 A Marketing Manager of FMCG brand is faced
with a situation where the sales figure for his
most popular brand is declini...
 Marketing and Marketing Research are two
faces of the same coin
 Marketing is about identifying and meeting
the social ...
Definition – “Search for Knowledge”
Business Research is defined
as the systematic and objective process of
gathering, rec...
 The scope of Business Research limited by ones
definition of “Business”
 Business Research covers wide range of
phenome...
 Basic Research attempts to expand the limits
of knowledge
 Basic Research is conducted to verify the
acceptability of a...
 For managers research reduces uncertainty by
providing information that improves the decision
making process
 Research ...
 Research is the backbone of Strategy
development
 Research in an organization helps managers
to identify problems or op...
 Managers gain insights in to underlying
problem
 If a problem exists then what happened and
why?
 If an opportunity ex...
 Evaluation of alternatives and in selecting the
best course of action
 Opportunities may be evaluated through the
use o...
 The formal objective measurement and
appraisal of the extent to which a given
activity, project or program has achieved ...
a. Time Constraints
b. Availability of Data
c. Nature of the Decision
d. Benefits versus Cost
 Scientific - Scientific research refers to a body
of techniques for investigating phenomena,
acquiring new knowledge or ...
 Non Scientific - Non scientific research is
investigating about human society and of
individual relationships in and to ...
 Descriptive Vs Analytical
 Applied Vs Fundamental
 Quantitative Vs Qualitative
 Conceptual Vs Empirical
1. Good Research is systematic
2. Good Research is logical
3. Good Research is Empirical
4. Good Research is Replicable
 What are Research Ethics?
 Importance of Ethics in Research
 Ethical Treatment of Participants
a. Explain study benefi...
 A narrow conception of the Project
 Uneven caliber of Researchers
 Poor Framing of the problem
 Late and occasionally...
 Marketing Manager
 Research Manager – The backbone of
Research Process
 Research Firm
 Investigators
 Respondents
 A firm that cannot conduct an entire
marketing research project in-house must
select an external supplier for one or mor...
 What is the reputation of the supplier?
 Do they complete projects on schedule?
 Are they known for maintaining ethica...
 The entry level position in a business firm
would be Junior Research Analyst (for BBA) or
Research Analyst for (MBA)
 T...
 Career opportunities are available with marketing research
firms (e.g., AC Nielsen, Burke, Inc., M/A/R/C)
 Careers in b...
Vice-President of Marketing Research: The senior position in marketing
research. The vice president (VP) is responsible fo...
Selected Marketing Research Career
Descriptions
Vice President of Marketing
Research
• Part of company’s top
management te...
Analyst
• Handles details in execution of
project
• Designs & pretests questionnaires
• Conducts preliminary analysis of
d...
 Internal suppliers
 External suppliers
◦ Full-service suppliers
 Syndicated services
 Standardized services
 Customi...
Controllable
Marketing
•Product
•Pricing
•Promotion
•Distribution
Variables
Marketing
Research
Marketing
Decision
Making
P...
Why
Information
Is
Needed
Marketing
Environment
Strategic
Planning
Customer
Needs
Competition
 MIS is defined as a formalized set of procedures for
generating, analyzing, storing and distributing
information to mark...
 MIS focuses on each decision makers
responsibilities, styles and information needs
 Information gathered from various s...
 Three distinct types of information are generally
supplied to marketing managers through the MIS
– Recurrent, Monitoring...
 Monitoring Information is information derived from the
regular scanning of certain sources
 Monitoring Information come...
 Requested information is developed in
response to a specific request by a marketing
manager. Without such a request the
...
 Specialized MIS – Firms typically evolve
smaller, specialized systems designed to
meet the needs of a subset of mangers ...
 DSS are integrated systems including
hardware, communication network, database,
model base, software base, and the DSS u...
 Unstructured Problems
 Use of Models
 User Friendly Interaction
 Adaptability
Can Improve Decision
Making by Using “...
Developing Information
Four Main Sources and Types
1. Internal records information
2. Marketing intelligence
3. Marketing ...
Obtains Needed Information for Marketing Managers
From the Following Sources
Internal Data
Collection of Information from ...
