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Understanding Artificial Intelligence


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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is quickly moving from a science-fiction concept to reality where machines now have the capability to perform tasks commonly associated with humans. We are starting to see our society transformed because of AI, so having a better understanding of what it is and what it is capable of doing is essential. AI helps power Amazon’s Alexa personal assistant, Google’s Deep Dream neural network, various marketing initiatives, health applications, the aviation industry, and much more. In this webinar:

- Discover what Artificial Intelligence (AI) is and how it is becoming a “machine trait.”

- Gain an appreciation of AI pioneers like John McCarthy, Alan Turing, Marvin Minsky et al.

- Learn how AI works and explore some applications that could play a role in your library.

- Reflect on the future of AI and the implications for libraries and society in general.

- Special Guest, Owen Cegielski from STEM School and Academy in Highlands Ranch, Colorado, will discuss various AI projects.

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Understanding Artificial Intelligence

  1. 1. Agenda: • Discover what Artificial Intelligence (AI) is and how it is becoming a “machine trait.” • Gain an appreciation of AI pioneers like John McCarthy, Alan Turing, Marvin Minsky et al. • Explore some applications that could play a role in your library. • Reflect on the future of AI and the implications for libraries and society in general. • Special Guest, Owen Cegielski from STEM School and Academy in Highlands Ranch, Colorado, will discuss various AI projects.
  2. 2. What is intelligence?
  3. 3. What is artificial intelligence?
  4. 4. “If we want our machines to possess anything approximating human intelligence, maybe we should think about giving them a childhood, too.” - Alison Gopnik Source:
  5. 5. Infographic at:
  6. 6. AI Applications: • Game playing - To beat a world champion by brute force and known reliable heuristics requires being able to look at 200 million positions per second. • Speech recognition - it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. • Understanding natural language - The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains. • Computer vision - full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing three- dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use. • Expert systems - A ``knowledge engineer'' interviews experts in a certain domain and tries to embody their knowledge in a computer program for carrying out some task. • Heuristic classification - most feasible kinds of expert system is to put some information in one of a fixed set of categories using several sources of information. Source:
  7. 7. Top 5 best Programming Languages for Artificial Intelligence Source:
  8. 8. Play Tic Tac Toe Against AI (Python) Code available at
  9. 9. Natural Language Processing • Car User Interface (CUI?) • Voice biometrics • How do we interact with connected devices? • How WILL we interact with connected devices? • App based? Too many apps for one device (e.g., Philips Hue) • Sentient? • Hello Natural Language! • Internet of Things (IoT) will continue to capture, track, and share data. What will AI do with it?
  10. 10. Digital Assistants Source:
  11. 11. More info:
  12. 12. Speech Recognition Google Voice Kit AIY,
  13. 13. Computer Vision Google Vision Kit AIY,
  14. 14. OpenCV was built to provide a common infrastructure for computer vision applications and to accelerate the use of machine perception in commercial products. Open Source Computer Vision Library is an open source computer vision and machine learning software library.
  15. 15. Painting by Harold Cohen's AARON sold for $2,000! Source: AI Artist
  16. 16. Read:
  17. 17. Artificial Intelligence Pioneers
  18. 18. Professor John McCarthy, 1958 - 2011 Image source: “I don't see that human intelligence is something that humans can never understand." Founded the field of Artificial Intelligence
  19. 19. Alan Turing, (1912–1954) Educator, Mathematician “A computer would deserve to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing that it was human.”
  20. 20. Turing Machine Video: Turing Machine Programs,
  21. 21. Marvin Minsky, 1927-2016 Cognitive Scientist
  22. 22. Explore some applications that could play a role in your library.
  23. 23. Intelligent agents replacing Reference Librarians or teaching Information Literacy Strategies?
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Source: Uses machine learning to understand what users are saying!
  26. 26. “Libraries can help secure privacy by providing anonymous ways of interacting with AI systems.” - Ben Johnson
  27. 27. Personal Artificial Intelligence (PAI). Our personalized digital avatars look, sound, sing, and behave like you, all secured and authenticated on the Project PAI blockchain.
