines in the Southern system tripped, activating the SPS in the region which resulted in the HVDC link loss due to voltage collapse in sao-paulo area. In the same manner, the North/South interconnection was tripped by its out-of- step protection. The total interrupted load reached 25,000 MW.LESSON LEARNT Modifications in the physical arrangements of many EHV substations as well as in the protection and control systems. Greater detailing in maintenance planning to avoid exposure to the higher risks of blackouts. Improvement in the information systems in view of the new environment of the electric industry as a whole. Investment to modernize the operation control centers. Better SPS to cope with multiple contingency analysis process.
NORTHEAST BLACKOUT 2003CAUSE Inadequate Situational Awareness of First Energy ‘s System. Lack of Investments into the Grids (high Cost-Pressure for the Asset-Owners due to Deregulation), leading to Bottlenecks in Transmission Lack of Communication among the Operators Need for more Regulatory Works (Rules, Grid Code etc.) for the Operation of Transmission Systems and Power Plants in Case of Cascading Events. Weak Points in System Protection, Energy and Demand Side Management - EMS, DSMLESSON LEARNT Make reliability standards mandatory and enforceable, with penalties for noncompliance Develop a regulator-approved mechanism for funding NERC and the regional reliability councils, to ensure their independence from the parties they oversee For More Reliable Grid Operation PMU and WAMPAC was introduced .
ITALY BLACKOUT 2003EVENTS Trip of the Swiss 380 kV line Mettlen-Lavorgo (also called the “Lukmanier” line) at 03:01 caused by tree flashover. Load was reduced on the overloaded Sils-Soazza line but that also tripped after a tree flashover. Created overloads on the remaining lines in the area became intolerable and almost simultaneous and automatic trip of the remaining interconnectors towards Italy occurred The Italian system was isolated from the European network about 12 seconds after the loss of the line Sils-Soazza.LESSON LEARNT Counter measures must be identified and prepared at each moment and for each single incident. ROW Maintenance practice Operator training for emergency procedures. System should withstand after loss of N-1 security.
JAVA-BALI BLACKOUT 2005CAUSE A transmission line between Cilegon and Saguling lead to cascading failure. two units of the Paiton plant in East Java and six units of the Suralaya plant in West Java Loss of 2300 MW of generation that is roughly half of the supply. Deficit of Power due to Low GenerationLESSON LEARNT Adequate Generation to meet the needs Adequate Transmission line to withdraw power if N-1 Security fails. Configuring the Renewable Energy with the grid
BRAZIL AND PARAGUAY BLACKOUT 2009CAUSE Tripping of all the three lines of 765 kV at Itaipu dam due to Phase to ground fault due to heavy rain and strong wind. Loss of 5600MW at Itaipu Generation Plant tripped due to load rejection. Cascade tripping of remaining lines in the South-Southeast Brazil which caused additional load rejection of 2,950Mw Then HVDC system tripped causing a total interruption of Approximately 24,500MwLESSON LEARNT Transmission system equipment should be rated to consider severe environmental conditions that could occur. Maintenance of infrastructure is critical to prevent or minimize the effect of outages Need to enhance it’s transmission system to help prevent cascading outages to re-route the power in case of tripping of Lines.