Developing information.
The MIS develops the required information
from: internal records, marketing
intelligence activitie...
Internal Records
Information from sources within the
organization used to evaluate marketing
performance and to identify m...
Marketing Intelligence
Information from internal and external sources
about developments in the marketing
environment that...
Marketing Intelligence
Marketing intelligence is the information that is
collected, often informally, by reading books,
ne...
Marketing Research
A process used to identify and define
marketing opportunities and problems, to
monitor and evaluate mar...
Marketing Research Process
1. Defining the Problem and Research
Objectives
Research projects can have one of three types o...
2. Developing the Research Plan & Design
a. Determine specific information needs
b. Decision on data
c. Research approache...
3. Planning Primary Data Collection
. Contact methods: mail questionnaires,
telephone interviewing, personal
interviewing,...
4. Implementing the Research Plan
a. Gather the research data.
b. “Enter the data” or process information.
c. Analyze the ...
5. Interpreting and Reporting the Findings
a. Interpret the findings
b. Draw conclusions
c. Acknowledge any research limit...
Information Analysis
Information gathered can often benefit from
additional analysis that may help to answer
questions suc...
Information Analysis
This involves further and more detailed
analysis of marketing intelligence and
marketing research dat...
 USA accounts for only about 40 percent of the
marketing research expenditures
 About 40% of all marketing research is c...
 International Marketing Research
 Foreign Research
 Multinational Research
 A Research Design provides the framework to
be used as a guide in collecting and analyzing
data
 Exploratory – This is generally used to clarify
opinions and thoughts about the research
problem or the respondent popul...
 Descriptive Research – Most marketing research of this type
 Descriptive Studies are either Longitudinal or Cross Secti...
 Causal Research Design – Causal design
seeks to establish causation as far as
possible, by employing controls and
condit...
 Study about a English daily in 1980s in
Bangalore a Comparative Analysis was
performed
Thank You
Any Questions?
Introduction to research methodology
Introduction to research methodology
Introduction to research methodology
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Introduction to research methodology

  1. 1.  A Marketing Manager of FMCG brand is faced with a situation where the sales figure for his most popular brand is declining in Hubli Region when compared to others. He wants to do a study to assess the sitution Is this a Problem or an Opportunity?
  2. 2.  Marketing and Marketing Research are two faces of the same coin  Marketing is about identifying and meeting the social needs and Marketing Research aids this function of the marketing  It helps in the most important phase of marketing in the decision making or strategizing process
  3. 3. Definition – “Search for Knowledge” Business Research is defined as the systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for aid in making business definitions
  4. 4.  The scope of Business Research limited by ones definition of “Business”  Business Research covers wide range of phenomena  A Broader definition includes problems or opportunities related to For Profit and Not for Profit Organizations  Intuition without Research can lead to disappointment  Business Research questions require information about how the environment, employees, customer or the economy will respond to Executives decisions
  5. 5.  Basic Research attempts to expand the limits of knowledge  Basic Research is conducted to verify the acceptability of a given theory or to discover more about a certain concept  Applied Research – Research undertaken to answer questions about specific problems
  6. 6.  For managers research reduces uncertainty by providing information that improves the decision making process  Research reduces managerial uncertainty in taking decisions  Four interrelated stages a. Identifying problems or opportunities b. Diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities c. Selecting and implementing a course of action d. Evaluating the course of action
  7. 7.  Research is the backbone of Strategy development  Research in an organization helps managers to identify problems or opportunities  Research can be used as a scanning activity to know what is happening in the organization  Research provides alternatives for taking decisions on intuition or experience
  8. 8.  Managers gain insights in to underlying problem  If a problem exists then what happened and why?  If an opportunity exists then explore, clarify, and refine the nature of an opportunity  If multiple opportunities exist research may be conducted to set priorities
