Thorax and Abdomen Information

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Sports med class information related to the thorax and abdomen. Includes information on anatomy, injuries, and how to deal with injuries.

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Thorax and Abdomen Information

  1. 1. Chapter 9 THE THORAX AND ABDOMEN
  2. 2. ANATOMY
  3. 3. Bones <ul><li>Sternum & Manubrium </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs - 12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costocartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic -12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumbar - 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacral - 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coccyx - 4 (fused) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ORGANS <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Quadrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Right Upper Quadrant <ul><li>Liver ** </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder ** </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul>
  6. 7. Left Upper Quadrant <ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen ** </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal gland </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul><ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul>
  7. 9. Right Lower Quadrant <ul><li>Appendix ** </li></ul><ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary and reproductive organs </li></ul>
  8. 10. Left Lower Quadrant <ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary and reproductive organs </li></ul>
  9. 12. Normal Abdomen http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/normal-abdominal-anatomy-1.html
  10. 13. Evaluation of Thorax and Abdomen <ul><li>Slightly varies from HOPS assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow Primary and Secondary survey </li></ul>
  11. 14. Primary Survey <ul><li>Check ABC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Assist athlete in maintaining an open airway by removing any blood or vomit from the airway. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Secondary Survey <ul><li>History and Physical Examination </li></ul><ul><li>History: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MOI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of inj </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset of s/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PQRST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movements that make the s/s better or worse. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Physical Examination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VITAL SIGNS </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. VITAL SIGNS <ul><li>Abnormal nerve response </li></ul><ul><li>BP </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Color </li></ul><ul><li>Level of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>After you check the vital signs progress to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auscultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palpation and Special Tests </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. INSPECTION <ul><li>Cyanosis </li></ul><ul><li>Flail chest </li></ul><ul><li>Tracheal deviation </li></ul><ul><li>Jugular vein distension </li></ul><ul><li>PEARL </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory rate/rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Chest appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoptysis </li></ul><ul><li>Hematemesis </li></ul><ul><li>Ecchymosis </li></ul>
  17. 20. Auscultation <ul><li>Listening for sounds determined in the thoracic and abdominal cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Completed by a medical professional </li></ul><ul><li>Used to determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal/abnormal chest sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth of breaths </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Percussion <ul><li>Tapping on various parts of the body and noting the sound it produces </li></ul><ul><li>Requires extensive training </li></ul>
  19. 22. Palpation <ul><li>Looking for… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Crepitus - air caught in subcutaneous tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bony Crepitus - bones rubbing together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetry </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><ul><li>Muscle Rigidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal Rebound Tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tender when you “let go” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Inspiration/Expiration Test <ul><li>Instruct the athlete to breathe in as much air as possible; hold inspiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, expire as much as possible; hold expiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to fully inspire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain during breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarding or apprehension with respirations </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Chest Compression Tests <ul><li>A test for fractures to the ribs, sternum, or costocartilages. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior/Posterior and Lateral Compression Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have athlete sit or stand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compress on the ant and post aspect of chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ Test = pain or bony crepitus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Test = may indicate a contusion or muscle spasm </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Pancreas
  24. 29. Gallbladder
  25. 31. Spleen
  26. 32. Large/Small Intestine
  27. 33. Stomach

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