Effects of Logging in Papua New GuineaA case study in Sogeram, Madang Province                                           1
Tables of Content    1. Introduction.........................................................................................
1. IntroductionLogging is the process, work or business of cutting down trees and transporting the logs tosawmill. (Online...
2. Impacts   2.2 Environmental               2.2.1 Health (Food Security)Logging has had a severe impact on food and other...
2.2.3 EconomicFood crops such as breadfruit tress, sago, coconut palms and other tree foods have beenbulldozed by machiner...
3. Government Policy on ForestDue to over exploitation of forest in PNG, the Forestry Commission have introduced forestpol...
5. SummaryRegardless of implemented laws by the Forest Authority of PNG, still unsustainable and illegallogging is still h...
6. ReferencesAhni, 2009, Landowners opposed to rainforest Destruction,       http://intercontinentalcry.org/landowners-opp...
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[Challenge:Future] GuineaEffects of Logging in Papua New Guinea Effects of Logging in Papua New GuineaEffects of Loggin

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[Challenge:Future] GuineaEffects of Logging in Papua New Guinea Effects of Logging in Papua New GuineaEffects of Loggin

  1. 1. Effects of Logging in Papua New GuineaA case study in Sogeram, Madang Province 1
  2. 2. Tables of Content 1. Introduction....................................................................................................................3 1.1 Case Study: Rimbunan Hijau(RH) Logging in Sogeram, Madang Province..............3 2. Impacts…………………………………………………………………………………4 2.2 Environmental .................................................................................................................4 2.2.1 Health (Food Security)………………………………………………………….4 2.2.2 Water.....................................................................................................................4 2.2.3 Economic...............................................................................................................5 2.2.4 Social .......................................................................................................................53 Government Policy onForest.................................................................................................64 Solution....................................................................................................................................6 4.1 Community Benefits………………………………………………………………………………..65 Summary..................................................................................................................................7 5.1Recommendation.................................................................................................................76 References.................................................................................................................................8 2
  3. 3. 1. IntroductionLogging is the process, work or business of cutting down trees and transporting the logs tosawmill. (Online Dictionary Reference).It has been one of the most prominent and best knownforms of rainforest degradation in Papua New Guinea. Despite of the newly of introducedlogging techniques, implemented laws and awareness on the future implication on the virginrainforests in PNG, still our forest depletes everyday due to unsustainable and illegal logging inour tropical rainforest the logging giants.Most of the locals depend entirely on the tropical forest as their homes for hundreds of years.The land and forest are the most important economic resources that provided them with food,building materials for shelter, medicinal plants and other products to meet their subsistenceneeds. Their relationship with the land has formed a deeply rooted bond to their societies,cultural and spiritual lives. Because the forest is so central and home of the locals, most forestpeople have come up with innovative and sustainable ways to protect and manage to ensure thattheir needs are met and that forest ecosystem is protected.1.1 Case StudyMalaysian giant Rimbunan Hijau (RH) is one of the most unsustainable logging companies thathave operated in almost all parts of PNG causing major environmental destructions. RH operatesin Western, New Ireland, Manus, Sandaun and has recently moved to Sogeram in MadangProvince. Due to their continuous unsustainable and illegal logging practises, it has alerted theresources owners and concerned citizens to be more vocal on the environmental problems. Theconcern authorities used media as a tool to disseminate campaign to the multi- giant company tostop the ill practise on the environment and try to be environmental friendly as forest is theirhome. According to Barney Zwarts, environmental vandalism by loggers in PNG is destroying thenation and its people. Thus, this simply portrays the negative impact of logging on the naturalenvironment and the people of PNG. 3
  4. 4. 2. Impacts 2.2 Environmental 2.2.1 Health (Food Security)Logging has had a severe impact on food and other resources which form the basis of thelivelihoods of many forest-dependent peoples (Forest Monitor Rights). In terms of food resources,wild meats and fish have represented vital sources of proteins. According to numerous studies onfood resources, it has clearly indicated that the availability of wild meat have declineddramatically due to logging. Likewise similar scenario will likely to come into effect if PNGlandowners and Governments are not vocal on their land. According reliable sources interviewedfrom the Sogeram Block 1 in Madang Province, all wild proteins have migrated right into thedeep forest which makes it quite difficult for hunting. Due introduction of logging operations,it’s even quite harder for the locals to catch or to the extreme to return with empty handed home.Because of over exploitation of the natural rainforest, it has poised threat to their lives were theyeither migrated inland of the forest or can be concluded to their extinction.2.2.2 WaterAs watersheds are destroyed and rivers become silted and contaminated, locals are deprived andsuffered of the most vital resources for survival. Streams and rivers provide clean water and alsoalternative sources of protein which include fish shells, prawns and crabs. Locals usuallysubstitute from their environment in terms of protein though hunting or fishing. However, due towater contamination, food chain is also affected alone the line, as evidently in Cameroon, AlotauProvince in Papua New Guinea. Destruction of the rainforest has resulted in loss of food andpollution of water sources which further leads to health problems. Especially for the forestdependents, their lives are at a greater risk, most importantly the women and children are theonce that suffer the most. In Sarawak, in the late 1970s and early 1980s malnutrition became awidespread due to unsustainable logging. (Forest Monitor Rights). According to Carolyn Court,forest destruction through logging has affected people in the villages and women too. Especiallyclear- felling pollutes drinking water and causes breeding grounds for the mosquitoes (leads tomalaria). Also oil spills pollutes drinking water and can be very harmful in terms of skindiseases. 4
