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Passive voice (Fundamentals of English Grammar)

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Passive voice (Fundamentals of English Grammar)

  1. 1. CONTENTS 10-1 Active sentences and passive sentences 10-2 Form of the passive 10-3 Transitive and intransitive verbs 10-4 Using the by-phrase 10-5 The passive forms of the present and past progressive 10-6 Passive modal auxiliaries 10-7 Using past participles as adjectives (stative passive) 10-8 Participial adjectives: -ed vs. -ing 10-9 Get + adjective; get + past participle 10-10 Using be used/accustomed to and get … 10-11 Used to vs. be used to 10-12 Using be supposed to 1
  2. 2. 10-1 ACTIVE SENTENCES AND PASSIVE SENTENCES The chair is being made by the carpenter. 2
  3. 3. 10-1 ACTIVE SENTENCES AND PASSIVE SENTENCES (a) ACTIVE: The carpenter sanded the wood. same meaning (b) PASSIVE: The wood was sanded by the carpenter. 3
  4. 4. 10-1 ACTIVE SENTENCES AND PASSIVE SENTENCES ACTIVE: S O (c) Carol sold the house. PASSIVE: S by + O (d) The house was sold by Carol. object of active subject of passive subject of active object of by 4
  5. 5. 10-2 FORM OF THE PASSIVE Fuel is burned by cars 5
  6. 6. 10-2 FORM OF THE PASSIVE BE + PAST PARTICIPLE (a) Coffee is grown by farmers. (b) The raise was given by the boss. (c) The photo will be printed by Alex. 6
  7. 7. 10-2 FORM OF THE PASSIVE SIMPLE PRESENT Cars burn fuel. Fuel is burned by cars. SIMPLE PAST The raise thrilled Ben. Ben was thrilled by the raise. PRESENT PERFECT Al has printed the photo. The photo has been printed by Al. FUTURE New cars will save fuel. Fuel will be saved by cars. 7
  8. 8. 10-1, 10-2 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE The squirrel gathered the nuts. PASSIVE The nuts were gathered by the squirrel. 8
  9. 9. 10-1, 10-2 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE Matthew painted the wall. PASSIVE The wall was painted by Matthew. 9
  10. 10. 10-1, 10-2 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE The voters will determine the election results. PASSIVE The election results will be determined by the voters. 10
  11. 11. 10-3 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS Erica sneezed. 11
  12. 12. 10-3 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS (a) TRANSITIVE S V O Janet earned the promotion. They saw the accident. (b) INTRANSITIVE S V A problem occurred. They arrived late. TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE verb + object verb + object 12
  13. 13. 10-3 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS (c) TRANSITIVE VERBS ACTIVE:Janet earned the promotion. PASSIVE: The promotion was earned by Janet. (d) INTRANSITIVE VERBS ACTIVE: Birds fly. PASSIVE: (not possible) (e) INCORRECT: Birds are fly. 13
  14. 14. 10-3 TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS (c) TRANSITIVE VERBS ACTIVE:Janet earned the promotion. PASSIVE: The promotion was earned by Janet. (d) INTRANSITIVE VERBS ACTIVE: Birds fly. PASSIVE: (not possible) transitive verbs passive okay intransitive verbs no passive 14
  15. 15. 10-3 LET’S PRACTICE transitive intransitive ? It rained yesterday. 15
  16. 16. 10-3 LET’S PRACTICE transitive intransitive ? Eva won a medal. A medal was won by Eva. PASSIVE: _______________________ 16
  17. 17. 10-3 LET’S PRACTICE transitive intransitive ? Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. PASSIVE: _______________________ The World Wide Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee. _______________________ 17
  18. 18. 10-4 USING THE BY- PHRASE This painting was done by my mother. 18
  19. 19. 10-4 USING THE BY- PHRASE (a) This desk was made by Manuel. by phrase important information 19
  20. 20. 10-4 USING THE BY- PHRASE (b) This desk was made in Taiwan. (c) Corn is eaten in many places. (d) That apartment was built in 2007. (e) Spanish is spoken in many countries. usually NO by-phrase 20
  21. 21. 10-4 USING THE BY- PHRASE ACTIVE (f) My mother is a great artist. She painted many beautiful portraits. PASSIVE (g) This painting was done by my mother. That one was done by her friend. focus my mother by-phrase focus on subjects 21
  22. 22. 10-4 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. PASSIVE Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 22