  28. 28. Revolving Discovery, which sees retailers developing in-store programming and thematic displays to give customers something new each time they visit. Libraries??!! Source: Retail OS (or maybe Library OS) would use an underlying layer of technology (perhaps AI and biometrics) to enhance the in- store (or in-library) experience.
  29. 29. Reflect on the future of AI and the implications for libraries and society in general.
  30. 30. Is AI moving too fast?
  31. 31. tVideo: Chatting with a Virtual Agent: The SEMAINE Project Character Spike Installation files:
  32. 32. New Google AI Can Have Real Life Conversations With Strangers Video:
  33. 33. “A super intelligent AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren't aligned with ours, we're in trouble. - Stephen Hawking
  34. 34. “… to fund war gaming, experimentation and the demonstration of new technologies aimed at ensuring a continued military edge over China and Russia.” The military is looking to develop more advanced weapons technologies that will include autonomous weapons and deep learning machines.” Source:
  35. 35. Keep your eye on Google: • Google Neural Machine Translation - Bridging the gap between human and machine translations. • Google Deep Dream – Inside an AI brain. A computer vision program that uses a neural network to find and enhance patterns in images. • Google Reply - an AI-based messaging technology for Android. • Google Now - predictive cards with information and daily updates in the Google app for Android and iOS. • Google Brain - deep learning artificial intelligence that combines open- ended machine learning research with system engineering and Google- scale computing resources.
  36. 36. Most machine learning researchers expect machines will be able to create top quality music by 2036. More studies: Predictions of Human-Level AI Timelines
  37. 37. Microsoft deletes 'teen girl' AI after it became a Hitler-loving sex robot within 24 hours Source:
  38. 38. Which photo is real? AI-Generated Photos: Check out FaceApp too!
  39. 39. Tweets: In reference to Roko's Basilisk!
  40. 40. Source:
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Introducing Owen Cegielski, STEM School & Academy Highlands Ranch, Colorado
  43. 43. AI in the Classroom Bringing History To Life! Owen Cegielski MA History World History and Archaeology Specializing in “STEMified History”
  44. 44. About STEM School Highlands Ranch At STEM School Highlands Ranch we put innovation in the center of learning to unleash the potential of all students and prepare them for an exponentially changing world. Don't just read about our school; See what we do every day! We are more than a school. We are a think tank, a learning lab and a catalyst for creativity. We infuse STEM into all classrooms. We challenge students with STEM-based, real-world problem solving fueled by constant exploration, inquiry and discovery. We empower students. We put students in the driver’s seat of their learning, engaging and empowering them to push their own unique boundaries of innovative learning, thinking and doing. We see teachers as catalysts. Here, teachers are role models and innovation coaches who provide the framework for learning. We innovate and learn together. Here, we leverage the power of collaboration, teamwork and group think to build, design and create solutions to real world problems. Our goal is not only to prepare students to thrive in the constant world of re-invention, but to lead it.
  45. 45. We were covered all over the news for this AI project! ● Here’s the 9News Story! ● Check out the Denver Post story here! ● Colorado Public Radio’s Interview here! ● KOA “I Heart Radio” here! It starts at 1 hour, 26 minutes and 9 seconds (I think?)
  46. 46. World History & Archaeology courses should be engaging and relevant to our 21st C. Digital Natives! 1) Virtual and Augmented Reality 2) Game-Based Learning 3) Robotics and AI integration 4) Digital 3D modeling 5) Socratic Seminars and debates 6) Historical Performances 7) Experiential, Innovative learning 8) Archaeological mysteries featuring problem- solving 9) GIS mapping of data 10) Students as designers and inventors! Q. Why stress a cross-disciplinary focus with problem-based learning in history? Why AI?
  47. 47. “You know the greatest danger facing us is ourselves, an irrational fear of the unknown. But there’s no such thing as the unknown– only things temporarily hidden, temporarily not understood.” - Capt. James T. Kirk “Woolf, et al., (2013) proposed some “grand challenges” that artificial intelligence in education should work to address, including: ● Virtual mentors for every learner: Omnipresent support that integrates user modeling, social simulation and knowledge representation. ● Addressing 21st century skills: Assist learners with self- direction, self-assessment, teamwork and more. ● Analysis of interaction data: Synthesize data about individual learning, social and learning contexts and personal interests. ● Provide opportunities for global classrooms: Increase the interconnectedness and accessibility of classrooms worldwide. ● Lifelong and lifewide technologies: Taking learning outside of the classroom and into the learner’s life outside of school.Check out this Forbes’ article and NPR’s report on artificial intelligence in education.
