CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION............................................3 a. What is Zoopharmacognosy? b. Prophylactic vs. Therapeutic Self-Medication II. Various Types of Zoopharmacognosy a. Dirt Medicine (aka Geophagy)................7 b. Insect Medicine......................................13 c. Internal Use of Plant Medicine.................18 d. External Use of Plant Medicine................22 III. DISCUSSION............................................... 26 a. How is the information transmitted? b. Difﬁculties with research
I.INTRODUCTION A. WHAT IS ZOOPHARMACOGNOSY? Zoopharmacognosy proposes the use of “plant secondary compounds and other non- nutritional substances to combat or control disease” by animals. Huffman, M. A. 2003. Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: Exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62:371-381.
INTRODUCTION (contd) A. WHAT IS ZOOPHARMACOGNOSY? (contd) Co-evolution of host and parasite has resulted in biological methods for the decrease of parasitic infection in hosts and a decrease in the elimination of parasitic infection due to adaptations to physiological immune responses. Huffman, M. A. 2003. Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: Exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62:371-381.
INTRODUCTION (contd) B. PROPHYLACTIC vs. THERAPEUTIC SELF-MEDICATION Prophylactic (or preventative) self-medication is used in the prevention of illness by healthy individuals. Therapeutic self-medication is a speciﬁc response to a particular situation; that is, the deliberate consumption of medicinal substances by ill individuals. Lozano, G. A. 1998. Parasitic stress and self-medication in wild animals. In . Møller, A. P., Milinski, M., and Slater, P. J. B. (Eds.). Advances in the Study of Behavior Volume 27, Stress and Behavior. Chapter 6, pp. 291-317
II.TYPES OF ZOOPHARMACOGNOSY A. DIRT MEDICINE: GEOPHAGY B. INSECT MEDICINE: ANTING C. PLANT MEDICINE (INTERNAL): INGESTIONAL PLANT MEDICINE D. PLANT MEDICINE (EXTERNAL): FUR RUBBING
II. A.GEOPHAGY i. What is geophagy? ii. The proposed purposes of geophagy iii. Examples of geophagy a. Chacma baboons b. Yellowstone grizzly bears c. Japanese macaques
II. A. i. What isgeophagy? DELISH. Birds Mammals Humans Homo sapiens
ALSOII. A. ii. Proposed DELISH.purposes Necessary nutrients Absorptions of toxins Relieves indigestion Q Should captive animals be given the opportunity to consume “soil” when they have diarrhea or mineral deficiencies?
II. A. iii. Chacmababoons Ingested white alkaline soils Unsure of exact purpose Papio ursinusPebsworth, P. A., Bardi, M., & Huffman, M. A. Geophagy in chacma baboons: Patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state. American Journal of Primatology, 73:1-10, 2011.
II. A. iii. YellowstoneGrizzly Bears Ingested clay with high concentrations of potassium, sulfur, and magnesium Suggests use for anti-diarrheal purposes Mattson, D. J., Green, G. I., & Swalley, R. (1999). Geophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears. Ursus, 11, 109-116. Ursus arctos horribilis
II. A. iv. Japanesemacaques Ingested 2.97 grams per individual per day of soil Concludes that clay act as a bufferWakibara, J. V., Huffman, M. A., Wink, M., Reich, S., Aufreiter, S., Hancock, R. G. V., et al. (2001). The adaptive signiﬁcance of geophagy for Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Arashiyama, Japan. International Journal of Primatology, Macaca fuscata 22(3),495-520.
II. B. I make a goodANTING face scrub. i. What is anting? ii. Active anting iii. Passive anting iv. Debate on the function of anting
II. B. i. What is anting? One of these means of animal self-medication is through the use of insects, called “anting”. It can be split into categories: Passive and Active Jain, C. P., Dashora, A., Garg, R., Kataria, U., Vashistha, B. (2008). Animal self-medication through natural resources. Natural Product Radiance, 7(1), 49-53 Online resources: http://www.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Anting.html http://birds.ecoport.org/Behaviour/EBanting.htm
II. B. ii. Active anting Active Anting: Behavior where birds rub insects (particularly ants) which secrete liquids containing chemicals such as formic acid, in their plumage. The chemicals can serve as insecticides, miticides, fungicides and bactericides or as a supplement to the birds own preen oil against parasites. Birds that partake in Active Anting include: Babblers and Weavers Although the term suggests exclusivity to ants, birds apparently also use millipedes or Puss Moth caterpillars for the same purpose. Over 200 bird species are said to partake in this behavior.
