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OECD: The impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on economic (Presentation)

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The impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on economic prospects is severe Growth was weak but stabilising until the coronavirus Covid-19 hit. Restrictions on movement of people, goods and services, and containment measures such as factory closures have cut manufacturing and domestic demand sharply in China. The impact on the rest of the world through business travel and tourism, supply chains, commodities and lower confidence is growing.

Published in: Economy & Finance
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OECD: The impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on economic (Presentation)

  1. 1. Laurence Boone OECD Chief Economist 2 March 2020 OECD INTERIM ECONOMIC OUTLOOK Coronavirus: the world economy at risk http://www.oecd.org/economy/outlook/ ECOSCOPE blog: oecdecoscope.wordpress.com
  2. 2. 2 GDP growth %, year-on-year Source: OECD Economic Outlook database. The economic situation was stabilising before Covid-19 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 World G20 Advanced US Euro area Japan G20 Emerging China
  3. 3. 2019 2020 2021 2019 2020 2021 World 2.9 2.4 3.3 G20 3.1 2.7 3.5 Australia 1.7 1.8 2.6 Argentina -2.7 -2.0 0.7 Canada 1.6 1.3 1.9 Brazil 1.1 1.7 1.8 Euro area 1.2 0.8 1.2 China 6.1 4.9 6.4 Germany 0.6 0.3 0.9 India1 4.9 5.1 5.6 France 1.3 0.9 1.4 Indonesia 5.0 4.8 5.1 Italy 0.2 0.0 0.5 Mexico -0.1 0.7 1.4 Japan 0.7 0.2 0.7 Russia 1.0 1.2 1.3 Korea 2.0 2.0 2.3 Saudi Arabia 0.0 1.4 1.9 United Kingdom 1.4 0.8 0.8 South Africa 0.3 0.6 1.0 United States 2.3 1.9 2.1 Turkey 0.9 2.7 3.3 3 OECD Interim Economic Outlook projections Note: Difference in percentage points based on rounded figures. The European Union is a full member of the G20, but the G20 aggregate only includes countries that are members in their own right. 1. Fiscal years starting in April. Source: OECD Economic Outlook database; and OECD calculations. Real GDP growth %, year-on-year. Arrows indicate the direction of revisions since the November 2019 Economic Outlook 3 downward by 0.3 pp and more downward by less than 0.3 pp upward by less than 0.3 ppno change upward by 0.3 pp and more
  4. 4. 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 2017 2018 2019 Manufacturing export orders Manufacturing all orders Services orders Manufacturing appeared to have bottomed out 4Note: RHS: The last data point is February 2020. Source: OECD Main Economic Indicators database; Markit; and OECD calculations. Global industrial production growth New orders in advanced economies PMI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2016 2017 2018 2019 % Quarterly Year-on-year
  5. 5. Employment growth was also stabilising 5 Note: Quarterly series are annualised. LHS: Data for retail sales are used in the majority of countries, but monthly household consumption is used for the United States and the monthly synthetic consumption indicator is used for Japan. Data for India are unavailable. Source: OECD Economic Outlook 106 Database. OECD employment growthGlobal retail sales growth -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 2012 2014 2016 2018 2019 Quarterly Year-on-year% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2016 2017 2018 2019 % Quarterly Year-on-year
  6. 6. ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF COVID-19 6
  7. 7. 7 Quarantines Factory closures Loss of confidence Travel bans and restrictions Cutbacks in service provisions Business and tourism travels Closure of public places Supply chain disruption Education and entertainment services Containment measures Supply Demand Economic channels
  8. 8. Covid-19 will have a larger economic impact than the SARS episode in 2003 8 China is more integrated in the global economy Share of China in world Note: LHS: Estimates for global tourists are based on 2017 instead of 2019; estimates for global FDI are based on 2005/2018 instead of 2002/2019. Share of global GDP and trade in constant US dollars. Share of global FDI in current US dollars. Source: OECD Economic Outlook database; OECD Global FDI in figures (2019); World Bank Group (2019), Commodity Markets Outlook, October; and OECD calculations. China is a major commodity importer Share of China in global demand for selected commodities 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Global GDP Global trade Global FDI Global tourists 2002 2019% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Aluminium Copper Nickel Zinc Lead Natural rubber Crudeoil 2000 2018%
  9. 9. The drop in Chinese travellers will hit hard 9Note: Data for Singapore and Thailand are for spending by foreign tourists in the country. Data for Hong Kong-China are for 2017. Source: OECD Economic Outlook database; OECD Trade in Services by Partner Country; Eurostat; Singapore Tourism Board; and Ministry of Tourism and Sports, Thailand. Travel services to China and Hong Kong-China, as a share of GDP 2018 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 HKG THA % 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 NZL AUS SGP ISL JPN CAN HUN FRA CHE USA GBR ITA NLD China Hong Kong - China%
  10. 10. Supply chains are vulnerable 10 Value added trade flows between China and key partners Note: 2015 data. *DAE refers to Dynamic Asian Economies: Chinese Taipei; Hong-Kong, China; Malaysia; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand and Vietnam. Source: OECD Trade in Value Added database; and OECD calculations. Value added export dependence to China, % of country’s sector output Value added import dependence from China, % of country’s sector output Share of world value added by the sector Computers, electronics and electrical equipment sector Transport equipment sector
