© 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177| 169Consumer educ...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennhave been researched too, mainly by psychologists,anthropologists and sociolog...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennliberal economic thinking, and states that consumers aresovereign. You could c...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennteacher and content – the didactical or educationaltriangle. This triangle is ...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennearlier, human beings may be seen solely as consumers,active or passive (as il...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. Benn∑ products: necessary ingredients, quantities, quality(ecological/traditional,...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. BennThere is a contrast or a dichotomy between the com-mercial world and its offer...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. Benn7. Campbell, C. (1990) Character and consumption: aHistorical Action Theory Ap...
Perspectives on consumer education • J. Benn38. Benn, J. & Haastrup, L. (1986) En varm kartoffel 1–3.(The hot potato) Danm...
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Paper 1 consumer education ed. considerations and perspectives_benn[2002]

  1. 1. © 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177| 169Consumer education: educational considerationsand perspectivesJette BennThe Danish University of Education, Emdrupvej 101, DK 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmarkand the meaning of this for identity, learning and teach-ing.1The project has been funded partly by the DanishMinistry of Commerce; it is one of eight within the maintheme: young people and consumption. The mainresearch questions in this project were:∑ What do children and adolescents understandby consumption and how do they perform asconsumers?∑ What questions does this raise for consumer educa-tion concerning aims, content and competencies?∑ How can the perspective of the household be keptin focus?The relationship between the household, householdproduction and consumption is interesting for peopleinvolved in this field. Furthermore, it is essential tounderstand the meaning of consumption for theyounger generation as well as for the private household,and not just concentrate on the heavily researchedpublic or commercial view. A definition of the aims ofconsumer research from this angle can be seen at theweb-page for the Institute for Marketing, South-DanishUniversity: ‘As far as the subject matter of consumerresearch is concerned, emphasis should be placed oncasting light on those different aspects of consumerbehaviour which are manifested at individual, marketand societal level.’2Until now most research has been aimed primarilyat gaining an understanding of how consumers act andreact for the benefit of producers or society. Recentlychildren and young people have been put on theresearch agenda in Denmark and the Nordic countriesin their roles as consumers. Examples of this researchwere presented at a seminar in Copenhagen in June2001 under the title ‘Children’s Socialization asConsumers and their Perception of Advertising’.3,4Inaddition, two seminars have taken place which dealtwith the same issue, but from different angles – bothwere initiated by the Danish Consumer Board. Thesociological and psychological aspects of consumptionAbstractThis paper examines questions concerning consumereducation in relation to consumption and household man-agement. It is based partly on literature studies and partlyon a current pilot study, also on studies carried out in theclassroom and developmental work in schools and onteacher training courses. The pilot study on consumer edu-cation is being carried out in Denmark and is funded bythe Danish Ministry of Business Affairs. Another part of thestudy concerns a qualitative investigation of pupils’ under-standings of consumption and its meaning in their lives, butthis is not reported here. The key research questions relateto the way in which the young consumer is educated, bothformally and informally, and what the possibilities andperspectives are for consumer education. Introductoryresearch is discussed, followed by a presentation anddiscussion of key issues for consumer education, such ashousehold management, consumption, home economicsand education. Finally, three examples are described anddiscussed which demonstrate how the advocated principlesof consumer education and empowerment can be put intopractice. These examples are based on developmental workcarried out in lower secondary schools and teacher trainingcourses.Keywords Consumer education, consumer behaviour, con-sumption, household management.IntroductionThis article begins with some introductory commentsconcerning consumption and consumer educationwhich were part of a research project: consumer educa-tion in school, home and society, a survey of childrenand adolescents’ establishment of a consumer cultureCorrespondenceJette Benn, Department of Curriculum Research, The Danish Universityof Education, Emdrupvej 101, DK 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark.E-mail: Benn@dpu.dk
