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02 computer components


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02 computer components

  1. 1. Computer Components
  2. 2. Computer Components Hardware Software Database systems Emerging technologies
  3. 3. Hardware
  4. 4. Hardware Any machinery that assists in the input, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system When making hardware decisions, businesses must consider how the hardware can support  Objectives of the information system  Goals of the organization
  5. 5. Computer Hardware Processor Memory Secondary storage Input/Output device Networking
  6. 6. Computer Hardware (Contd.)Source: Reynolds, 200x, Management Information Systems, 6th Edition, Course Technology
  7. 7. Moore’s Law Transistor densities on a single chip double every two years  In 2009, the size of transistor is 11 nm.; A single chip contains 4 billion transistors  In 2029, the size of transistor would likely to be 1 nm; A single chip would contain 4,096 transistors
  8. 8. Year 2029?
  9. 9. MS Windows System Requirement 3.0 95 98 XP Vista 7Year 1990 1995 1998 2001 2006 2010CPU 6MHz 16MHz 50MHz 233MHz 1GHz 1GHzMemory 640KB 4MB 16MB 64MB 1GB 512MBStorage 6-7MB 35-55MB 120-355MB 1.5GB 15GB 20GBVideo Card CGA, EGA, VGA, SVGA VGA, SVGA SVGA SVGA SVGA VGAOS MS Dos 3.1 - - - - -PC Price N/A $1,926 $1,619 $1,163 $801 $300Laptop N/A $2,819 $2,395 $1,876 $1,256 $600Price
  10. 10. Processor Also called Central Processing Unit (CPU) An electronic circuit that can execute computer programs Often measured in:  Megahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per second  Gigahertz (GHz): billions of cycles per second
  11. 11. Memory Main memory  Located physically close to the CPU, but not on the CPU chip itself  Rapidly provides data and instructions to the CPU Storage Capacity  Eight bits together form a byte (B)
  12. 12. Memory (Contd.) Random access memory (RAM)  Temporary and volatile Types of RAM  Dynamic RAM (DRAM)  Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic RAM (DDR SDRAM)  Static RAM (SRAM)
  13. 13. Memory (Contd.) Read-only memory (ROM)  Nonvolatile  Provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change  Store Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Cache memory  High-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory
  14. 14. Secondary Storage Compared with memory, offers the advantages of nonvolatility, greater capacity, and greater economy On a cost-per-megabyte basis  Most forms of secondary storage are considerably less expensive than primary memory Storage media that allow faster access  Generally more expensive than slower media
  15. 15. Secondary Storage (Contd.) Magnetic tapes Magnetic disks RAID Virtual tape Optical disks
  16. 16. Secondary Storage (Contd.) Solid state drive
  17. 17. Secondary Storage (Contd.) RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)  RAID 0 (Striped disks)  Distributing data across several disks to improve speed  RAID 1 (Mirror disks)  Mirroring data  RAID 10 or RAID 1+0  Strip + Mirror
  18. 18. Secondary Storage (Contd.) RAID (Contd.)  RAID 5 (Striped disks with parity)  Combining 3+ disks to protect against the loss of one disk  RAID 6 (Striped disks with dual parity)  Combining 4+ disks to protect against the loss of two disk
  19. 19. Secondary Storage (Contd.) Enterprise storage options  Direct-attached storage (DAS)  Network-attached storage (NAS)  Storage area network (SAN)
  20. 20. Secondary Storage (Contd.) NAS SANWires TCP/IP Networks, Ethernet, FDDI, Fiber channel ATMProtocols TCP/IP, NFS/CIFS/HTTP Encapsulated SCSICompatibility Any machine that can connect to Server class devices with SCSI LANFS Mgmt. FS is managed by NAS head unit FS is managed by serversUsability Easier to understand and manage Harder to understand and manage (Fiber channel, hardware issues, etc.)Tape Backup Harder and slower Easier and faster (image backup)Upper limit Lower HigherCosts Cheaper (Existing equipments) More expensive (Fiber channel)
  21. 21. Input Devices Personal computer input devices  Keyboard  Mouse Speech-recognition technology Digital cameras Terminals Scanning devices Optical data readers Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices
  22. 22. Input Devices (Contd.) Magnetic stripe card Point-of-sale devices Automated teller machine (ATM) devices Pen input devices Touch-sensitive screens Bar-code scanners Radio frequency identification (RFID) Quick Response (QR) Code scanners
  23. 23. Output Devices Display monitors Plasma displays Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) Organic light-emitting diodes Printers and plotters Digital audio player
  24. 24. Quick Assignment #1
  25. 25. Quick Assignment #1 15 minutes Form two groups of 4-5 people Quote for cost of a laptop (hardware only) which can run SAP Business ByDesign client efficiently Strive for the lowest cost!