II. B. iii. Passing anting Passive Anting: Simply laying down in an ants nest. Birds that partake in passive anting include: the European Jay, Crows and Waxbills. Although anting can be categorized into two subsets, these categories are not ﬁxed to speciﬁc birds. Certain birds exhibit a ﬂexiblibily between the two on different occasions depending on some unknown factor; Eg. Blackbirds, Redwings, other thrushes etc.
II. B. iv. The function of anting andother topics Besides birds, other animals partake in behavior similar to passive anting; eg. Squirrels, Cats and Monkeys. Debate on the function of anting. http://www.youtube.com/v/314-HtWIOps
II. C.INTERNAL USE OF PLANTMEDICINE: LEAFSWALLOWING i. Chemotherapeutic beneﬁts of plants ingested by chimpanzees ii. Physiomedical properties of leaf-swallowing iii. Social learning in self-medicative behavior Q Why swallow leaves whole?
II. C. i. Chemotherapeutic benefitsof plants ingested by chimpanzees Kibale National Park study Anti-parasitic properties of plants Nematoda ingested by wild chimpanzees Albizia grandibracteata bark and nematodes Krief, S., M. A. Huffman, T. Sévenet, C. -. Hladik, P. Grellier, P. M. Loiseau, and R. W. Wrangham. 2006. Bioactive properties of plant species ingested by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 68:51-71.
II. C. ii. The physiomedicalproperties of leaf-swallowing Ingested for physical rather than chemical properties “Purging response” Gashaka Gumti National Park study Pan troglodytes Fowler, A., Y. Koutsioni, and V. Sommer. 2007. Leaf-swallowing in Nigerian chimpanzees: Evidence for assumed self-medication. Primates 48:73-76.
II. C. iii. The role of social learningin self-medicative behavior Primate Research Institute (Kyoto University) study Learned phobic responses http://www.youtube.com/v/5vZHSKPehdQ Huffman, M. A., and S. Hirata. 2004. An experimental study of leaf swallowing in captive chimpanzees: Insights into the origin of a self-medicative behavior and the role of social learning. Primates 45:113-118.
II. D.EXTERNAL USE OF PLANTMEDICINE: FUR RUBBING i. What is fur rubbing? ii. Capuchin and black-handed spider monkeys iii. Synchronization of fur rubbing
II. D. i. What is fur rubbing? Fur rubbing is the practice of rubbing certain plants and fruits on fur. Q What might be some advantages of engaging in this behavior? Maria DeJoseph, R.S.L. Taylor, Mary Baker, Manuel Cebus capucinus Aregullin, Fur-rubbing behavior of capuchin monkeys, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Volume 46, Issue 6, June 2002, Pages 924-925.
II. D. ii. Capuchin and black-handed spider monkeys Capuchin monkeys Onions, seed pods from Sloanea ternifolia, leaves from Piper marginatum and Clematis dioica L., rind and juice of citrus fruits Black-handed spider monkeys Leaves of Key lime , Zanthoxylum procerum, Z. belizense Campbell, C. J. (2000), Fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama. American Journal of Primatology, 51: 205–208.
II. D. iii. Synchronization of furrubbing http://www.youtube.com/v/I5TDlG441gA Fur rubbing often occurs in synchrony, with multiple monkeys fur rubbing at the same time in close proximity or in direct physical contact with each other. Q What might be some advantages of engaging in this behavior? Meunier, H., Petit, O. and Deneubourg, J.-l. (2008), Social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins. American Journal of Primatology, 70: 161–168.
III.DISCUSSION How is the information transmitted? Culturally transmitted What am I doing here??? Individually learned Difﬁculties with self-medication research