  9. 9.  Evaluation of alternatives and in selecting the best course of action  Opportunities may be evaluated through the use of various performance criteria  A fax machine manufacturer must decide to build a factor in South Korea or Japan
  10. 10.  The formal objective measurement and appraisal of the extent to which a given activity, project or program has achieved its objectives  Provides feedback for evaluation and control of strategies and tactics
  11. 11. a. Time Constraints b. Availability of Data c. Nature of the Decision d. Benefits versus Cost
  12. 12.  Scientific - Scientific research refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge or correcting and integrating previous knowledge consist of collection of data through observation and experimentation and formulation and testing of hypothesis
  13. 13.  Non Scientific - Non scientific research is investigating about human society and of individual relationships in and to society. It consist of data through observation and presume relations among natural phenomena
  14. 14.  Descriptive Vs Analytical  Applied Vs Fundamental  Quantitative Vs Qualitative  Conceptual Vs Empirical
  15. 15. 1. Good Research is systematic 2. Good Research is logical 3. Good Research is Empirical 4. Good Research is Replicable
  16. 16.  What are Research Ethics?  Importance of Ethics in Research  Ethical Treatment of Participants a. Explain study benefits b. Explain participant rights and protection c. Obtain informed consent Deception an ethical thorn
  17. 17.  A narrow conception of the Project  Uneven caliber of Researchers  Poor Framing of the problem  Late and occasionally erroneous findings  Personality and Presentational Differences
  18. 18.  Marketing Manager  Research Manager – The backbone of Research Process  Research Firm  Investigators  Respondents
  19. 19.  A firm that cannot conduct an entire marketing research project in-house must select an external supplier for one or more phases of the project  Trade Publications, Professional Directories and word of mouth  When developing a criteria for selecting an outside supplier, a firm should keep some basics in mind as follows
  20. 20.  What is the reputation of the supplier?  Do they complete projects on schedule?  Are they known for maintaining ethical standards?  Are they flexible?  Are their research projects of high quality?  What kind and how much experience does the supplier have? Ha the firm had experience with projects similar to this one?  Do the supplier's personnel have both technical and non-technic expertise?  Can they communicate well with the client? Competitive bids should be obtained and compared on the bas of quality as well as price. The internet is very efficient for identifying marketing researc firms that supply specific services
  21. 21.  The entry level position in a business firm would be Junior Research Analyst (for BBA) or Research Analyst for (MBA)  The entry level employees learn about a particular industry and receive training from a senior staff member, usually the Marketing Research Manager
  22. 22.  Career opportunities are available with marketing research firms (e.g., AC Nielsen, Burke, Inc., M/A/R/C)  Careers in business and non-business firms and agencies with in-house marketing research departments (e.g., Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola, AT & T, the Federal Trade Commission, United States Census Bureau)  Advertising agencies (e.g., BBDO International, Ogilvy & Mather, J. Walter Thompson, Young & Rubicam)  Positions: vice president of marketing research, research director, assistant director of research, project manager, field work director, statistician/data processing specialist, senior analyst, analyst, junior analyst, and operational supervisor.
  23. 23. Vice-President of Marketing Research: The senior position in marketing research. The vice president (VP) is responsible for the entire marketing research operation of the company and serves on the top management team. This person sets the objectives and goals of the marketing research department. Research Director: Also a senior position. The research director has the general responsibility for the development and execution of all the marketing research projects. Assistant Director of Research: Serves as an administrative assistant to the director and supervises some of the other marketing research staff members. (Senior) Project Manager: Has overall responsibility for design, implementation, and management of research projects. Statistician/Data Processing Specialist: Serves as an expert on theory and application of statistical techniques. Responsibilities include experimental design, data processing, and analysis.