  26. 26. SAP System Requirements Source:  Recommended System  CPU: Intel Core 2 Duo (2.4 GHz)  Memory: 2 GB
  27. 27. Sample System ACER Aspire 4752G-52454G75Mncc  CPU: Intel Core i5-2450M (2.50 GHz)  Memory: 4GB DDR3  HDD: 750 GB  Monitor: 14”  Price: 21,900 THBSource:
  28. 28. Software
  29. 29. Types of Software System software Application software
  30. 30. Types of Software (Contd.) System software  Controls operations of computer hardware  Supports application programs’ problem-solving capabilities  Examples  Operating systems  Utility programs  Middleware
  31. 31. Types of Software (Contd.) Application software  Interact with systems software  Help performing common tasks, such as:  Creating and formatting text documents  Performing calculations  Managing information  Examples  Word processing & spreadsheet  Database  Email  Etc
  32. 32. System Software: Operating Systems Set of programs that controls computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs Tasks performed by OS  Common computer hardware functions  User interface and input/output management  Task processing and management  System memory and resource management  File management  Networking
  33. 33. System Software: Operating Systems (Contd.)
  34. 34. System Software: Operating Systems (Contd.) Personal Workgroup EnterpriseWindows 8, Windows Windows Server 2012 Windows Server 2012MobileMac OS X, iOS 6 Mac OS X ServerUNIX UNIX UNIXSolaris Solaris SolarisLinux, Meego Linux LinuxChrome OS, Android OS IBM i7.1/OS and IBM z/OS IBM i7.1/OS and IBM z/OS HP-UX 11i v3 HP-UX 11i v3
  35. 35. System Software: Operating Systems: Market Share 2012Source: (February 2012)
  36. 36. System Software: Operating Systems: Market Share 2012: MobileSource: International Data Corporation (June 2012)
  37. 37. System Software: Operating Systems: Trends: MobileSource: (September, 2011)
  38. 38. System Software: Utility Programs Hardware utilities Security Utilities File-compression utilities Spam and pop-up blocker utilities Network and Internet utilities Server and mainframe utilities Other utilities  Manages and protects corporate documents  Helps people with visual disabilities use the Internet  Monitors employees  Searches for files and documents
  39. 39. System Software: Middleware Software that allows different systems to communicate and exchange data Can also be used as an interface between the Internet and older legacy systems
  40. 40. Application Software Mode of application software  Proprietary software  Off-the-shelf software
  41. 41. Application Software: Modes Proprietary software  One-of-a-kind program for a specific application, usually developed and owned by a single company Off-the-shelf software  Generally software, that are ready-made and available for sale, lease, or license to the general public
  42. 42. Application Software: Types Types of application software  Personal application software  Workgroup application software  Enterprise application software
  43. 43. Application Software: Personal Personal Application Software  Word processing  Spreadsheet analysis  Presentation software  Database applications  Graphics program  Personal information managers  Software suites and integrated software packages  Other personal application software
  44. 44. Application Software: Workgroup Workgroup Application Software  Support teamwork, whether people are in the same location or dispersed around the world  Groupware  Software that helps groups of people work together more efficiently and effectively  Example  Online chat  Instant messaging  Telephony  Videoconferencing  Application sharing
  45. 45. Application Software: Enterprise Enterprise Application Software  Software that benefits an entire organization  Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software  Set of integrated programs that manage a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization  Example  SAP R/3  Maximo (MRO)  Oracle e-Business Suite  QAD Enterprise Applications  Visual Enterprise
  46. 46. Programming Language Sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules for constructing statements  By which humans can communicate instructions to be executed by a computer Program code  Set of instructions that signal the CPU to perform circuit- switching operations Syntax  Set of rules associated with a programming language
  47. 47. History of Programming Languages
  48. 48. The Evolution of Programming LanguagesGeneration Language Development Sample of Statement or Date ActionFirst Machine language 1940s 00101001Second Assembly language 1950s ADDCC %R1, %R2, %R4Third High-level language 1960s READ GRADEFourth Query and database 1970s SELECT * FROM STUDENT languages WHERE GRADE = FBeyond Natural and intelligent 1980s IF score is lower than 80,Fourth languages THEN assign grade F
  49. 49. Copyrights and Licenses Most software products are protected by law using copyright or licensing provisions  In some cases, you are given unlimited use of software on one or two computers  In other cases, you pay for your usage - if you use the software more, you pay more Some software now requires that you register or activate it before it can be fully used  or cracked?
