Latin america

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Latin america

  1. 1. By: Courtney Grace<br />Latin America<br />
  2. 2. The independence movement started in the beginning of the 19th century<br />It contained two large colonial empires: the Spanish and the Portuguese<br />The colonies stretched from the western United States and Mexico to Argentina<br />The Portugal Empire was in Brazil<br />In February 1819, a congress assembled in Angostura and proclaimed the Republic of Colombia. <br />Bolivar sought independence in the north <br />May 1810: news reached Buenos Aires that the French in Spain had defeated forces loyal to King Ferdinand, the city’s residents deposed the viceroy and set up a council to govern in the king’s name<br />San Martín, the major leader of the independence movement in the region<br />Independence Movements of Latin America<br />
  3. 3. Peru was in chaos by early 1823. Bolívar sent a Colombian army under the command of General Sucre to support the republican government<br />Uruguay was known as the Banda Oriental (Eastern Shore) according to the Spanish rule. It was a frontier region of the Viceroyalty of the Rio del la Plata. <br />The Capital, Montevideo, was an important port city rivaling Buenos Aires <br />Jose Gervasio Artigas led the Uruguayan independence movement and formed an army that consisted of cowboys, also known as gauchos<br />The independence movement in Mexico was different than the campaigns in South America<br />Agustín de Iturbide, a Creole officer in the royalist army was sent to defeat the remaining guerrillas. <br />Vicente Guerrero, a mestizo: the most important rebel leader <br />Independence Movements of Latin America<br />
  4. 4. Latin Americans who hoped independence would usher in more rapid transformations<br />The reformist activism of the immediate post-independence years was in part a result of the resistance cooked up, especially the clergy, in part of liberal legislation<br />Cause: spreading conviction before political order was firmly established <br />The Resumption of Export Growth: the middle and upper sectors of the population changed mid-century while other countries became part of an economic growth <br />Economic growth was the main fact and was the only influence at work<br />It was known to be the center of the external sector where some spectacular increases in the quantity and value of Latin American exports took place <br />Latin America’s economy grew faster than it did for both resources limitations and structural constraints<br />Latin America at Mid-Century <br />
  5. 5. “There is a disagreement about the relative importance of external and internal stimuli for such growth as occurred, but it is generally accepted that the former were most decisive”<br />Cattle exports appeared that shipping technology had outdistances the palatability of Argentine beef<br />Though the operation did not become a commercial success until years later and by then the time needed for the improvements were in breading and care of livestock was carried out <br />The speed and reliability of steam navigation made it possible to send perishable commodities and other merchants. This created new export industries.<br />One of the founders of “dependency theory” was Andrew Gunder Frank<br />He emphasized the overriding importance of external factors in Latin America and expressed the relationship between trade and liberal reformism <br />50% of the total national exports consisted of: coffee, sugar, meat, wheat, cotton, and tin<br />Latin America at Mid-Century<br />
  6. 6. In 1810, the first real concession: The British government negotiated preferential trading privileges in Brazil in return for its support for the Portuguese royal family during the Napoleonic Wars<br />The struggle for emancipation lasted from 1810 to 1825<br />The first step towards safeguarding Britain’s economic interest and allowed the new republics to be recognized <br />Financial crisis came into the picture because of the speculation in loans and mining stocks turned into a commercial crisis too. <br />“Almost all the new governments, unable to raise the revenue they required to pay interest on their bonds, defaulted on the loans they had contracted in London”<br />Recovery varied from one country to another<br />“Brazil never defaulted on its debt, and its trade always remained relatively healthy even when that of other countries collapsed”<br />Britain and Latin American <br />
  7. 7. The exports from Latin America became to increase in value<br />Such as: hides and wool from the River Plate, copper from Chile guano from Peru<br />Revenues and trade began to expand<br />“In British eyes there were two singular exceptions to the instability and caudillismo which marked their image of Latin America in the first half-century after independence”<br />The economic growth depends on the power of the national government<br />The rise in customs revenues was from the expansion of trade <br />Thanks to the growing credit in London and other European financial centers provided access to foreign loans <br />Britain and Latin American<br />
  8. 8. Latin America’s War<br />Causes of wars during this time period of the nineteenth century a numerous and create a tapestry<br />The most vivid threads were: the race war, the ideology of independence, the controversy of separation versus union, boundary disputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism, resource wars, intraclass struggles, interventions caused by capitalism, and religious wars<br />To touch base on a few in detail: <br />Race War: <br />“The Haitian War for Independence (1791-1803) began as a struggle between the privileged white planters and the less privileged affranchis (those of mixed blood) and rapidly became an all-out race war when the third and largest racial element, the pure blacks, ultimately dominated”<br />Wars of Territoral Conquest:<br />“The post-independence wars of territorial conquest against the native Americans (the Indians) were an extension of the colonial experience”<br />Latin American Wars of the 19th Century <br />
  9. 9. Caudilloism:The desire to rule in order to satisfy one's ambitions has also led to war in Latin AmericaMost never got to go beyond the local level and controlling over a few men<br />Resource Wars:Also known as the “Nitrate War” from 1879-1883 Cause: the taxation and duties imposed by Bolivia upton Chilean-owned nitrate firmsWithout nitrates, Chileans would have never been able to attempt to conquer the desert <br />Intraclass Wars:The French intervention in Mexico from 1861 to 1867 was the most bloody of all” The scale of these conflicts ranged from palace coups involving a few dozen people to full-scale wars involving armies of many thousands”<br />Religious Wars:Religion was a large role in the Latin American warsMiguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos were Fathers who led the war of Independence in Mexico <br />Latin American Wars of the 19th Century <br />
  10. 10. Argentina <br />Second largest country in South America<br />“After the military stepped down in 1983, Argentina recommitted itself to democratic government but struggled with economic problems. At the beginning of the 21st century, Argentina was attempting to revitalize its economy”<br />Some interesting dates: <br />1816: Congress of Provincial Representatives, Tucumán, declares independence from Spain<br />1879: Gen. Julio A. Roca leads Argentine Army in Campaign of the Desert against Pampas Indians<br />1912: Saenz Peña Law brings full male suffrage<br />Mexico<br />
  11. 11. The fifth largest country in the Western Hemisphere <br />It had a rapid growing population and a series of economic crises<br />Mexico has a rich heritage in art and architecture and is recognized internationally for the contributions of its 20th-century mural artists, who created murals that reflected not only Mexico’s history and culture, but also its current social issues<br />Some important dates: <br />1810-1815: Revolt led by Father Miguel de Hidalgo initiates independence movement, followed by Father José María Morelos; both captured, defrocked, and executed<br />1832-1834: Santa Anna elected as Liberal president; vice president Valentín Gómez Farías governs<br />1880: Favorable concessions given to U.S. railroad companies introduce the great railroad boom; Manuel González elected president. <br />Mexico<br />

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