  2. 2. Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennhave been researched too, mainly by psychologists,anthropologists and sociologists. These works deal bothwith the meaning of consumption as part of cultureand as part of an individual’s aesthetic expression andexistential understanding.5–9The current study wasinspired both by these studies and by studies withinconsumer education as seen from a home economics’viewpoint.10–12Theoretical background: housekeeping,consumption and home economics‘Housekeeping means: to use what you have in order toget what you want’According to tradition, this sentiment was expressedaround 100 years ago by the famous Danish home econ-omist Magdalene Lauridsen, founder of one of the firsthome economics schools for girls and a home econom-ics’ teacher training college. This described what goodhousekeeping was, and perhaps is, all about and whatshould be taught. Teachers should be taught to econo-mize, to make good use of all materials in the mostprudent way, so that they will be able to teach pupils todo the same in their turn.To act prudently implies manythings: knowing, thinking, doing, acting in a way whichmakes one able and capable of managing a household,‘to home economize’, or whatever name we give thoseactions. One way of describing it might be to ‘act as edu-cated consumers’. This is also the perspective for thisarticle and part of my current research on consumptionand consumer education.Consumption and consumer education is part of thehome economics field. This can be seen in the changesof course title and journals of home economics in manycountries from home economics, domestic scienceor household science to ‘consumer and leisure studies’or ‘family and consumer studies’ (England and US) or‘home economics and consumer studies’ (Sweden).13–15Home economics deals with home, families and house-holds – the everyday life perspective. Household life inmodern Western societies nowadays deals to a greatextent with consumption: indeed, for some people itseems to be the overall mission of their lives.To surviveand stay alive it is necessary to consume. The modernconsumer society or, as Giddens puts it, late-modernsociety we are part of today has a major impact on ourlives as individuals, families and households.16Despitethe emphasis nowadays being on the consumer and herconsumption behaviour, it can be postulated that we arealso, to a certain degree, producers. We are not justpassive consumers but, as we consume we act, react andinteract. How, why and when we carry out these actionsdepends on who we are,our needs and attitudes towardsconsumption and action and our skills or abilities to‘produce’. As Orvar Lofgren points out, there is a need‘for seeing consumption as cultural production and con-sumers as actors rather than objects.’17Consumer – consumption/production‘In the old days a ladle (a long handled spoon forcooking) was a ladle and it was made of wood’18The Danish consumer researcher Karen Gredal meantby this statement that in the old days the consumerknew all there was to know about the product. Thematerial used was well-known and had proved itsusefulness over many years, users knew all about thequality and how to keep the tool in good shape, theyknew what food it would be used for and how to use upevery scrap of the food in question. Nowadays in thewestern world, and indeed world-wide, thousands ofdifferent new materials and foodstuffs are on sale andused in households in the modern or late-modern world.It is quite impossible to be ‘a prudent, knowledgeableconsumer’. Foods can be split into microunits and puttogether in quite new ways unknown in earlier times.Today’s society is, as Giddens and Ulrich Beck havecalled it, a ‘risk society’.19,20In addition to the risks weexperienced in the past as citizens or consumers, thereare now new risks. Our foods may be genetically modi-fied, polluted or filled with unknown additives: the con-sumer has to cope with all of this. We have to deal with‘the dangerous consumer society’ – this is the title of thebook edited by Graae, 1971, where Gredal is quoted.How can we confront those dangers at personal, insti-tutional and societal level?It is useful here to consider three or four paradigmsin relation to the consumer society. The first three arederived from political, economic and consumer policiesand philosophies.21–23The first paradigm is grounded in170| International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177 © 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd
  3. 3. Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennliberal economic thinking, and states that consumers aresovereign. You could call this the consumer-regulatedsociety paradigm. In modern times you might describethe central figure of this model as the ‘political con-sumer’, who chooses and thereby determines themarket. The second paradigm suggests that all power isin the hands of the producers, nowadays the multi-national companies or WTA (World Trade Association).This means the producers are superior and decide whatwe can buy and how to consume.A third paradigm saysthat neither of the two parties may put themselvesforward as superior and prudent. We need a legalizedsociety, which sets the regulations for producers as wellas providing legislation to protect consumers, becauseconsumers and producers do not operate at comparablelevels. The fourth paradigm is an utopia – an ecologicalor oiko-political model where both partners act in con-siderate ways within the framework of global legislationmeeting basic needs for all, now and for the nextgenerations.To return to reality, our society encompasses homesand households which display the following character-istics according to Giddens, Mitchell and Ritzer.24–26These are:∑ McDonaldization∑ globalization∑ privatisation∑ deregulationThe characteristics demonstrate that the first threeparadigms mentioned above are represented in societytoday, and all of these tendencies are part of ‘the dan-gerous consumer society’. They have an impact onprivate households or homes, the places where con-sumers live and consume on the one hand. On the otherhand, consumers also act as producers within theirhomes. They can produce quite complex products frombasic materials. For instance, they can grow potatoes,harvest them, prepare them as a sophisticated meal, orthey can store them to use later by preserving them insome way. In other words, individual consumersalso produce on a smaller or larger scale. ‘Out’ in the(risk-) society the same people act as consumers withgreater or lesser success, either actively or passively.Thepoint of this differentiation is to clarify the relationshipbetween the role of consumer and the role of producerconnected to both home and society, to oikos and polis,if you draw on the concepts from ancient Greek societyas used by the American home economics researcher,Patricia Thompson. Thompson’s model for this theoryshows oikos as isolated, but related to polis or society.If we use the terms as defined by Habermas.27Homesand household are embedded within society, or the lifeworld is surrounded by the system world This is illus-trated in Fig. 1.28Here, society or polis must be under-stood as all those different spheres or levels surroundingus, with governmental or political institutions and themarket as well. A further discussion of the oikos-polistheme can be found in the work of Thompson and ofBenn (primarily in Danish).29,30Seen from the individ-ual’s perspective, he or she acts as consumer outside thehome in society, at the market, and acts as producerand/or consumer within the home. This double per-spective is (for the author at least) also essential forconsumer education.The function of educationSchool may be considered as a societal institution whichhas the purpose of educating human beings to enablethem to act in home and society. Formal education isbased on schooling and the relationship between pupil,© 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177| 171Figure 1. Connection between household-society and con-sumer-producer (Benn, 2000).
  4. 4. Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennteacher and content – the didactical or educationaltriangle. This triangle is influenced by cultural and his-torical dimensions. As already mentioned in the intro-duction, consumer education has always been part ofthe curriculum for home economics to a greater orlesser extent, but the word ‘consumer’ was first men-tioned in Danish schools legislation in 1975. From 1975the syllabus was formulated mainly on the basis of thefirst paradigm, that consumers are sovereign and areable to make choices as rational and informed con-sumers according to their own needs, just so long as theyget sufficient information.Today consumer issues form part of the coreproficiency areas, both in home economics’ teachertraining and within home economics in basic schooleducation (primary and secondary school) accordingto the core curriculum from 1995 and 1996 for homeeconomics teacher education. Consumer issues arepart of these syllabuses but are not mentioned explic-itly as part of other subjects, though they might bedealt with in many other subjects – in Danish, forexample, as part of the text analysis of advertisements.Consumer education may also be introduced as across-curricular theme between subjects, or as a sub-ject area within project work, which is a compulsorypart of Danish school education according to thelegislation.The aim of education as such is ‘to further the pupils’acquisition of knowledge, skills, working methods andways of expressing themselves and thus contribute tothe all-round personal development of the individualpupil’ according to The Danish ‘Folkeskole’ Act §1.1.31The overall aim is that pupils and students obtain activecompetencies in a number of fields or become empow-ered to act as citizens in a democratic society.32–34In other words, pupils and teacher undergo Bildung, touse a German word which has a different and broadermeaning from simply education. It encompasses asocialization process with an emancipatory and criticalangle and is not just a behaviourist way of thinking.Thismust also be the aim of consumer education,so it