  23. 23. 10-4 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE Many students use computers. PASSIVE Computers are used by many students. 23
  24. 24. 10-4 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE Tina taught me how to knit. PASSIVE I was taught to knit by Tina. 24
  25. 25. 10-5 THE PASSIVE FORMS OF THE PRESENT AND PAST PROGRESSIVE A photo is being taken by Elton. 25
  26. 26. 10-5 THE PASSIVE FORMS OF THE PRESENT AND PAST PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE He is taking photos. (a) Photos are being taken by him. She is writing a book. (b) A book is being written by her. 26
  27. 27. 10-5 THE PASSIVE FORMS OF THE PRESENT AND PAST PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE He is taking photos. (a) Photos are being taken by him. She is writing a book. (b) A book is being written by her. present progressive: passive form am is + being + past participle are 27
  28. 28. 10-5 THE PASSIVE FORMS OF THE PRESENT AND PAST PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE He was taking photos. (c) Photos were being taken by him. She was writing a book. (d) A book was being written by her. past progressive: passive form was + being + past participle were 28
  29. 29. 10-5 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE Two great teams are playing hockey. PASSIVE Hockey is being played by two great teams. 29
  30. 30. 10-5 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE Someone was building a guest house in Bhutan. PASSIVE A guest house was being built in Bhutan. 30
  31. 31. 10-5 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE Alan is studying the memo. PASSIVE The memo is being studied by Alan. 31
  32. 32. 10-6 PASSIVE MODAL AUXILIARIES Lin will e-mail you. 32
  33. 33. 10-6 PASSIVE MODAL AUXILIARIES ACTIVE MODAL PASSIVE MODAL AUXILIARIES AUXILIARIES Lin will send it. It will be sent by Lin. Lin can send it. It can be sent by Lin. Lin must send it. It must be sent by Lin. Lin may send it. It may be sent by Lin. FORM: modal + be + past participle 33
  34. 34. 10-6 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE MODALS Someone must mow the grass today. PASSIVE MODALS must be mowed today This grass __________________. 34
  35. 35. 10-6 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE MODALS You should not feed candy to babies. PASSIVE MODALS should not be fed candy Babies _____________________. 35
  36. 36. 10-6 LET’S PRACTICE ACTIVE MODALS People cannot control hurricanes. PASSIVE MODALS Hurricanes cannot be controlled. __________________________ 36
  37. 37. 10-7 USING PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES (STATIVE PASSIVE) Lily is pleased with her life. 37
  38. 38. 10-7 USING PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES (STATIVE PASSIVE) BE + ADJECTIVE (a) Lily is brave. (b) Lily is short. (c) Lily is healthy. BE + PAST PARTICIPLE (d) Lily is divorced. (e) Lily is excited. like an adjective (f) Lily is pleased. 38
  39. 39. 10-7 USING PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES (STATIVE PASSIVE) (g) Lily is divorced from Jack. (h) Lily was happy with her career. (i) Lily will be excited for the trip. past particular participle + prepositions + object 39
  40. 40. 10-7 LET’S PRACTICE married Jenny is __________ Grant. married to 40
  41. 41. 10-7 LET’S PRACTICE happy happy with Alma is __________ her new laptop. 41
  42. 42. 10-7 LET’S PRACTICE young Abe is 17. young for He seems ____________ his age. 42
  43. 43. 10-8 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES: -ED VS. -ING Emma makes pottery. I am interested in making pottery. 43
  44. 44. 10-8 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES: -ED VS. -ING (a) I am interested in pottery. INCORRECT: I am interesting in pottery. (b) Pottery is interesting. INCORRECT: Pottery is interested. past participle feelings present participle cause of feeling 44
  45. 45. 10-8 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES: -ED VS. -ING Ben was thrilled with the promotion. (c) Ben was thrilled. (d) The promotion was thrilling. past participle passive meaning present participle cause of feeling 45