  24. 24. Selected Marketing Research Career Descriptions Vice President of Marketing Research • Part of company’s top management team • Directs company’s entire market research operation • Sets the goals & objectives of the marketing research department Research Director •Also part of senior management •Heads the development and execution of all research projects Assistant Director of Research •Administrative assistant to director •Supervises research staff members Senior Project Manager •Responsible for design, implementation, & research projects
  25. 25. Analyst • Handles details in execution of project • Designs & pretests questionnaires • Conducts preliminary analysis of data Junior Analyst • Secondary data analysis • Edits and codes questionnaires • Conducts preliminary analysis of data Fieldwork Director •Handles selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of interviewers and field workers Senior Analyst • Participates in the development of projects • Carries out execution of assigned projects • Coordinates the efforts of analyst, junior analyst, & other personnel in the development of research design and data collection • Prepares final report Statistician/Data Processing • Serves as expert on theory and application on statistical techniques • Oversees experimental design, data processing, and analysis Selected Marketing Research Career Descriptions
  26. 26.  Internal suppliers  External suppliers ◦ Full-service suppliers  Syndicated services  Standardized services  Customized services  Internet services ◦ Limited-service suppliers  Field services  Coding and data entry services  Analytical services  Data analysis services  Branded marketing research products
  27. 27. Controllable Marketing •Product •Pricing •Promotion •Distribution Variables Marketing Research Marketing Decision Making Providing Information Assessing Information Needs Marketing Managers • Market Segmentation • Performance & Control • Target Market Selection • Marketing Programs Uncontrollable Environmental Factors •Economy •Technology •Laws & Regulations •Social & Cultural Factors •Political Factors Customer Groups • Employees • Shareholders Suppliers• • Consumers Fig 1.2
  28. 28. Why Information Is Needed Marketing Environment Strategic Planning Customer Needs Competition
  29. 29.  MIS is defined as a formalized set of procedures for generating, analyzing, storing and distributing information to marketing decision makers on an ongoing basis OR  Marketing Information System (MIS) is a set of procedures for generating, analyzing, storing and distributing information to marketing decision makers on an ongoing basis Marketing Information System Consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers. .
  30. 30.  MIS focuses on each decision makers responsibilities, styles and information needs  Information gathered from various sources, such as invoices and marketing intelligence, including marketing research is combined and presented in a format that can be readily used in decision making  MIS helps to identify ,select and resolve marketing problems or opportunities
  31. 31.  Three distinct types of information are generally supplied to marketing managers through the MIS – Recurrent, Monitoring and Requested  Recurrent Information is information that is provided on a periodic basis. Market share by region, customer awareness of the firms advertising, Customers satisfaction etc is the information provided on a Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly or Annual Basis  Recurrent information is particularly useful for indicating problems and opportunities
  32. 32.  Monitoring Information is information derived from the regular scanning of certain sources  Monitoring Information comes primarily from external sources. Government reports, patents, Articles, Annual Reports of competitors and public activities of competitors are common sources that are monitored  Article Summaries are prepared and distributed any time a relevant article appears  Monitoring Information is particularly useful for alerting firms to potential problems such as new competitors or new marketing activites
  33. 33.  Requested information is developed in response to a specific request by a marketing manager. Without such a request the information would not flow to the manager and might not exist in the system  Example – Request on the size of the market not currently served by the firm and assessment of rivalry in the market
  34. 34.  Specialized MIS – Firms typically evolve smaller, specialized systems designed to meet the needs of a subset of mangers such as Sales Managers or Brand Managers or systems are developed for specific types of information such as data
  35. 35.  DSS are integrated systems including hardware, communication network, database, model base, software base, and the DSS user that collect and interpret information for Decision Making
  36. 36.  Unstructured Problems  Use of Models  User Friendly Interaction  Adaptability Can Improve Decision Making by Using “What if” Analysis DSSMIS  Structured Problems  Use of Reports  Rigid Structure  Information Displaying Restricted  Can Improve Decision Making by Clarifying Data
  37. 37. Developing Information Four Main Sources and Types 1. Internal records information 2. Marketing intelligence 3. Marketing research 4. Information analysis
  38. 38. Obtains Needed Information for Marketing Managers From the Following Sources Internal Data Collection of Information from Data Sources Within the Company Marketing Intelligence Collection and Analysis of Publicly Available Information about Competitors and the Marketing Environment From: Accounting, Sales Force, Marketing, Manufacturing, Sales From: Employees, Suppliers, Customers, Competitors, Marketing Research Companies Marketing Research Design, Collection, Analysis, and Reporting of Data about a Situation
  39. 39. Developing information. The MIS develops the required information from: internal records, marketing intelligence activities and marketing research. 1)Internal Records This is the most basic system used by most marketing executives to monitor reports of orders, sales, inventories and debts. The internal accounting system can be used to provide information quickly, since most organisations produce monthly or weekly records of sales, and so on, to help the financial management of the organisation.
