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What is Sex Ratio?
• It is an index of male - female (im)balance in population.
• Sex ratio, in India, is defined as the number of females per
1000 males in the population. Internationally sex ratio is
defined as number of males per 100 females.
• At the Census 2001, sex ratio of population stood at 933
females per 1000 males a marginal increase from 927 recorded
at the 1991 Census
WHAT IS SEX
Human sex selection is the
attempt to control the sex of the
offspring to achieve a desired
Declining sex-ratio in India
• National decline from 945 to 927 in the number
of girls per 1,000 boys aged 0-6 between 1991
▫ Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and
Gujarat, (fewer than 800 girls for every
▫ The ratio is also said to be low in certain
districts, including the South West District of
Delhi, which are "amongst the most
prosperous in the country."
Country Sex Ratio
Russian Fed. 1140 5
• 586.46 million.
• 48.46% of total.
• 623.7 million.
• 51.54% of total.
The sex ratio in India has been historically negative or in
other words, unfavourable to females. Sex ratio reached its
lowest in 1991 but since then has kept rising.
Reasons of such declination:
Son Prefrence & Daughter Aversion
Post Birth Sex Selection
Social Attitude & Perceptions
Lack of education & Awareness
, ‘Had these clinics were available 30 years ago,
many of us would never have seen this world!’
As narrated by a literate woman in Village M
SON PREFERENCE AND
Economic progress has not necessarily changed the
traditions of gender discrimination
- family name
- last rites
- old-age support
• Balance between
home chores & office
Values attached to the
children by parents
Views of Parents
Sons are more expensive to
bring up than daughters ?
Will you face difficulty in
arranging marriage for you
daughter compared to son ?
Son will take care of you
when you are old ?
Daughter will take care of
you when you are old ?
Do parents avoid spending
on daughters as compared
to sons ?
• By 2020 there could be more than 35
million young "surplus males" in China
and 25 million in India.
Because of :
• Practices such as infanticide.
• Trafficking ?.
• Violence against women and girls.
After three decades of Women in Development and
Gender and Development policies the work of
redressing gender inequalities has only just begun
Attitudes of people towards a girl child should be
Furthermore, it will help to create the balance in the
One thing is clear- the imbalance that has set at the
early age-group is difficult to be removed and
would remain to haunt the population for a long
time to come.
What we can do ?
Complete registration of Births
and Deaths specially of girls.
Change in mind sets in bringing
up of the Girl Child.
Free Education, Transport &
Scholarships programs for Girls.
Awareness programs, Street
Plays, Promotional Martial,
Movies, Video Songs, Signature
Campaign Against Sex
DOWN WITH DISCRIMINATION
SAY “NO” to FEMALE EXTERMINATION
Eliminate Inequality, not Women”.
“Destroy Dowry, not Daughters”.
Daughters are not for slaughter.
Say “NO” to Sex Determination
Say “YES” to Gender Justice
THEY COULD ……….
"A son is a son till he takes a wife
A daughter's a daughter the rest of