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    1. 1.  In hydroelectric power station potential and kinetic energy of stored water is converted into electric energy .  For hydro power station factors like rainfall,steam flow available head and storage facilities are studied.  25% of electricity generation capacity in world is provided by hydel power plant.  In the countries like Norvey 99% electricity is produced by hydelpowerplant. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
    2. 2.  4% of the total hydel energy potential in world is in India.  In India 25.32% of total electricity generation capacity is produced by hydel power plant.  As per rocords of March-2000 23,816 MW electricity was generated by hydel power plant.  It is increasing day by day because of the institutes like National Hydro Power Corporation Limited(NHPCL).
    3. 3. PURPOSES OF MULTIPURPOSEPURPOSES OF MULTIPURPOSE HYDROPROJECTHYDROPROJECT For irrigation of agricultural land. For navigation. For fisheries and tourism. For flood control. For civil water supply. For generation of electricity.
    4. 4. BASIC ELEMENTS OF HYDEL POWERBASIC ELEMENTS OF HYDEL POWER PLANTPLANT • Reservoir • Dam • Trace rack • For bay • Surge tank • Penstock • Spillway • Turbine • Powerhouse
    6. 6. • According to availability of water:- a) Run of river plant without pondage b) Run-off river plant with pondage c) Storage plant d) Pump storage plant • According to head :- a) Low head plant b) Medium head plant c) High head plant • According to load :- a) Base load plant b) Peak load plant
    7. 7. • According to plant capacity:- a) Microhydal plant (upto 5 MW ) b) Medium capacity plant ( 5-100 MW ) c) High capacity plant (100 MW ) d) super plant ( above 100 MW ) • According to place of power house:- a) Surface power house plant b) Under ground power house plant • According to turbine specific speed:- a) High specific speed plant b) Medium specific speed plant c) Low specific speed plant
    11. 11. ADVANTAGES OF HYDEL POWER PLANTADVANTAGES OF HYDEL POWER PLANT • This plant is free from pollution. • Its operation and maintenance cost is less. • It has no stand by losses. • Unit cost of power is less. • Hydraulic turbines can be started speedily. • The plant has longer service life. • No fuel is required. • No change in efficiency with the age.
    12. 12. Disadvantages of hydel power plantDisadvantages of hydel power plant • Initial cost of dam and plant is high. • The availability of power from it is not much reliable. • Loss of forest creates environmental problems. • Due to evaporation , considerable water is lost. • Time required for construction of hydroproject is more.
    13. 13. AUXILIARIES ATTACHED WITHAUXILIARIES ATTACHED WITH HYDEL POWER PLANT.HYDEL POWER PLANT. (A)Electrical instruments • Generator • Exciter,transformer s • Switch gears • Other instruments of control room (B)Mechanical instruments • Shaft coupling,journal bearings,thrust bearings • Lubricating oil system • Cooling system • Brake system for generator-turbine shaft
    14. 14. Overview of sardar sarovarOverview of sardar sarovar • PLACE:- On Narmada river, Kevadia( Narmada district ) 100 km away from Baroda. • DAM:- Height-138.68m Length-1210 m concrete. Max.surface of river-140.21m • RESERVOIR:-378 square kms, lingth:214km width: 16.1km
    15. 15. • TURBINE:- (A) River head power house :- -- 6 x 200 =1200 MW capacity -- Reservoir Turbine, made in Japan. (B) For canal head power house:- -- 5 x 50 =250 MW capacity -- Kaplan turbines are used.
    16. 16. STATE DISTRIBUTION IN MILLION ACRE FOOT Madhyapradesh 18.25 Gujarat 9.00 Maharashtra 0.25 Rajsthan 0.50 Water distribution in sardar sarovar
    17. 17. Overview of Hydroelectric projectOverview of Hydroelectric project ukaiukai • PLACE :- On the river Tapi, near Ukai, Surat. • DAM :- ~Lenth: 868.83 m concrete dam. ~Height: 68.58m ~4057.96m dam of soil. • RESERVOIR :- ~120 km length and average 5 km width. ~capacity: 6.078 MAFT (million act fit)
    18. 18. • SPILLWAY:- ~Length:1529m ~Width : 259m ~Depth :18.29m • PENSTOCK:- ~Diameter :7.01m ~Thickness : 18 to 22mm ~Length : 60 m • TURBINE:- ~Manufacturer: BHEL ~ Head : 47.8rated. ~Power :75 MW
    19. 19. Lets see few of the International Hydro Power Plant Dam…
    20. 20. Arch Dam Monticello Dam impounds Putah Creek west of Sacramento, California. The solid concrete structure stands 93 m (304 ft) tall. The dam’s arched upstream face transfers some of the pressure from its reservoir, Lake Berryessa, onto the walls of the canyon.
    21. 21. Kariba Arch Dam The Kariba Dam lies along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The facility controls flooding and supplies hydroelectric power to both countries. A public road traces the rim of the dam, between reservoir Lake Kariba and the drop to the Zambezi River. The distinct arch shape distributes pressure evenly on the overall structure of the dam.
    22. 22. G and P Corrigan/Robert Harding Picture Library Hoover Dam The Hoover Dam is an arch-gravity dam on the Colorado River. Its reservoir, Lake Mead, lies between the states of Arizona and Nevada. As an arch-gravity dam, it depends on its shape and its own weight for stability.