  40. 40. Internal Records Information from sources within the organization used to evaluate marketing performance and to identify marketing problems and opportunities  Customer history information and information trends  Customer information management (e.g., guest/customer registration and comment cards, mystery shoppers)  Corporate customer and marketing intermediary information (e.g., customer and prospective customer databases)
  41. 41. Marketing Intelligence Information from internal and external sources about developments in the marketing environment that helps managers to prepare and adjust marketing plans and short-run tactics.  Internal sources of marketing intelligence  External sources of marketing intelligence  Sources of competitive information  Commercial sources of marketing information
  42. 42. Marketing Intelligence Marketing intelligence is the information that is collected, often informally, by reading books, newspapers, trade journals, talking to customers, sales staff and suppliers. Well run organisations have some way - usually weekly or monthly meetings - where marketing intelligence information collected from the marketplace or the general environment is discussed by the members of the marketing team.
  43. 43. Marketing Research A process used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems, to monitor and evaluate marketing actions and performance, and to communicate research findings to management. Steps in the Marketing Research Process: 1. Defining the problem and research objectives 2. Developing the research plan to collect information 3. Implementing the research plan 4. Interpreting and reporting the findings
  44. 44. Marketing Research Process 1. Defining the Problem and Research Objectives Research projects can have one of three types of objectives: a. Exploratory: to collect preliminary information that will help define the problem or hypotheses. b. Descriptive: to describe the size and characteristics of the market. c. Causal: to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships.
  45. 45. 2. Developing the Research Plan & Design a. Determine specific information needs b. Decision on data c. Research approaches – Observational, Focus group , Survey , Behavioral & Experimental d. Questionnaire & Sampling
  46. 46. 3. Planning Primary Data Collection . Contact methods: mail questionnaires, telephone interviewing, personal interviewing, Internet surveying, focus group interviewing
  47. 47. 4. Implementing the Research Plan a. Gather the research data. b. “Enter the data” or process information. c. Analyze the data.
  48. 48. 5. Interpreting and Reporting the Findings a. Interpret the findings b. Draw conclusions c. Acknowledge any research limitations d. Report findings and conclusions
  49. 49. Information Analysis Information gathered can often benefit from additional analysis that may help to answer questions such as “what if?” and “what is best?”
  50. 50. Information Analysis This involves further and more detailed analysis of marketing intelligence and marketing research data (sometimes this is called “secondary analysis” of primary data) through: 1. Advanced statistical analysis 2. Mathematical models
  51. 51.  USA accounts for only about 40 percent of the marketing research expenditures  About 40% of all marketing research is conducted in Europe and 10% in Japan  In Europe UK, Germany, France, Italy and Spain  Japan leads in Asia Specific region followed by Australia, China, Korea and Taiwan  Brazil and Mexico lead in Central and South American markets
  52. 52.  International Marketing Research  Foreign Research  Multinational Research
  53. 53.  A Research Design provides the framework to be used as a guide in collecting and analyzing data
  54. 54.  Exploratory – This is generally used to clarify opinions and thoughts about the research problem or the respondent population or to provide insights on how to conduct more conclusive research  One major application of exploratory research, therefore, is to generate hypotheses for further studies
  55. 55.  Descriptive Research – Most marketing research of this type  Descriptive Studies are either Longitudinal or Cross Sectional  Longitudinal Studies generally takes the form of a sample of respondents who are studied over a period of time – from a few months to a few years  Cross Sectional Design – This is most commonly used in marketing research. This is a one shot research study at a given point of time, and consists of a sample (cross section) of the population of interest  Cross sectional design gives a good overall picture of the position at a given time
  56. 56.  Causal Research Design – Causal design seeks to establish causation as far as possible, by employing controls and conditions under which we can state with reasonable confidence whether or not Y is affected by X
  57. 57.  Study about a English daily in 1980s in Bangalore a Comparative Analysis was performed
  58. 58. Thank You Any Questions?

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