The 18 th century was the age of reason . Men believed thatthey could solve their problems by science and logicalreasons.It all started in France where by 1750 Paris became the centreof philosophers.In this period educated people were interested in books andin certain cities such as London and Berlin , educated peopleused to meet in cafes and discuss politics, philosophy andinventions.Although not everyone accepted the ideas and thinking ofenlightenment this period led to the cause of the Frenchrevolution.
John Locke- A British philosopher , hewrote the Two Treatises of Government, in which he argued that men have theright to oppose and protest against thegovernment . Voltaire- A French philosopher , in his writings he opposed the catholic church accusing her for leaving the people ignorant
Montesquieu- A French philosopher , he wroteThe Spirit of the Laws in which he divided thegovernment into 3 into monarchy , republicsand despotism . Adam Smith- A Scottish philosopher , in his book The Wealth of Nations he discussed the economy and production. His book led to the rose of liberalism and socialism .
Rousseau- A Swiss philosopher, he wroteThe Social Contract , he believed that menis the state on nature and the society ruinhim . His book was influenced by leadersduring the French revolution.
This is a term given to kings , queens and emperorswho put in practise the political ideas of thephilosophers. By these they hoped that they will stoppeople from brining revolution. Unfortunately laterrevolution was created because nobles demanded formore privileges.
Fredrick 2 king of Prussia- He held allpersons including himself as a servant. Byhis reforms he made Prussia morepowerful. Maria Theresa Empress of Austria – She set up a secret police to examine laws and make new refoms.
Joseph 2 of Hapsburg-certain monasteries of the churches were turned into schools.Catherine 2 empress of Russia- Under herrule Russia won new lands, she alsoapplied the ideas of philosophers in herrule.