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Atom models
KERALA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF
TEACHER EDUCATION,KOLLAM
Atom models
Atomic models
This model of the
atom may look familiar
to you. This is the Bohr
model. In this model,
the nucleus is orbited
by electrons, which are
in different energy
levels.
 A model uses familiar ideas to
explain unfamiliar facts
observed in nature.
 A model can be changed as new
information is collected.
DemocritusThis is the Greek
philosopher Democritus
who began the search for a
description of matter more
than 2400 years ago.
He asked: Could matter
be divided into smaller
and smaller pieces
forever, or was there a
limit to the number of
times a piece of matter
could be divided?
400 BC
Atomos
His theory: Matter could
not be divided into smaller
and smaller pieces forever,
eventually the smallest
possible piece would be
obtained.
This piece would be
indivisible.
He named the smallest
piece of matter “atomos,”
meaning “not to be cut.”
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Atom models

  • 2. KERALA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION,KOLLAM
  • 4. Atomic models This model of the atom may look familiar to you. This is the Bohr model. In this model, the nucleus is orbited by electrons, which are in different energy levels.  A model uses familiar ideas to explain unfamiliar facts observed in nature.  A model can be changed as new information is collected.
  • 5. DemocritusThis is the Greek philosopher Democritus who began the search for a description of matter more than 2400 years ago. He asked: Could matter be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever, or was there a limit to the number of times a piece of matter could be divided? 400 BC
  • 6. Atomos His theory: Matter could not be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever, eventually the smallest possible piece would be obtained. This piece would be indivisible. He named the smallest piece of matter “atomos,” meaning “not to be cut.”
  • 7. Atomos  To Democritus, atoms were small, hard particles that were all made of the same material but were different shapes and sizes.  Atoms were infinite in number, always moving and capable of joining together.
  • 8. Dalton’s Model In the early 1800s, the English Chemist John Dalton performed a number of experiments that eventually led to the acceptance of the idea of atoms.
  • 9. Dalton’s Theory He deduced that all elements are composed of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible particles. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. Atoms of different elements are different. Compounds are formed by the joining of atoms of two or more elements.
  • 11. Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model In 1897, the English scientist J.J. Thomson provided the first hint that an atom is made of even smaller particles.
  • 12. Thomson Model He proposed a model of the atom that is sometimes called the “Plum Pudding” model. Atoms were made from a positively charged substance with negatively charged electrons scattered about, like raisins in a pudding.
  • 13. Thomson concluded that the negative charges came from within the atom. A particle smaller than an atom had to exist. The atom was divisible! Thomson concluded that the negative charges came from within the atom. A particle smaller than an atom had to exist. The atom was divisible! Thomson called the negatively charged “corpuscles,” today known as electrons. Since the gas was known to be neutral, having no charge, he reasoned that there must be positively charged particles in the atom. But he could never find them. Thomson called the negatively charged “corpuscles,” today known as electrons. Since the gas was known to be neutral, having no charge, he reasoned that there must be positively charged particles in the atom. But he could never find them.
  • 15. In the years 1909-1911  Ernest Rutherford conducted some experiments to search the problem of alpha particles scattering by the thin gold-leaf. The experiment caused the creation of the new model of atom - 
  • 16. The Experiment Rutherford suggested : to hit the gold-leaf with fast alpha particles The particles felt on the gold-leaf . The whole experiment was in a metal lining was covered with the glass plate. The instrument was attached to the footing . The gold leaf was about 5*10-7 meter thick..
  • 17. •Rutherford came to the opinion that atom consisted of a nucleus. •The nucleus contains the whole positive charge and almost the whole atom's mass. •Around the nucleus, light electrons are circling. •Electrons circle around the nucleus on orbits. •The orbits depend on electrons energy. •In atoms of the same element, electrons circle on the
  • 18. He concludedHe concluded that, an atomthat, an atom consists of:consists of: (i) Nucleus which is small in size but carries the entire mass i.e. contains all the neutrons and protons. (ii) Extra nuclear part which contains electrons. This model was similar to the solar system.  
  • 19. Bohr Model In 1913, the Danish scientist Niels Bohr proposed an improvement. In his model, he placed each electron in a specific energy level.
  • 20. Bohr’s Model According to Bohr’s atomic model, electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus, much like planets circle the sun. These orbits, or energy levels, are located at certain distances from the nucleus.
  • 21. The Wave Model Today’s atomic model is based on the principles of wave mechanics. According to the theory of wave mechanics, electrons do not move about an atom in a definite path, like the planets around the sun.