  50. 50. Open-Source Software Software freely available to anyone in a form that can be easily modified More reliable and secure than commercial software Can contain hidden costs, particularly for user support or solving problems with the software
  51. 51. Open-Source Licenses GPL (GNU General Public License) LGPL (GNU Lesser General Public License) BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) Jabber W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) Others  Apple Public  Python  Artistic 2.0  QPL  Common Public  Sleepycat  MIT (X11)  Sun Public  MPL
  52. 52. Open-Source Licenses (Contd.) GPL BSDProprietary software Not allowed (since the linked Allowedlinking software is considered a whole)Distribution of “the Not allowed with software AllowedWork” whose license is not GNU GPL compatibleRedistribution of the Only if the derivative is GNU GPL Allowedcode with changesCompatible with GNU Yes Only the modified BSD license isGPL compatible with GPL. The original BSD license is not compatible because it includes a weird advertising clause
  53. 53. Commercial VS Open-SourceSoftware Commercial Open-SourceOperating System MS Windows LinuxApplication Software MS Office Open OfficeDatabase Oracle MySQLInternet Browser Internet Explorer FirefoxPhoto Editing Adobe Photoshop GimpProject Management MS Project OpenprojPersonal Accounting Baan GrisbiE-mail MS Outlook Thunderbird
  54. 54. Database Systems
  55. 55. Database Management Without data and the ability to process it an organization could not successfully complete most business activities For data to be transformed into useful information, it must first be organized in a meaningful way
  56. 56. The Hierarchy of Data Bit  Circuit that is either on or off Byte  Eight bits = one byte Character  Basic building block of information Word  A combination of characters or bytes Field  Name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity
  57. 57. The Hierarchy of Data (Contd.) Record  Collection of related data fields File  Collection of related records Database  Collection of integrated and related files Hierarchy of data  Bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases
  58. 58. The Hierarchy of Data (Contd.)
  59. 59. Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys (Contd.)
  60. 60. Manipulating Data Selecting  Eliminates rows according to criteria Projecting  Eliminates columns in a table Joining  Combines two or more tables Linking  Combines two or more tables using common data attributes
  61. 61. Database Management Systems (DBMS) Group of programs used as an interface between a database and application programs or a database and the user Used to manage all kinds of data for all kinds of purposes
  62. 62. Database Management Systems (Contd.)
  63. 63. Selecting a Database Management System Important characteristics of databases:  Database size  Database cost  Concurrent users  Performance  Integration  Vendor
  64. 64. Comparisons of Popular Databases MS Access MS SQL Oracle MySQL PostgreSQL ServerMaintainer Microsoft Microsoft Oracle Corporation Sun Microsystems PostgreSQL Glob. Dev. Grp.License Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary GPL BSDOS Windows Windows Windows, Mac OS Windows, Mac OS Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, UNIX X, Linux, BSD, X, Linux, BSD, UNIX UNIX, SymbianInterface GUI & SQL GUI & SQL SQL SQL SQLMax DB size 2 GB 524,258 TB Unlimited Unlimited UnlimitedMax table size 2 GB 524,258 TB 4 GB * block size 2 GB (FAT32) to 16 32 TB TB (Solaris)Max columns per 255 30,000 1,000 4,096 250-1,600 (vary byrow type)Union/Intersect/E Y/?/? Y/Y/Y Y/Y/Y Y/N/N Y/Y/Yxcept
  65. 65. Telecommunication and Networking
  66. 66. Telecommunications in Business Better business communication  e-mail, voice mail, instant messaging, faxing, file transfer, mobile telephony, and teleconferencing Greater efficiency  Information delivery is immediate and not constrained by geographical distance Better distribution of data  Central storage with both local and remote access Yet, security in telecommunications is a challenge
  67. 67. Telecommunications in Daily Use Cellular phones Videoconferencing Wireless payments and warehousing Peer-to-peer file sharing Web-empowered commerce
  68. 68. Telecommunications Channel Characteristics Simplex channel  Transmits data in only one direction Half-duplex channel  Transmits data in either direction, but not simultaneously Full-duplex channel  Permits data transmission in both directions at the same time
  69. 69. Bandwidth Bandwidth  Speed at which data is communicated  Also called transmission rate or bit rate Bits per second (bps)  Unit of measure for bandwidth Baseband  Communications medium that can carry only one transmission at a time Broadband  Communications medium that can carry multiple transmissions simultaneously
  70. 70. Bandwidth (Contd.)
