WG3 release Harry Clark 16 apr 2014


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Meeting global food needs with lower emissions:
IPCC report findings on climate change mitigation in agriculture
A dialog among scientists, practitioners and financiers

April 16, 2014
World Bank, Washington, DC

Following the April 13th release of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report on Mitigation, including Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (AFOLU), this event will provided an opportunity to listen to IPCC authors summarize their findings and for all participants to join in a dialog with practitioners and financiers to discuss actionable steps for mitigation in the agricultural sector.

The event was a joint effort of the World Bank, the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases, and the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

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  • Synergies with poverty alleviation, improved nutrition and resilient businesses
  • WG3 release Harry Clark 16 apr 2014

    1. 1. Date: 4/17/2014 Global Research Alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases Author: Harry Clark
    2. 2. Sources of agriculture GHGs: absolute Source: EDGAR database, data for 2008, accessed 2012
    3. 3. National significance of agriculture GHGs Source: EDGAR database, data for 2008, accessed 2012
    4. 4. Uneven Challenge: Future Food Demand % change in total calorie demand in 11 world regions, 2000-2050 ±0 Eastern Europe, former Soviet Union, Pac. OECD +5 +50 N. America , Planned Asia China, Western Europe +50 +10 0 Latin America , Caribbean, Asia – Pacific rim +10 0 +20 0 North Africa, Middle East, South Asia >20 0 Sub-Saharan Africa Source: IIASA/GLOBIOM model, Havlik et al 2011
    5. 5. The Alliance • Agriculture is vital in achieving food security, poverty reduction and sustainable development. • The agricultural sector is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change • Agriculture must meet the increasing global demand for food while reducing greenhouse emissions. • The agricultural sector has many opportunities to contribute to emissions reductions and carbon sequestration while still helping meet food security objectives. The Alliance was launched in December 2009 in response to increasing global concerns.
    6. 6. Alliance Goals • develop the science and technology to mitigate emissions; • develop consistent methods for measurement of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration; • improve farmer access to new knowledge and technology; • promote synergies between adaptation and mitigation; • facilitate the exchange of information; • build science expertise; • develop partnerships. The Alliance will seek to increase international cooperation, collaboration and investment in both public and private research activities to:
    7. 7. Membership
    8. 8. Partner Organisations International Partners of the Alliance: • African Development Bank • Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research • Food and Agriculture Organization • Inter-American Development Bank • Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture • Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE) • World Bank • World Farmers’ Organisation
    9. 9. Research Collaboration Knowledge and technology development that would not have happened without the Alliance • International collaboration of subject specialists – Technical manuals and methodology guidelines, – Testing new measurement methods • International collaboration of research sites – GHG emissions and carbon sequestration • Collaboration with Partner organisations – CCAC projects (Rice & manure management) – FAO (Measuring emissions from agricultural peatlands) – FONTAGRO (Mitigation research & capability building in Latin America) • Country collaboration on mitigation research – GPLER (NZ initiated international research fund) – JPI FACCE (Multi-stakeholder mitigation fund) – FtRG (Australian domestic fund extended to target international cooperation) FONTAGRO meeting in Uruguay 2012
    10. 10. Capability Development Regional capability to reduce GHG intensity consistent with economies and development goals • Technical workshops and training • South East Asia • Africa (Kenya and Ghana) • Latin America • CH4 measurement techniques course, New Zealand • Training session on CO2 flux measurements, Brazil • Regional Projects • Central and South America • South East Asia Regional Workshop, Ghana 2012 MIRSA Workshop, Philippines 2013
    11. 11. Policy Support and links to International Activities Efficient and effective use of research funding • Water management options in irrigated paddy rice fields (CGIAR and IRRI) • Support international inventory methodologies • Joint capacity building workshops (ILRI, CCAFS) • Support the development of models (GLEAM model to estimate global mitigation potential (FAO)) • Manure management & paddy rice initiatives (CCAC) Ministerial Summit, signing of the Alliance Charter, Rome 2011
    12. 12. Fellowship and Award Opportunities Borlaug Fellowships - Global Research Alliance •US Dept. of Agriculture & US Agency for International Development •Early/mid-career scientists in GRA developing countries for up to 3 months http://www.fas.usda.gov/icd/borlaug/special_programs/GRA/GRA%20Main.asp On-the-job training (OJT) projects •MAFF Japan, in cooperation with the United Nations University supports young researchers from developing countries •2013 will support the activities of the Alliance http://isp.unu.edu/news/2013/ojcb-programme.html LEARN/GRASS New Zealand fellowships •LEARN fellowships awarded to developing country scientists •GRASS award is an exchange opportunity for established scientists http://www.livestockemissions.net/funding-opportunities.html Awards offered by Member countries to support the Alliance
    13. 13. Pathways to mitigation
    14. 14. Indirect approaches - improved efficiency provides the best immediate mitigation option • Better genotypes • More efficient use of fertilisers & legumes • Improved feeding • Improved animal health • Better management NB Will reduce emissions per unit of product, may reduce absolute emissions
    15. 15. Key Production & Emissions Statistics 1990 & 2011 Animals (million) Production (kt/annum) CO2-eq total CO2-eq / product (% change/annum) 1990 2011 1990 2011 1990-2011 1990-2011 Sheep 57.9 31.1 lamb 384 366 -32% -1.3% Dairy cows 3.44 6.17 milk solids 599 1,685 +114% -1.0% Beef cattle 4.59 3.85 total beef 519 600 +2% -0.6% Note: numbers use inventory figures (not LCA) and depend on source for statistics, year end-dates, and apportionment emissions from fertiliser and bull calves → to be regarded as illustrative only. NB benefits of intensification are not captured in IPCC Tier 1 inventories
    16. 16. Direct approaches – new technologies for emission reduction • Improved efficiency necessary for emissions reduction but may not be sufficient • Are technologies available to facilitate large reductions in absolute emissions from agriculture?
    17. 17. The methane free ruminant – a modern fairy-tale?
    18. 18. Inhibitory compounds
    19. 19. Anti-methanogen vaccine
    20. 20. Modified feeding practices Feeding concentrates can reduce emissions by 50%. Feeding oils can reduce emissions: 5% reduction for every 1% added oil. Condensed tannin containing feeds can reduce emissions by up to 20%. Brassicas can reduce emissions by up to 30% NB All claimed mitigations need to be considered within a systems & total GHG context
    21. 21. Low emitting animals • Some animals emit less methane for the same amount of feed; 10-30% reduction depending upon feed • Heritable & repeatable trait • No evidence of a performance penalty • Rapid & cheap identification of low emitting phenotype challenging
    22. 22. For more information www.globalresearchalliance.org secretariat@globalresearchalliance.org