ICT here and there● Same data needs and expectations but... ○ Here: push technology, usage will follow ○ There: spot usage and find matching technology● Direct implications to keep in mind: 1. The best infrastructure is not necessarily the one with the highest specifications ! 2. Cloning what we enjoy here will most probably not work there !
Technology enhanced communication● Several elements are implied● Need to pay attention to all of them in their context Software Software Computing device Computing device Network
Two types of deployment● Bring the ICT to the users, or the inverse
Bring the users to the ICT● Examples ○ Community computer center (Video) ○ Internet café ○ "Computer room" in schools● Advantages ○ One installation impact many users ○ Centralisation of infrastructural needs● Disadvantages ○ Concentration of valuable items ○ Typically high installation costs ○ Harder to embed into culture / habits
Bring the ICT to the users● Examples ○ "One Laptop per Child" initiative ○ Smart phones and tablets● Advantages ○ "Personal" relationship with the device ○ De-centralisation of resource usage● Disadvantages ○ One device per person ○ Higher deployment costs
Whats best to do?● Very much depending on the context ○ Easy access to a central location? ○ What kind of usage for the devices?● It is possible to hybridise the approaches ○ e.g.: use laptops and print in a cyber-café● Also think of embedding other communication channels ○ prints ○ USB sticks ○ ...
Use local expertise and materials● In any case, remember that ○ Devices will have to be serviced on spot ○ Training individuals to operate something is costly ○ Not everything is available everywhere ○ Uptake will be better from involved communities● Thus, to increase chances of success ○ Source material locally as much as possible ○ Source expertise locally as much as possible ○ Ensure appropriation of what is deployed● "Colonialism 2.0"
Example: baby incubator [1,2] ● Ship baby incubator to developing countries ● Big failure ○ $40000 per unit ○ Hard to find spare parts ○ Closed design ○ Need skilled staff
Example: baby incubator [1,2] ● Build baby incubator in, and for, developing countries ● NeoNurture ○ $1000 per unit ○ Car parts ○ Open design ○ Need staff able to repair and use a car
Electricity consumption● Some of the things to power up ○ Power supply ○ CPUs and GPUs ○ Screens / Lights ○ Printing devices ○ Storage devices ○ Networking devices ○ Cooling devices● Get electricity from ○ The grid (Solar, Wind, Nuclear, Tidal, ...) ○ Local production (Solar, Fuel, ...)
Consumption of a CPU● Varies a lot depending on the CPU class and internal architecture (Intel / ARM)● Indicated through the TDP value Server Desktop Netbook Smart phone 69 to 150 W 19 to 73 W 0.65 to 13 W 0.5 to 2 W
Consumption of a Screen● Varies depending on the technology 0.4 to 1.7 W http://pixelqi.com
Consumption of storage device● Essentially depends on the technology● Not having movable parts is better
Using electricity from the grid ● Pluses ○ Stable, and affordable, source ● Minuses ○ High throughput of generation point ○ Significant infrastructure costs ○ Electricity does not travel well -> hard to connect remote areas
Local production ● Pluses ○ Easy to deploy ● Minuses ○ Less stable than grid ○ High initial costs
More about solar power ● Estimated 1000W per m2 ● Actual up to 200W per m2 ● Better bet on less in practicehttp://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/solar-power/
Sending a message from A to B● In theory, like the post : wrap the message and send it to the address of B● In practice this is not so simple ○ First,find the address of B ○ Then, send the message through a relay of machines and connections● Lets see what happen when "univ-tours.fr" is typped in a Web browser ...