cannotdiffer from the aim of education as such. To use theCanadian home economist Eleanore Vaines’ expres-sion, the aim of consumer education must be to producean ‘eco-centred’ or eco-caring teacher and pupil orhuman being.35Vaines mentions three different teacherorientations, ‘the eco-centred, the ego-centric or theuncommitted’. These philosophical orientations areformed through teacher education and also form part ofthe individual teacher’s value system.The uncommittedteacher offers her knowledge without advancing herown opinion. The ego-centric and eco-centred orienta-tions are discussed further below.Consumer educationAs for all forms of education, consumer education isbased on the educational triangle pupil, teacher andcontent, viewed from the perspective of today andtomorrow. Formerly, consumer education could besummed up in the words of Lauridsen quoted above‘To use what you have in order to get what you want’,which could be interpreted as a very narrow, ego-centricway of seeing consumer education. Since the consumercannot necessarily see beyond the end of his or her nose,this produces the ego-centric consumer. This is a formof consumer education where you do not go beyond theproduct but see it only in terms of your needs, here andnow. This sort of consumer education is useful for thesingle person or family in a limited sense. He or shehas become an ‘educated consumer’, knowing aboutlabelling and the properties of washing machines which,while this can be a necessary part of consumer educa-tion, cannot stand alone. This has to be expanded orsupplemented by a wider form of consumer educationwhich goes beyond the fulfilment of personal needs andtakes into account the ‘complete history’ of the goodsand the circumstances under which they have beenproduced, as illustrated in Fig. 2. This is reflected in theconsumer content of the Danish curriculum, both inteacher education and education at primary and lowersecondary level. In the core proficiency areas perspec-tives concerning ‘resources and environment’ and ‘forhealth and life-equality’ and ‘ethical considerations’,must all be related to the core issue: consumption; inaddition, ‘societal and technological aspects’ must beconsidered, as well as ‘historical, cultural and socialaspects’ together with ‘aesthetic and sensory aspects’(Ministry of Education, 1995).36Some examples are given here as to how such objec-tives may be achieved.These were developed as projectsat grade 6 and at teacher training courses.37As discussed172| International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177 © 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd
  5. 5. Perspectives on consumer education • J. Bennearlier, human beings may be seen solely as consumers,active or passive (as illustrated in Figs 1 and 2) or asboth consumers and producers within the home orhousehold. To be able to produce within the home it isnecessary to act as critical consumers. If you are not ableto master different processes, you will not be able torespond to demands due to lack of inside informationor knowledge about how to produce, or to raise politi-cal questions concerning production. So it is necessaryin consumer education to work with both the consumerand producer roles, to learn and gain experience in thefield.Two examples of teaching from the pilot study canillustrate the possibilities, with a third example buildingon work carried out previously.38ExamplesBeing a producer – example 1 – or how to get into theproducer’s mindA way of getting into the producer role could be tochoose a popular fast food product such as the Kinder-milchschnitte (children’s milk-slice).This snack is adver-tised on television as a filling healthy meal for children.The pupils are then asked to become the ‘CuriousCamera’, which was the title of a Danish televisionprogram for pupils aged 8–12. What that means is thatthey should examine the product, test the claims ofhealthiness, try to reveal the complete history behindthe product, analyse the contents and manufacturingprocesses. The next step is to make a similar productbased on the detective work they have carried out bycarefully reading the label. Finally, the students makesuggestions for alternatives to the Kindermilchschnitteand make a critical assessment of whether the productis needed or not.Being a consumer and a producer – example 2Another way of working is to set up a dialogue with stu-dents which encompasses common problems in theirlives as consumers. One such problem might be aboutworking out satisfactory possibilities for lunch. Theproblems might be:∑ lack of time or energy to prepare lunch at home totake to school;∑ products in the tuck shop being too expensive or oflow quality.The proposed solution is to work with this problemby producing and testing a good bread product, whichcould be used for sale in the school tuck shop and whichcould fulfil the need for a satisfactory meal for thestudents at a reasonable price. The task requires anumber of different comparisons and analyses:© 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177| 173Figure 2. Eco-centred political consumer(Benn, 2001).
