A Difficult Past <br />By: Courtney Grace<br />
19th Century <br /><ul><li>Everyone started heading towards the West and the United States doubled in size.
“By the 1840s westward expansion was well underway, and many Americans spoke of a "manifest destiny" to occupy all of North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. “
After 1840 conflict between Euro-American and indigenous people moved west of the Mississippi River.</li></li></ul><li>19th Century<br /><ul><li>Electing Abraham to be President was what caused the war of the states.
“90 percent of the country's industrial capacity and approximately two-thirds of its railroad lines-but still they fought four bitter years against a formidable enemy.”
Political and social issues divided the American republic.</li></li></ul><li>The Frontiers Of The America’s<br /><ul><li>In the 1860s and 1880s the metis, which is the offspring of the union of French Canadians and Indian women, became a political problem
“Religion often provided a justification for racial exclusiveness “
In North America, missionaries left Indians and focused on creating settlers.
“The main parallel to Latin America's mission frontier is to be found in French Canada: the missions of the early seventeenth century in Huronia were run by the Jesuits and the Recollets “
The Frontier ended up being the breeding ground for evangelism, which is where the Great Awakening and the sects found passion in Canada and the U.S. </li></li></ul><li>The Frontiers Of The America’s<br /><ul><li>Geographical factors played a strong role
Physical conditions and lack of easy access to food and transport makes the Arctic frontiers capital
Railways played a limited role in opening up frontiers
“increasing land values and opening up urban markets, became a contributory factor behind the rising number of Indian disturbances “</li></li></ul><li>The Little Ice Age<br /><ul><li>Was Also known as the “Big Chill”
Occurred during the fourteenth to the nineteenth century
Violent storms caused flooding and ice began to take over.
During the Winter of 1780 New York Harbor froze over and people were able to walk from Manhattan to Staten Island
The Scientist have tentatively identified four causes: decreased solar activity, increased volcanic activity, altered ocean current flows, and inherent variability of global climate</li></li></ul><li>Crossroads Of Freedom<br /><ul><li>Northern troops controlled: Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland- though they lost two battles in Missouri
There first stop to Richmond they were stopped by a defeat along the banks of Bull Run in July 1861
“Northern spirits had risen temporarily in November when a Union warship captured Confederate envoys James Mason and John Slidell from the British steamer Trent”
June-July a small army was lead by McClellan to victories that secured Union control to what became West Virginia
“Farragut headed the Gulf Expeditionary Force of twenty-four warships carrying 245 guns, nineteen mortar boats each containing a thirteen inch mortar for high-angle fire against the forts, and 15,000 army troops” </li></li></ul><li>Crossroads Of Freedom<br /><ul><li>In July 1862- weeks went on and they navy’s two hundred guns and twenty-three mortars were set off onto Vicksburg and took heavy fire in return
Halleck went to Washington to become a general in chief in July and was assumed by Grant for the command of the occupation forces
Portative ending to Lee’s decision: Victory or defeat; foreign intervention; Lincoln’s emancipation proclamation; northern elections; and the willingness of people</li></li></ul><li>Crossroads Of Freedom<br /><ul><li>Soldiers believed they would get 50,000 in Maryland
Lee saw many of them to be cowards and stragglers
Farmers began to pack up and take their families and cattle north of the Susquehanna river
On September 7th- an army of Potomac moved out of Washington to find the enemy
They tried to see the best of the situation due to the fact they were under McClellan's command
On September 7th Walter Taylor declared that, “now is the time for Maryland or never” </li></li></ul><li>Crossroads Of Freedom<br /><ul><li>Lincoln had hoped to destroy the Army of Northern Virginia, though it did not happen, but it was badly hurt
Lincoln called for a meet of the Cabinet five days after
He reminded members of their decisions they made two months prior to postpone issuances of an emancipation proclamation
He said, “I think the time has come now… I wish it was a better time…”</li>