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USAID & CCAFS Low-Emission Rice Webinar: Options, ambition, feasibility, and investment.

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This introductory presentation was given on May 29, 2019, by Lini Wollenberg (CCAFS). She sets the context for presentations by B. Ole Sander (IRRI), Tran Van The (Institute for Agricultural Environment), and Leo Sebastian (CCAFS) and an ensuing discussion with panelists Le Hoang Anh (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam), B. Ole Sander, Tran Van The, and Leo Sebastian.
A recording of the webinar can be found on CCAFS youtube channel: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.

Published in: Science
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USAID & CCAFS Low-Emission Rice Webinar: Options, ambition, feasibility, and investment.

  1. 1. NEXT WEBINAR - June 25, 2019 9am EDT Making trees count: Measurement, reporting and verification of agroforestry-based carbon • Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon storage in the land sector • Advances in monitoring, reporting, and verification • Identification and prioritization of interventions • Assessments of the status of global initiatives • Application of biophysical data to develop investment plans • New data on global carbon stocks, fluxes, and drivers of loss Land Use and Climate Research by the CGIAR, supported by USAID’s Office of Global Climate Change Showcasing the collaboration of USAID and the CGIAR to help limit the magnitude of changes to the climate system • https://www.climatelinks.org/content/webinar-series-land-use-and-climate-research-cgiar
  2. 2. Leocadio Sebastian and Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS; Bjoern Ole Sander, IRRI; Tran Van The, IAE-MARD; Juliann Aukema, USAID Low-emissions rice in Vietnam: Options, ambition, feasibility, and investment May 29, 2019 | 9am EDT, 8pm ICT
  3. 3. Agenda: Low-emissions rice in Vietnam Topic Presenter Time (minutes) Introduction of series Cleo Chou, USAID Office of Global Climate Change 0-2 Our work in rice and why it is critical to climate change mitigation Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS 3-7 Rice in Vietnam: Emissions, NDC planning and actions, Feasibility analysis of LED options B. Ole Sander, IRRI 9-19 Investment planning for AWD Tran Van The, Institute for Agricultural Environment 20-29 Next steps for low-emissions rice in Vietnam Leo Sebastian, CCAFS 30-35 Questions for panelists Panelists: Le Hoang Anh, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development B. Ole Sander, Tran Van The, Leo Sebastian 36-58
  4. 4. About CGIAR • CGIAR is “the world’s largest global agricultural innovation network” • CGIAR comprises • 15 CGIAR Research Centers and • 15 CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs), including CCAFS • Vision: a world free of poverty, hunger and environmental degradation • Sustainable Development Goals
  5. 5. USAID support 2016-2018 Towards implementation of mitigation • Scholarship program for graduate students to quantify emissions in food loss and waste • Livestock MRV • Tier 2 • RUMINANT model • Agroforestry MRV 3. CLIFF-GRADS Fellowships 1. MRV 2. NDC support Feasibility and investment assessments • Vietnam • Kenya
  6. 6. GHG emissions from rice production in Vietnam VN Nat. Comm.: • Emissions from rice sector are higher than emissions from transport sector • Emissions from rice are around 50% of all agricultural emissions Carlson et al., 2016 • Vietnam emits ~10% of global methane emissions from rice 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% VIETNAM Shareoftotalnational GHGemissions Transport emissions Rice emissions Slide courtesy of B. Ole Sander
  7. 7. The MRD, the most important region for rice: 12% of natural areas, 19% of population, half of rice cultivated area, shared 50% of rice quantity, 95% of rice for exportation 0.00 2,000.00 4,000.00 6,000.00 8,000.00 2010 2015 2020 Cultivated rice areas (1000 ha) Whold country MRD 7,750.0 Ratio of crop, 2020 Rice Maize Tuber crop Vegetable Anunal industrial crop Perenial industrial crop Fruits Importance of Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta area for rice Source: GSO (2016), GoVN (2012) Slide courtesy of Tran Van The
  8. 8. Source: MONRE (2017) GHG emissions and potential GHG reduction from rice Slide courtesy of Tran Van The
  9. 9. Share of GHG reduction in NDCs from rice production Unconditional mitigation options Potential GHG reduction MtCO2 e % I. Total 6.4 100 I.I. Crop production 3.2 50 A2. Reuse of agro-residues 0.4 12.5 A3. AWD/SRI 0.9 28.1 A4. Introduction of biochar 1.1 34.4 A5. Integrated crop management in rice cultivation 0.5 15.6 A6. Integrated crop management in annual upland crops 0.3 9.4 I.II. Remaining agriculture (livestock, fishery) 3.2 50 Conditional mitigation options Potential GHG reduction MtCO2 e % I. Total 39.8 100 I.I. Crop production 36.4 91.5 A7. Substitution of urea with ammonium sulfate 3.2 8.8 A8. Reuse of upland crop residues 0.3 8.8 A9. AWD/SRI 7 19.2 A10. Introduction of biochar 18.8 51.7 A14. Improved technology for waste treatment from crops 3.4 9.3 A15. Improved irrigation for coffee 3.4 9.3 A16. ICM in upland crops 0.3 0.8 I.2. Remaining agriculture (livestock) 3.4 8.5 Slide courtesy of Tran Van The