  6. 6. Perspectives on consumer education • J. Benn∑ products: necessary ingredients, quantities, quality(ecological/traditional, brands);∑ processes: fast/slow;∑ appearance, taste, aroma;∑ packaging, labelling, conserving, storing;∑ prices: costs, profit.Similar examples of this approach can be seen in thework of Grada Hellman-Tuitert, Gerda Tornieporthand, to a lesser degree, in the English material forDesign and Technology.39–41The task demands a variety of skills, knowledge,action and discussion of aesthetic, ethical, ecologicaland economical issues. Eventually a project like thismay raise demands at the school or community level forbetter catering conditions for pupils when attendingthe school. In its most successful form the task cansupport political education, citizenship or eco-politicaleducation. To use the terms established by Habermas,the pupils acquire communicative competencies intheir life world which enable them to overcome barri-ers to the systems world.42Such communicative com-petencies may also encompass practical, aesthetical andother communicative acts in a broad sense of theconcept.Being a consumer and producer – example 3The example using bread can also be carried out in amore historical and critical way. In in-service teachertraining and education in Denmark, the potato or breadhave been used as examples to reflect how homes,households and society have changed as far as con-sumption and production are concerned. By choosingmeals and staple foods from today and in the past – forexample 100 years ago – students are able to identifyand research the differences in production methods, thematerials and tools used in households and in society.The project can illustrate how staples have become lessimportant in the diet in the late-modern society with aconsequent growth in meat consumption. ‘The hotpotato’ and ‘The good bread’ are examples of projectswhich were developed as part of teacher education byBenn and Haastrup (descriptions available only inDanish). While there is not space available here toreport on them in detail, the main focus of these pro-jects was to offer the opportunity for discussions suchas the following:∑ why did/do we use staple foods as we do today andyesterday?∑ who chooses and decides what is eaten?∑ how was/is production carried out and by whom?∑ how do dietary changes influence our lives and theenvironment?Final remarks and recommendationsIn earlier times there was a need for the work of chil-dren and young people in the household, but in late-modern society the necessity for this has diminished inthe more affluent parts of the world. In certain socialgroups this was always the case, but for the majority ofhouseholds in previous centuries children were a posi-tive productive resource. Now, on the other hand, chil-dren have become a positive consuming force, as canbe seen in advertisements, shops and from the researchproduced by commercial organizations mentionedearlier. In late modern society consumerism is in theascendant, operating on a global scale. Ziehe andStubenrauch have described this process as theTradierung of culture, or departure from the old culturalnorms and traditions.The consequence of this is that theindividual now has the freedom to select the role of hisor her choice. Formerly, the old cultural norms taughtthe individual how to manage their lives, to dress, eatand behave. Nowadays you can choose to be the ecolo-gist one day, the global consumer the next without anythoughts of environmental perspectives.The choices arelegion.That means freedom, but at the same time exertspressure on the individual.43The pressure has to do withthe responsibility of choosing between identities, whichwere chosen for you before, and the need to keep upwith trends and accommodate yourself to differentenvironments.Consumption as such has a lot of meaning for theindividual and his self-image and has become a way forhuman beings to communicate and mix with others, aswell.44Consumption has become part of the way inwhich children are brought up and their socialization,and thus has an impact on their identity and self-perception.174| International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177 © 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd
  7. 7. Perspectives on consumer education • J. BennThere is a contrast or a dichotomy between the com-mercial world and its offers of miracle products andeasy solutions, and consumer education, which hasempowerment as the ultimate goal. Consumer educa-tion stands, so to speak in the tension between con-sumership and citizenship, therefore consumersocialization and consumer education are centralthemes to be considered and researched, especially forhome economics educators.But the future for education must also be consideredfrom geographical, cultural and historical viewpoints.Teachers educated in the last century need to considerhow to educate pupils for coping with the 21st century.Viewed from this perspective, schools might have threereasons for their existence in the future:∑ school as a survival centre,∑ school as a centre for the maintenance of culturaltraditions,∑ school as a laboratory for living and the challengesof life.All these three reasons should be taken into consid-eration in the planning of education as such, and alsoconsumer education.Consumer education must be a part of subject areasand cross-curricular projects with ‘empowerment of theconsumer, . . . as the ultimate objective of consumer edu-cation.’ As Goldsmith and McGregor have said, this canbe seen ‘as an enormous challenge in the global elec-tronic marketplace.’45But consumer education has totake into account what is possible and what is desirable,why and how. The single individual cannot act as apolitical consumer on his or her own, nor make homeand society a harmoniously caring place to live in. Sothe fourth and final model which was presented earlieris therefore no more than a pipe dream, a utopia, asillustrated in Fig. 3.46This demands effort not only atindividual level, but also collectively and globally. Butthis is necessary if there is to be a future for cominggenerations.In conclusion, let us return to the first quotation‘Housekeeping means: to use what you have in order toget what you want’. This ought to be changed to ‘House-keeping means: to question what you need and to “ecol-ogize” in order to get what you and others might want’.References1. Benn, J. (2000a) Research Description. Internal Paper,The Danish University of Education, Copenhagen.2. South Danish University, Department of Marketing:Consumer Research – http://www.sam.sdu.dk/Departments/mar/sdb3.html (in Danish).3. Danish Children as Consumers and their ConsumerSocialization (2002) (Ed. by Hansen, F. et al.) Forumfor Advertising Research, Copenhagen BusinessSchool.4. John, D.R. (1999) Consumer socialization of children: aretrospective look at twenty-five years of research.Journal of Consumer Research, 8 (1), 44–53.5. Hearn, J. & Roseneil, S. (1999) Consuming Cultures:Power and Resistance. In: Consuming Cultures: Powerand Resistance (Ed. by Hearn, J. & Roseneil, S.) pp.17–41, MacMillan Press, London.6. Jones, G. & Martin, C.D. (1999) The ‘Young Consumer’at Home: Dependence, Resistance and Autonomy. In:Consuming Cultures: Power and Resistance (Ed. byHearn, J. & Roseneil, S.)pp. 42–68, .MacMillan Press,London.© 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177| 175Figure 3. Eco-political consumer-producer (Benn, 2001).
  8. 8. Perspectives on consumer education • J. Benn7. Campbell, C. (1990) Character and consumption: aHistorical Action Theory Approach to the Understand-ing of Consumer Behaviour. In: Culture and History (Ed.by Lofgren, O.). Akademisk Forlag, Aarhus, pp. 37–48.8. Elliott, R. (1997) Existential consumption and irrationaldesire. European Journal of Marketing, 31 (3/4), 285–296.9. Det konsumerande barnet. (The consuming child). (2001)(Ed. by Brembeck, H.) Etnologiska föreningen iVästsverige, Göteborg (in Swedish).10. McGregor, S.L.T. (1999) Socializing consumers in aglobal marketplace. Journal of Consumer Studies andHome Economics, 23 (1), 37–45.11. McGregor, S.L.T. & MacDonald, S. (1998) Critical think-ing in consumer studies: part 2 of a content analysis ofCanadian University consumer studies courses. Journalof Consumer Studies and Home Economics, 22 (1),3–14.12. Benn, J. (2000b) Home Economics in 100 Years History,Perspectives and Challenges. Department of Biology,Geography and Home Economics. The Royal DanishSchool of Educational Studies, Copenhagen13. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, AmericanHome Economics Association (new title of the formerHome Economics Journal).14. Hjälmeskog, K. (2001) Hem- och konsumentkunskapviktig del i alla elvers medborgarfostran. (Home andconsumer science: an important part of all pupils’citizenship). In: Hemkunskap I Skolan, 1, 14-17 (InSwedish) – for official documents see www.skolverket.se.15. Skolverket (The National School Board in Sweden)www.skolverket.se (the new title for home economicshas not been updated yet on the webpage).16. Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity SelfSociety in the Late Modern Age Polity Press, Cambridge.17. Lofgren, O. (1990) Consuming Interests. In: Culture andHistory (Ed. by Lofgren, O.), pp. 7–36. AkademiskForlag, Aarhus18. Gredal, K. (1971) Hvem bestemmer hvad vi køber?(Who decides what we buy?). In: Det FarligeForbrugersamfund (the Dangerous Consumer Society)(Ed. by Graae, B.): Det danske forlag, Albertslund(in Danish).19. see 16.20. Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity.Sage, London.21. Jensen, H.R. (1984) Forbrugerpolitik Og OrganiseretForbrugerarbejde (Consumer policy and organisedconsumer work). Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen,Denmark (in Danish.22. Holdgaard, S.N. (1982) Forbrugerundervisning.(Consumer Education). In: Uddannelse, 15 (2), 100–108(in Danish).23. Steffens, H. (2000) Commerce in Consumer Education.Nice-Mail, 14, 13–16.24. see 16.25. Mitchell, A. (2000) Global brands or global blands?Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics, 24,85–93.26. Ritzer, G. (1993) The Mcdonaldization of Society. PineForge Press, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.27. Habermas, J. (1981) Theorie Des KommunikativenHandelns I and II. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, Germany.28. Benn, J. (2001) Ways to handle consumer issues inschool. Nice-Maility, 15, 14–17.29. Thompson, P. (1992) Bringing Feminism Home HomeEconomics and the Hestian Connection HomeEconomics Publishing Collective, UPEI, USA.30. Thompson, P. (1993) ‘Feminist Theory for EverydayLife.’In Youth, Family and Household Global Perspec-tives on Development and Quality of Life (Ed. byKettschau, I., Methfessel, B. & Schmidt-Waldherr, H.)pp. 166–177, Schneider Verlag Hohengehren,Baltmannsweiler, Germany.31. Ministry of Education (1996) Aims and Central Knowl-edge and Profiency Areas. The Danish Primary andLower Secondary School. Copenhagen (Danish edition1995) Documents in English can be found at theweb-page: www.uvm.dk.32. Action and Action Competence as Key Concepts inCritical Pedagogy. In Studies in Educational Theory andCurriculum, Vol. 12. (1994) (Ed. by Bruun Jensen, B. &Schnack, K.) Royal Danish School of EducationalStudies, Copenhagen.33. Tones, K. & Tilford, S. (1995) Health Education Effective-ness, Efficiency and Equity. Chapman & Hall, London.34. Benn, J. (1996) Kost i skolen – skolekost II. En under-søgelse af forhold, tilbud og muligheder i forbindelsemed skolernes undervisning i kost og sundhed. Anvendtnaturfag,frikadellesløjd eller sundhedsbiks DanmarksLærerhøjskole, Copenhagen. (PhDThesis in Danish withEnglish summaries).35. Vaines, E. (1990) Philosophical orientations and homeeconomics: an introduction. Canadian Home EconomicsJourn, 40 (1), 6–11.36. see, 31.37. Benn, J. (2000c) Developmental Works as Part ofResearch. Skolefg, læring og dannelse, Arbejdspapir 31.Danmarks Lärerhöjskole, Köbenhavn (English workingpaper from a research program).176| International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177 © 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd
  9. 9. Perspectives on consumer education • J. Benn38. Benn, J. & Haastrup, L. (1986) En varm kartoffel 1–3.(The hot potato) Danmarks Laererhöjskole (in Danish).39. Hellman-Tuitert, G. (1999) Promoting Consumer Educa-tion in Schools. Stockholm, Divs, Swedish ConsumerAgency, 1999, 518.40. Department of Education and Science (1988) Technol-ogy in Schools, Developments in Craft, Design andTechnology HMSO, London.41. Tornieporth, G. (1985) Fast Food Ein UnterrichtsmodellVerbraucherbildung in Schulen Stiftung VerbraucherInstitut. Verlag Julius Klinkhardt, Berlin.42. see 27.43. Ziehe, T. & Stubenrauch, H. (1982) Plädoyer fürUngewöhnliches Lernen: Ideen Zur Jugendsituation.Rowohlt, Reinbek, Germany.44. Benn, J. (2001) Consumption on my mind. Preliminaryresults of a pilot survey. Presentation at the NordicDialogue Seminar at the Consumer Board 9th ofNovember 2001, Copenhagen.45. Goldsmith, E. & McGregor, S. (2000) E-commerce:consumer protection issues and implications for researchand education. Journal of Consumer Studies and HomeEconomics, 24, 124–127.46. See 28.© 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 3, September 2002, pp169–177| 177