Find the address of "univ-tours.fr"● This has to be translated into "220.127.116.11", the actual address of the machine● Use the DNS system to do that ○ Ask the root server ".fr" for the address of "univ- tours" ○ Ask "univ-tours" for its default host address● Such names are called TLD and have to be paid for (roughly 15 euros per year)
Ask for the Web index page● The Web browser sends a request for "index.html" to the port 80● Goal: send the request from a machine in the Netherlands to another (probably) in France● See what actually happens with the tools "tcptraceroute" and "traceroute"
What happens in practice...● The Web browser sends a request for "index.html" to the port 80●
Why ?● Internet is a network of networks● Several routes can connect two devices● Traffic is agglomerated on several levels● ISPs exist for each level
Going around the continents http://www.submarinecablemap.com/
and connecting citieshttp://www.lilobzh.com/free/article-degroupage.php#idf
Why does it matter in ICT4D ?● Let two farmers in Mali send a mail to each other implies a couple of regional servers● If they want to use GMail, a backbone connection to the US west coast will also be involved !● Consequences ○ Web-based social networking can hardly be local ○ The costs for the end user is likely to be high ○ ( Cloud computing is incompatible with ICT4D )
Good news! transit prices are falling http://www.telegeography.com/research-services/global-internet-geography/index.html
Ok, so what can be done ?● Research on Downscaling the Semantic Web will bring data sharing to everyone, regardless of Internet connectivity ○ https://worldwidesemanticweb.wordpress.com/● Creating mesh networks is a first step into connecting devices
How to choose● Reasons to prefer a mesh network ○ More robust ○ Faster to deploy ○ Example: Sensors network● Reasons to prefer an infrastructure network ○ Better for the quality of service ○ Shared installation costs ○ Example: Universities WiFi● It is also possible to combine the two
Connecting remote areas● Long wires ○ Use optic fiber and/or copper wires● Long range Wireless ○ Use WiFi technology (IEEE 802.11b) to connect relays over long distance ○ Network technologies 2G (GSM), 3G (WCDMA, EDGE) and 4G (LTE, WiMax) are licenced● Sneaker net ○ Use removable media to move information among storage devices
Indias rural networkhttp://www.cse.iitk.ac.in/users/braman/dgp.html
Island of "Nosy Komba"http://www.olpcnews.com/hardware/wireless/olpc_frances_long_dist
Whats up with USB sticks then?Latency Throughput
What to pick?● Keep in mind three things ○ The context of usage (dust, humidity, sunlight, ...) ○ The target users ○ The target use-cases ○ The resources needed● The computer you have at home is most probably not the one you would use in a developing country● There exist some optimized hardware
The Classmate from Intel ● Rugged ● Touch screen ● Handle ● Speakers ● Microphone ● Camera
The XO-1.75 and XO-4 from OLPC ● Use a couple of Watts ● User-defined sensors ● Accelerometer ● Light sensor ● Camera ● Rugged ● Speakers ● No movable part ● Microphone
SheevaPlug from GlobalScale ● ARM based CPU ● Ethernet, WiFi ● Solid state memory ● USB ports ● Here used as an e- book server
T1 from Aleutia● Sealed and fanless● Operate under 45oC● Atom processor● SSD disk
A note on thin clients● Thin client = very lightweight PC that outsources all the computing to a bigger one● Was among the first model of computing (e. g. IBMs AS/400). Still popular in classrooms settings thanks to its advantages● Getting a new life with the increase of Cloud computing (c.f. Googles ChromeBook)
Total cost of ownership (TCO)● Total cost of acquisition and operation● Computed over the expected operation timeExample: TCO of a car = car + parking place +fuel + insurance + driving license + ...For ICT: hardware + software + skilled staff +infrastructure (electricity, network) + ...
TCO surprises● Standalone data storage solution (NAS) is often less expensive than a PC with software RAID● Inkjet printers can be more expensive than laser printers
Things to keep in mind● Think of the TCO when picking up software ○ Maintenance/Development is costly ○ Things that dont work now will be left aside ■ Remember the target users are not geeks!● See how fit the software exactly is ○ Are vocal interfaces needed?● Consider to which extent users can appropriate and customise the software
Suggestions● Prefer affordable and supported software ○ Individuals have few money but dont mind spending it on things that matters● Prefer open source software ○ Highest level of appropriation level● Prefer software using open standards ○ If the software changes, the data can still be used
When you consider ICT in lowresources setting● See what is already working and think how ICT can be improve part of communication● Think of all the side things ○ cost, environmental conditions, ...● Design carefully your use-cases● Employ appropriate hardware and software