  5. 5. 2.2.3 EconomicFood crops such as breadfruit tress, sago, coconut palms and other tree foods have beenbulldozed by machinery for development purposes such as wharfs, bridges and roads. As aresult, food shortages were encounter by the locals which leads to malnutrition and other relateddiseases. Shortages of organic food from the devastated vicinity of logging have further forcedthe locals to be more dependable on manufactured goods like rice, flour, tinned fish, meat andfresh proteins such as chicken, lamb flaps from the stores. Theses have furthermore implicatedshort and long terms effects to individuals and the community as a whole. Short term effectsincludes various introduced disease such as tooth decay, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation whilelong term effects include expensive lifestyle to sustain and addiction to manufactured goods thanthe organic ones. This might likely to open doors to other related problems to penetrate to theirsociety in the future.Turning logs into wood maximizes a local resource and employs local residents. Most of the logsharvested are locally promotes downstream processing which generates income to the locals andat the same time creates employment opportunities for the people of PNG. Instead of logsharvested and shipped overseas, we can keep those funds and jobs in the local economy insteadof paying out trucking, petroleum and distant milling operations. 2.2.4 SocialWhen logging company venture into forest vested areas, locals take advantages and create smalllandowners’ company and operates. As more income is generated into the area, it opens gates forsocial problems. When social predicament arises, it affects especially the children and womenthe province. Like marriages break up, fatherless children, violence against women, prostitution,polygamy, rape, and alcohol problems. Most of the women have no say in decision making aboutthe forest or land owner company. According rainforest Portal, massive cash payments andbrutal violence – to rife in the community which causes more serious problems like prostitution,alcohol and other related dilemmas. Because of all these problems, PNG Forest Authority havecalled on an immediate withdrawal of the company’s operation, nevertheless the multi giantcompany operates in the area. (Post Courier, p4, 2010) 5
  6. 6. 3. Government Policy on ForestDue to over exploitation of forest in PNG, the Forestry Commission have introduced forestpolicy and legislation to protect the environment. The bill was issued in September 1991 byNational Executive Council which covers forest management, forest industry, forest research,forest training and education, and forest organization and administration in which it was passedand certified in the parliament. (http://www.tropmed.org/rreh/vol1_11.htm). In June 1992, the billwas gazetted which then replace the old Departments of forest. The Act was effective as itprovides much tighter controls in the acquisition and allocation of the land for forestdevelopments. The Logging Code of Practice was finalized in which it highlights sustainablelogging which include environmental friendly, Downstream Processing Policy, ReforestationPolicy, Eco – Forestry Policy and forestry Research Policy. 4. Solution 4.1 Community BenefitsInstead of the Government continued to enforced and implemented strict laws on logging whichare not even effective till today, the government and the people of PNG should be environmentalfriendly and support the idea of walkabout sawmill in the country than logging. Simply becauseintroduction of walkabout sawmill is an innovative and environmental friendly approach.The introduction of the walkabout sawmill is an innovative and environmental friendly approachby the most of the Non- Governmental Organization due the ill practise of logging giants inPNG. Through walkabout sawmill, selective logging will be practise in these various areas inwhich mature and precise tress will be selected and harvested. In that manner much of the forestflora and fauna are protected and preserve for later use.The thin blade also means that the mill has use less fuel to cut each log than the conventionalmill. In addition, by milling logs on-site, no fossil fuel is used to transport the logs to an offsitemill or disposal site. Moreover, portable sawmill minimize waste stream by recycling and re-using as much of the by-products of our work as possible. No waste, once the timber has beencut; the remaining slabs are either chipped or cut for firewood. Sawdust and wood chips arefurther converted to mulch or composted back to soil. Nothing needs to dispose of in a landfill. 6
  7. 7. 5. SummaryRegardless of implemented laws by the Forest Authority of PNG, still unsustainable and illegallogging is still happening in PNG forests. The logging practise is causing irreversible damage toour forest resources including, flora, fauna, watershed integrity and the quality of the soil. Forestowners are not seeing tangible benefits and the future is in dim. Logging has greatly destroyedsubsistence livelihood to a more material lifestyle in which most of the population dependsentirely on most of the processed goods from the stores. According to Thomas Barnett, timberindustry had made life even more difficult for land owners and the citizens of Papua NewGuinea. The landowners face destruction of their environment and also their society. Thus, futureof the next generation is uncertain.5.1 Recommendations  PNG government must emphasis more on downstream processing  Walkabout sawmill  Stop clear felling  Active in reforestation program 7
  8. 8. 6. ReferencesAhni, 2009, Landowners opposed to rainforest Destruction, http://intercontinentalcry.org/landowners-opposed-to-rainforest-destruction/, accessed 12th/09/2011, 9:34amBarney Zwarts, 2010, http://www.theage.com.au/environment/rampant-logging-destroying-png-20100226-p94l.html, accessed 11th/09/2011, 10:29 pmForest Monitor Rights, Social Impacts of Logging,http://www.forestsmonitor.org/en/reports/550066/550082, accessed 12th/09/2011, 8:24amForest Monitor, 2006, Environmental Impacts of Logging,http://www.forestsmonitor.org/fr/reports/550066/550083, accessed 12th/09/2011, 8:53amhttp://dictionary.reference.com/browse/logging, accessed 12th/09/2011, 8:05amRainforest Partial, 2010, Papua New Guinea: Logging Violence and Corruption Flare inSogeram/Ramu Madang’s Mighty Forests, http://forests.org/shared/alerts/send.aspx?id=png_ramu_rh,12th/09/2011, 9:28amTodagia Kelola, 2010, Appeal for logging firm to be stopped,http://www.postcourier.com.pg/20100322/news15.htm, accessed 12th/09/2011, 9:31am 8

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