  46. 46. 10-8 PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES: -ED VS. -ING (e) I heard some disappointing news. (f) Jill read the shortened version of the book. participial adjectives nouns 46
  47. 47. 10-8 LET’S PRACTICE surprised surprising Gail Gwen Gwen’s news must be __________. surprising surprised Gail looks very __________. 47
  48. 48. 10-8 LET’S PRACTICE amazed amazing amazing The Great Wall is ________. Most people are truly ________ when amazed they first see it. 48
  49. 49. 10-8 LET’S PRACTICE terrified Some bugs are scary. terrifying terrifying This spider is ________! I wonder if it is ________ of anything? terrified 49
  50. 50. 10-9 GET + ADJECTIVE; GET + PAST PARTICIPLE People often get thirsty when they exercise. 50
  51. 51. 10-9 GET + ADJECTIVE; GET + PAST PARTICIPLE GET + ADJECTIVE (a) I am getting thirsty. (b) Fahad got angry at him. GET ADJECTIVE change, beginning to be 51
  52. 52. 10-9 GET + ADJECTIVE; GET + PAST PARTICIPLE GET + PAST PARTICIPLE (c) I’m getting worried. (d) My friend and his wife got divorced. GET PAST PARTICIPLE like an adjective, describes subject 52
  53. 53. 10-9 LET’S PRACTICE get + sleep got sleepy He ___________ while he was working. 53
  54. 54. 10-9 LET’S PRACTICE get + frustrated is getting frustrated He _________________ with his work. 54
  55. 55. 10-9 LET’S PRACTICE get + cold got cold It ________ early this year. 55
  56. 56. 10-10 USING BE USED/ACCUSTOMED TO AND GET USED/ACCUSTOMED TO We are used to driving in traffic. 56
  57. 57. 10-10 USING BE USED/ACCUSTOMED TO AND GET USED/ACCUSTOMED TO (a) We are used to this city. same meaning (b) We are accustomed to this city. 57
  58. 58. 10-10 USING BE USED/ACCUSTOMED TO AND GET USED/ACCUSTOMED TO (c) We are used to living in this city. (d) We are accustomed to living in this city. to + -ing form (gerund) 58
  59. 59. 10-10 USING BE USED/ACCUSTOMED TO AND GET USED/ACCUSTOMED TO (e) I just moved to Athens, Greece. I have never lived in this city before, but I am getting used to (accustomed to) it. beginning to feel normal 59
  60. 60. 10-10 LET’S PRACTICE be used to (affirmative or negative) I always go to the beach. I __________ the sand and sea. am used to 60
  61. 61. 10-10 LET’S PRACTICE be used to (affirmative or negative) I’m confused. I _____________ this new am not used to computer. 61
  62. 62. 10-10 LET’S PRACTICE be used to (affirmative or negative) Maybe I’ll call Eva. She is used to _____________ this type of computer. 62
  63. 63. 10-11 USED TO vs. BE USED TO He used to eat meat, but now he is a vegetarian. 63
  64. 64. 10-11 USED TO vs. BE USED TO (a) He used to eat meat, but now he is a vegetarian. INCORRECT: He used to be eating meat. INCORRECT: He is used to eat meat. habitual past used to + simple form of verb 64
  65. 65. 10-11 USED TO vs. BE USED TO (b) He is used to eating meat. be used to + -ing form of verb (gerund) 65
  66. 66. 10-11 LET’S PRACTICE be Ø When I was young, I often went skiing. I ____ used to skiing back then. was 66
  67. 67. 10-11 LET’S PRACTICE be Ø I _____ used to like skiing, but Ø now I prefer snowboarding. 67
  68. 68. 10-11 LET’S PRACTICE be Ø am Now, I ____ used to snowboarding. 68
  69. 69. 10-12 USING BE SUPPOSED TO You were supposed to clean out the garage this morning. 69
  70. 70. 10-12 USING BE SUPPOSED TO (a) The flight is supposed to leave in 10 minutes. I expect the flight to leave in 10 minutes. 70
  71. 71. 10-12 USING BE SUPPOSED TO (a) The flight is supposed to leave in 10 minutes. (b) I am supposed to write to Jim. an expectation 71
  72. 72. 10-12 USING BE SUPPOSED TO (c) The flight was supposed to leave at 4:30. expected event didn’t occur 72
  73. 73. 10-12 LET’S PRACTICE be supposed to I expect to get email today . am supposed to I ______________ get email today. 73
  74. 74. 10-12 LET’S PRACTICE be supposed to They were expected to arrive on May 4, but they came on May 6. They _______________ arrive on May 6. were supposed to 74
  75. 75. 10-12 LET’S PRACTICE be supposed to I expected you to were You ______ call me at noon! supposed to ___________ call me at noon! 75
  76. 76. PHOTO CREDITS Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education and its licensors. All rights reserved. Images used under license from: • Shutterstock, Inc. • Clipart, Inc. 76 76

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