    23. 23. Lake Mead Lake Mead, a vast artificial lake, straddles the border between Arizona and Nevada. The lake was formed by the construction of the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River. During wet periods, it stores excess water until it is needed. Lake Mead has also become a popular area for boating and other recreational activities.
    24. 24. •Buttress dams fall into two basic categories: 1.Flat slab and 2.Multiple arch. •Flat slab buttress dams have a flat upstream face. •These dams are sometimes called Ambursen dams in recognition of Nils Ambursen, the Norwegian-born American engineer who popularized them in the early 20th century. •An example of a flat slab buttress dam is the Stony Gorge Dam, which crosses Stony Creek near Orland, California. • It stands 42 m (139 ft) tall, stretches 264 m (868 ft) long, and contains 33,000 cubic meters (43,100 cubic yards) of concrete.
    25. 25. Flat Slab Buttress Dam Lake Tahoe Dam impounds the Truckee River in northern California. Like all flat slab buttress dams, it has a flat slab upstream face supported by a series of buttresses on the downstream side. Lake Tahoe Dam measures 5.5 m (18 ft) tall and 33 m (109 ft) long. It was completed in 1913 to raise the water level in Lake Tahoe, a natural lake, to provide additional water for crop irrigation.
    26. 26. •Multiple arch buttress dams feature an upstream face formed by a series of arches. •The arches rest on top of buttresses that extend down to the foundation. •Bartlett Dam, on the Verde River near Phoenix, Arizona, is a multiple arch dam. •It stands 94 m (309 ft) high, stretches 244 m (800 ft) long, and contains nearly 140,000 cubic meters (182,000 cubic yards) of concrete.
    27. 27. Multiple Arch Dam Bartlett Dam impounds the Verde River northeast of Phoenix, Arizona. Like all multiple arch dams, Bartlett Dam makes use of a series of arches supported by buttresses to withstand the pressure of the water in its reservoir, Bartlett Lake. Each of the dam’s 10 concrete arches has a 7-m (24-ft) radius and measures 2 m (7 ft) at the base and just 0.6 m (2 ft) at the crest. The thick base provides additional strength at the bottom of the reservoir, where the water pressure is most intense.
    28. 28. Concrete Gravity Dam Shasta Dam impounds the Sacramento River in northern California. Like all concrete gravity dams, Shasta Dam holds back the water in its reservoir, Shasta Lake, by the sheer force of its weight. Built of solid concrete, the massive structure rises 183 m (602 ft). It measures 165 m (542 ft) at the base and just 9 m (30 ft) at the crest. This shape, typical of concrete gravity dams, counteracts the force of the water pressing against the dam at the bottom of the reservoir, where the pressure is most intense.
    29. 29. Grand Dixence Dam With a height of 285 m (935 ft), the Grand Dixence Dam in the Swiss Alps is one of the tallest dams in the world. Waterpower generates the majority of Switzerland’s domestic electricity and is the nation’s most important natural resource.
    30. 30. Raúl Leoni Hydroelectric Plant, Venezuela Located on the Caroní River in Venezuela,the Raúl Leoni hydroelectric plant provides electricity for the entire country. The plant was built on the site of a village called Guri and is named for a Venezuelanpresident who served from 1964 to 1968.
    31. 31. 1 Itaipu Brazil/ Paraguay 12,600 1984 2 Guri Venezuela 10,300 1968 3 Grand Coulee United States 6,480 1942 4 Sayano- Shushensk Russia 6,400 1980 5 Krasnoyarsk Russia 6,000 1968 6 La Grande 2 Canada 5,328 1982 7 Churchill Falls Canada 5,225 1971 8 Bratsk Russia 4,500 1964 9 Ust-Ilim Russia 4,500 1974 10 Tucurui Brazil 4,245 1984 Rank Name of Dam Location Rated Capacity (Megawatts) Year of Completed World’s Largest Dams By Power Generating Capacity
    32. 32. 1 Owen Falls Uganda 204,800 1954 2 Kariba Zimbabwe /Zambia 180,600 1959 3 Bratsk Russia 169,270 1964 4 Aswan High Egypt 168,900 1970 5 Akosombo Ghana 148,000 1965 6 Daniel Johnson Canada 141,852 1968 7 Guri (RaulLeoni) Venezuela 136,000 1986 8 Krasnoyarsk Russia 73,300 1967 9 W.A.C. Bennett Canada 70,309 1967 10 Zeya Russia 68,400 1978 Rank Name of Dam Country Storage Capacity Cubic Meters Year of Completed World’s Largest Dams By Storage Capacity
    33. 33. 1 Rogun Tajikistan 335 1989 2 Nurek Tajikistan 300 1980 3 Grand Dixence Switzerland 285 1961 4 Inguri Georgia 272 1980 5 Boruca Costa Rica 267 1990 6 Vaiont Italy 262 1961 7 Chicoasen Mexico 261 1980 8 Manuel M. Torres Mexico 261 1981 9 Alvaro Obregon Mexico 260 1946 10 Mauvoisin Switzerland 250 1957 Rank Name of Dam Country Height (m) Year of Completed World’s Largest Dams By Height