  10. 10. Support for Countries’ NDCs Feasibility of rice LED options and investment plan for AWD in Vietnam Comprehensive, comparative analysis of potentially viable LED practices and their supporting interventions within the rice supply chain Geographic suitability Barriers Incentives, enabling conditions Costs, benefits and risk analysis 1. Domestic investment plan for AWD and mid-season drainage 2. Outline for international investment proposal for AWD Policy gap analysis Identification of policy levers to incentivize adoption Quantification of investment needed Identification of international funding sources Investment plan for AWD Prioritize interventions, identify instruments to encourage large- scale adoption
  11. 11. Incorporate in investment programs Develop detailed provincial operations/ implementation plan Adapt an MRV tool Integrate into the NDC implementation program Future Directions:Low-emissions rice in Vietnam Leo Sebastian, CCAFS Firm-up incorporation of AWD in recommended packages of technologies.
  12. 12. https://www.climatelinks.org/content/webinar-series-land-use-and-climate-research-cgiar Next June 25, 2019 9am EDT Making trees count: Measurement, reporting and verification of agroforestry-based carbon Todd Rosenstock, ICRAF; Karis Tenneson, SIG; Rémi Cardinael, CIRAD; Marta Suber, ICRAF Land Use and Climate Research by the CGIAR, supported by USAID’s Office of Global Climate Change
  13. 13. Drought & salted risks for rice in MRD (medium yr) Flooding risk to rice in MRD region (medium yr) Flooding risk to rice in MRD region (extreme yr) Drought & salted risks for rice in MRD (extreme yr) Climate vulnerability map on rice Source: FAO/NAPs (2018) Challenges to climate change and extreme climate risk on rice
  14. 14. Sustainable Development Goals • Enable adaptation to deal with long-term change and extreme events • Improve human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, early warning • Embed climate change in national policies and planning • Secure effective finance
  15. 15. CCAFS scientists work with 73 partners in Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam. Southeast Asia Climate-Smart Village model adopted by governments • Establishment of 17 Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative in Agriculture villages in the Philippines and 4 Climate and Nutrition Smart Villages in Myanmar Rural broadcasting on Climate-Smart Agriculture • 150 Rural broadcasters participated in a program with local researchers to advocate CSA in the Philippines Involvement in seasonal planning • 10 participatory advisories were distributed to at least 3500 households in northcentral Vietnam
  16. 16. Vietnam’s Nationally Determined Contribution • Vietnam was one of the first countries to ratify the UNFCCC. • With domestic resources, Vietnam will reduce GHG emissions by 8% by 2030 compared to business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. • This contribution could be increased by up to 25% with international support. Photo: G. Smith (CIAT)
  17. 17. • Develop sustainable agriculture and improve effectiveness and competitiveness of agricultural production • Research and develop solutions in farming, livestock, fisheries and animal feed and food processing sectors; • Efficiently use seedlings, feed, agricultural materials, soil, water, and other inputs through best production processes and economic technologies • Treat and reuse by-products and waste from agricultural production to produce animal feed, mushrooms, materials for industries, biogas, and organic fertilizer. Vietnam’s mitigation plan: Measures Photo: Pete Smith (CIAT)
  18. 18. Challenges in South East Asia • Adverse effects of climate change with expectation of increasing incidence of flood, drought and coastal salinity • Increasing population and demand • Loss of arable land and competition for water due to urbanization • Inadequate supplies of high quality seeds and inputs • Vulnerability of farmers to biotic and abiotic shocks • Aging farm populations and increasing labor costs • High levels of crop losses in quality and quantity along the production – post harvest value chain Photo: Georgina Smith (CIAT)
  19. 19. Vietnam’s mitigation plan: Agricultural subsectors • Enteric fermentation • Manure management • Rice cultivation • Agriculture soils • Prescribed burning of savannas • Field burning of agricultural residues Photo: V. Meadu (CCAFS)
  20. 20. CCAFS target countries Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Colombia Ghana Senegal Mali Niger Burkina Faso Tanzania Kenya Ethiopia Uganda India Nepal Bangladesh Cambodia Vietnam Laos

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