  71. 71. Media Several types of communications media Tangible media includes:  Twisted pair cable  Coaxial cable  Optical fiber Intangible media includes:  Microwave radio technologies
  72. 72. Comparison of Networking MediaMedium Availability Bandwidth Vulnerability to Electromagnetic InterferenceTwisted pair High Low to medium HighRadio waves High Medium to high Low (but vulnerable to radio frequency interference)Microwave Low High LowCoaxial cable High High LowOptical fiber Moderate but growing Highest Nonexistent
  73. 73. Networking A combination of devices (or nodes) connected through a communication media Any compatible device that can transmit and receive on a network can be part of a network
  74. 74. Types of Networks Computer networks are classified by reach and complexity Basic types of networks  LANs, MANs, and WANs Other types of networks  WLANs
  75. 75. Types of Networks (Contd.) LAN WAN
  76. 76. Networking Hardware Network interface card (NIC)  Connects a device to a hub, switch, bridge, or router, which connects to a LAN or WAN Switch  A hub that sends communications only to designated devices on the network Router  Routes data packets to the next node on the path to the final destination
  77. 77. Networking Software Network operating system (NOS)  Systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network Network management software  Protects software from being copied, modified, or downloaded illegally  Locate errors and potential network problems
  78. 78. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol  TCP ensures packets arrive accurately and in proper order  IP ensures efficient delivery of packets from node to node DNS (Domain Name Service)  Associates a character-based name with an IP address
  79. 79. TCP/IP (Contd.) IP number  Unique numerical identification for a network device Static IP address  A permanent address assigned to a device Dynamic IP address  Temporary IP number assigned to a device for the duration of the connection  Provides flexibility when the number of IP addresses is limited
  80. 80. TCP/IP (Contd.) IPv6  Shorthand notation based on the Hex system  Example of an IPv6 address in Hex shorthand notation:  FDDC:AC10:8132:BA32:4F12:1070:DD13:6921
  81. 81. Wireless Protocols IEEE 802.11  A family of wireless protocols known as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)  Supports wireless communication within 100 meters of router  802.11 subtypes support various distances and speeds up to 248 Mbps
  82. 82. Wireless Protocols (Contd.)Protocol Max Range Max Speed Main Use802.11a 75 m 54 Mbps LAN802.11b 100 m 11 Mbps LAN802.11g 100 m 54 Mbps LAN802.11n 160 m 248 Mbps LAN802.15 Bluetooth 10 m 1 Mbps PAN802.16 WiMax 50 km 100 Mbps MAN802.20 MBWA Global 4 Mbps Mobile voice, data, Internet
  83. 83. Generations in Mobile Communications Networking professionals refer to generations of mobile communication technologies  First generation (1G: 1980s)  Analog  Second generation (2G: 1991)  Used digital voice encoding  Third generation (3G: 2001)  Increased speeds that support video, videoconferencing, Internet access  Fourth Generation (4G: 2010)  Digital only, with packet switching and tighter security
  84. 84. Emerging Technologies
  85. 85. Parallel Computing Parallel computing  Simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster Massively parallel processing  Systems with thousands of such processors Grid computing  Use of a collection of computers to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem
  86. 86. Cloud Computing Uses giant cluster of computers, that serves as a host, to run applications that require high- performance computing Supports a wider variety of applications than grid computing Pools computing resources so they can be managed primarily by software rather than people
  87. 87. Green Computing The study and practice of using computing resources efficiently To account for the triple bottom line Triple bottom line  People, Planet, Profit  Social, Ecological, Economic success Processes  Reduce the use of hazardous materials  Maximize energy efficiency  Promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste
  88. 88. Server Consolidation An approach to the efficient usage of computer server resources in order to reduce the total number of servers or server locations that an organization requires
  89. 89. Augmented Reality Enhancing personal perception by augmenting media onto reality.
  90. 90. Quick Assignment #2
  91. 91. Quick Assignment #2 15 minutes Form two groups of 4-5 people Quote for cost of an office computer with an ERP package Strive for the lowest cost!
  92. 92. Sample SoftwareSoftware Product Price (Baht)Operating System Linux 0.00Word Processor Open Office 0.00PDF Reader Foxit Reader 0.00Graphic Editor Gimp 0.00Media Player VLC Media Player 0.00ERP Open Bravo 0.00Total Free!
  93. 93. Capstone Exercise