  49. 49. You will program your AI as a game simulation, similar to a “Choose your Own Adventure!” Requirements: ● 1) Explore use of the software at: A good written guide can be found here. Please view this STEM student-made video tutorial here which includes additional code to help your AI have a temperament, an AI with attitude! You may also need to download the Google Home App on Google Play or Itunes. Once you program your AI with the API.AI software, you’ll need export and upload it into Google Home via the APP. Extra Note: Google Home simulator. ● Other software option: TensorFlow for more advanced “Machine Learning.” The WWI AI Lesson: The Process Kaiser Wilhelm II brought back to life 100 years later!
  50. 50. ● 2) Based on your collected information above, program a dialogue in AI, in which you defend your country’s position. Your AI will be the historical leader of your country who will interact with a yet to be determined delegate team of another country. So, for example, your AI will be activated by “OK, Tsar Nicholas II.” Your AI should be prepared to present biographical detail of your country’s leader. ● 3) Next, program your country’s initial position in a short speech, providing some historical background leading up to the July Crisis. Begin your dialogue initially hostile and aggressive, defending why you want to declare war. Remember, you will also need to predict what questions your AI will be asked and feature an appropriate response. ● 4) Program different paths and outcomes! If delegates (game players) from another country ask you the “right” questions and provide appropriate responses, you will begin to consider various paths of peace. If opposing delegates ask you the “wrong” questions, you will move towards the path of declaring war! So, your AI game will feature two game outcomes: war or peace! More advanced coders can also program “termperaments” (see guides below for further instructions!) ● 5) Your AI simulation should last approximately 5-10 minutes for the gameplayer, present plenty of historically accurate biographical info and historical background, and feature multiple paths and outcomes, leading to peace or war depending upon the player’s actions. Step 3: Once all groups have finished programming their AI’s, we will rotate delegation groups, facing the different AI simulations from all countries represented. If enough groups succeed with convincing the AI’s to pursue a path to peace, then World War I will be averted. If not, the War begins! The WWI AI Lesson: The Process
  51. 51. Other Applications: R.A.D. AI Robotic Archaeological Droid Lesson
  52. 52. “Archeology followed excavations within some of these caves located in the jungle of west-central Belize, Central America, during the summer of 2000, with reports straight from the field during the investigation of elite burials, stone monuments, and art within the caves.” The caves of West-Central Belize are areas in which the ancient Maya performed rituals and sacrifices. Much of the cave is filled with broken pottery waiting to be discovered. Dig Site: The Maya Caves of West-Central Belize
  53. 53. Student-Designed Problem Statement The caves in Belize have a number of cramped, compact areas, (left) and histoplasmosis is also a concern (right). Harmful wildlife is also present near and at the site.
  54. 54. Fer-De-Lance (left) and Assassin Bug (right) Retrieved from de-Lance/ Retrieved from ent-1003/
  55. 55. SOLUTION: The RAD Robot coded with API.AI to respond to voice commands! Purpose: To find artifacts within the cave that may be difficult or even dangerous to find, see, or retrieve. Function: To document artifacts and cave layouts without touching or potentially damaging objects within the cave. Design: A motor with an ultrasonic sensor and functional treads. Cost: With programming and application components, estimated cost would be roughly $40,000.
  56. 56. Future AI Plans for Archaeology ● New Project in development between machine learning with TensorFlow, drones and Google Earth Engine API ● Drones capture film footage over sites ● Archaeology students use TensorFlow to create an AI that can visually identify man-made artifacts on the ground and map GIS data to draw conclusions on ancient human activities. ● A simple kit version is sold at local stores like Target. ● Case studies using Google Earth Engine for data sets References: playing-the-field
  57. 57. Examples of Object Detection with TensorFlow:
  58. 58. Example of how data from the Tensorflow AI could be viewed geospatially in Google Earth Engine. Note: This example was developed by another corporation, but it’s similar in concept, in which students can map human activity on the ground.
  59. 59. @cmairn
  60. 60. Contact me!