  11. 11. Contained outbreak scenario The fall in Chinese demand will have important costs 11 Note: This simulation shows the impact of a 4% fall in domestic demand in China and Hong Kong-China in 2020Q1 and a 2% decline in 2020Q2, plus declines of 10% in global equity and non-food commodity prices in the first half of 2020, and a 10 bps rise in investment risk premia in all countries in the first half of 2020. All shocks are assumed to fade away gradually by early 2021. Source: OECD calculations using the NiGEM global macroeconomic model. 0.5% World GDP in 2020 % difference from baseline and contributions in % pts Full-year impact on 2020 world GDP -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Demand Equity + Commodity prices Uncertainty Total
  12. 12. 12 Costs are much higher if the epidemic spreads through Asia-Pacific and the Northern Hemisphere -2.0 -1.6 -1.2 -0.8 -0.4 0.0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Demand Equity + Commodity prices Uncertainty Total Full-year impact on 2020 world GDP 1.5% Downside scenario World GDP in 2020 % difference from baseline and contributions in % pts Note: This simulation shows the impact of a 4% fall in domestic demand in China and Hong Kong-China in 2020Q1 and a 2% decline in 2020Q2, plus a 2% domestic demand fall in most other Asia- Pacific countries and advanced Northern hemisphere countries in 2020Q2 and 2020Q3,plus declines of 20% in global equity and non-food commodity prices in 2020, and a 50 bps rise in investment risk premia in all countries in 2020. These shocks are assumed to decline gradually through 2021. Source: OECD calculations using the NiGEM global macroeconomic model.
  13. 13. 13 Regional impact of downside scenario Contributions to change in world GDP in 2020, % pts The decline in global growth hitting all affected regions Note: This simulation shows the impact of a 4% fall in domestic demand in China and Hong Kong-China - in 2020Q1 and a 2% decline in 2020Q2, plus a 2% domestic demand fall in most other Asia- Pacific countries and advanced Northern hemisphere countries in 2020Q2 and 2020Q3, plus declines of 20% in global equity and non-food commodity prices in 2020, and a 50 bps rise in investment risk premia in all countries in 2020. These shocks are assumed to decline gradually through 2021. Commodity exporters include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Russia, South Africa and other non-OECD oil- producing economies. Source: OECD calculations using the NiGEM global macroeconomic model. -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 China Other Asia-Pacific Europe North America Commodity exporters Rest of the World World
  14. 14. Loss of confidence can intensify financial stress 14 0 200 400 600 $800 Bn. 2000 '05 '10 '15 '19 China Other emerging Corporate credit defaults could rise Corporate bond issuance in EMEs, 2018 USD billion Financial volatility has increased Note: VIX refers to the Chicago Board Options Exchange Market Volatility Index. MOVE refers to the Merrill Lynch Option Volatility Estimate index. Source: OECD (2019), Corporate Bond Markets in a Time of Unconventional Monetary Policy; Balestra (2018); Thompson Reuters; and OECD calculations. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Implied oil price volatility VIX MOVE
  15. 15. GOVERNMENTS MUST ACT NOW 15
  16. 16. 16 Increase resources to the health sector Reduce or delay tax payments for most affected sectors Expand liquidity to banks Step up temporary cash transfers to vulnerable households Expand liquidity and availability of credit to firms Ensure monetary policy responds to extreme market conditions Expand short-time work schemes Reduce public sector arrears to firms Let automatic stabilisers fully work and boost public investment People Firms Macro policy Policy options to address economic implications
  17. 17. 17 GDP in median G20 economy % difference from baseline and contributions in % pts 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Long-run Structural Fiscal Monetary Confidence Combined Note: Scenario with all G20 economies simultaneously undertaking changes to fiscal, monetary and structural policies. Countries undertake additional debt-financed public expenditure of 0.5% of GDP for three years, monetary policy becomes more accommodative in economies with policy interest rates above zero (all countries excluding Japan, France, Germany and Italy) and productivity- enhancing structural reforms raise total factor productivity by 1% after five years. Confidence is modelled by a 50 basis point reduction in investment and equity risk premia for two years. Source: OECD calculations using the NiGEM global macroeconomic model. Policy coordination would provide the most effective stimulus
  18. 18. Key messages 18 Covid-19 has hit people and livelihoods • Covid-19 (coronavirus) has disrupted people’s life and the global economy • Activity has slowed dramatically in China on the back of containment measures • Negative spillovers via tourism, supply chains, commodities, confidence are growing The spread of coronavirus could intensify a global downturn • Weakened by trade and political tensions, the global economy is vulnerable • Containment measures and lower confidence would slow affected economies • Pressure on industries with structural difficulties (autos) or that are large employers (tourism) Governments cannot afford to wait • Increase resources to the health sector and support the most vulnerable • Ensure liquidity buffers for affected industries worldwide • Coordinate health response, monetary and fiscal support across countries

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