Tapio-Bistrom - Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture Programme
MICCA – mitigation of climatechange in agriculture programme Marja-Liisa Tapio-Biström Senior Climate Change Officer Natural Resources Management and Environment Department FAO
Outline1. MICCA project2. Agriculture and cc mitigation3. Agriculture and practice based mitigation financing4. Conclusions
MICCA (Mitigation of Climate Change inAgriculture) - Program GoalSupport of efforts for climate change mitigation through agriculture by moving towards carbon friendly agricultural practices and climate smart agriculture Residue management
Output Development of emissions database and life cycle analysis (LCA) & mitigation potentials and costs Global economic analysis of mitigation policy options Analysis of potential of different practices/technologies/ investments to enhance food security, adaptive capacity and mitigation benefits Technical support to UNFCCC negotiations and capacity building of developing countries Establishment of communities of practice Development of 5 smallholder pilot projects
Background Foundation is a 5 year multi-donor trust fund, 2010-2014 , 10 million US$ 3.8 million US$ for 2 years by Finland 3 million for three years from Norway for emission statistics Involvement of different technical departments of FAO
2. AG mitigation basics the aim of agriculture is to produce food and other necessities and livelihoods the demand of food will increase some 70 % by 2050 GHG are emitted in natural production processes
Basics the main goal of agriculture is never to mitigate climate change a major challenge to adapt to weather variability and in longer term changing climate a very large mitigation potential which should be tapped – requires adaptation to cc
We need to transform agricultural production systems so that they are more productive, resilient and minimize their net emissions per produced units = climate smart agriculture
Agriculture, land use change and forestdegradation - a landscape approach increased productivity on existing farming areas prevents deforestation - with a caveat – needs carrots and whips need to develop integrated food-and energy systems to reach food and energy security – prevents forest degradation
We need climate smart agriculture technical knowledge exists for increased productivity, resilience and reduction of net emissions we need incorporation of cc issues in agricultural policies we need a lot more investments in agriculture – BUT to climate smart agriculture
Financing for mitigation -Thequestion: How could What kind of agriculture tap mechanisms would existing financing support integration mechanisms? of mitigation considerations into small scale farming?
Logic of mitigation financing ex-post payments rigorous MRV additionality separation of mitigation and adaptation
Specific for soil-carbonsequestration carbon sequestration is a long process, the results come gradually- a saturation point the impetus for continuing practices that sequestrate must come from improved productivity
Climate financing for agriculture climate financing which support transformation to climate smart agriculture specific funds designed for agriculture and based on the logic of farming investment support to transform practices and tide farmers over a period of reduced output credit systems, support for research, extension etc. creative combination of different financing sources
What about carbon markets andsmall farmers – what could work? practice based approach – monitor practices, which are transformed to emission factors aggregation mechanisms key for management of transaction costs (down) we are talking about contracts
Actors in mitigation financing “C MARKET” “BUYERS” PRODUCERS
MRV- Emission factors withpractice based packages emission factor is based on practice package, soil type, agro-ecological zone and land use history for ex. a package might include for coffeeleguminous shade trees, mulching, fertilizer use instructions or compost different tools have been developed like cool farm tool, for monitoring purposes the packages must be well defined
How do we establish the emissionfactors we need better data on emissions from different farming practices we need long term research sites with careful measurements (USA OK, Africa not) we need databases for storing the information systematically(regional) we need development of practice packages (LCA)
Transaction costs - contracts existing contract systems as models and means to decrease transaction costs for ex. contract farming, certification systems for organic agriculture, fair-trade, c-smart brand credit systems – payments back in carbon? conditionality for aid carbon tax?
A bundled contract net emissions reduction water shed management biodiversity
Remuneration for farmers increased production per unit reduced risk better price new market opportunities investment support /credit extension service better varieties/animal breeds investment for irrigation systems tenure security
Barriers for adoption of ccpractices lack of knowledge (extension system) lack of suitable genetic material (research extensions linkages) lack of tenure security (long term land use right arrangements) lack of investments (credit, investment support) lack of infrastructure (strategic public investment) weak farmer organizations (supportive policies) lack of market access
Buyer perspective a ‘coffee company’ can establish a brand – better price can sell the carbon in off-set or voluntary markets off-set its own emissions credit institutions can have public or private funding as capital , can also sell the carbon donors can create a climate smart “conditionality”
5. Conclusions agriculture is part of the problem and the solution to climate change climate change and food security must be addressed together –adaptation and mitigation are linked investments to agriculture must be climate smart. better data on emissions based on farming practices must be produced
KNOWLEDGE GAPS 1 Lack of statistics and analysis on emissions and mitigation potential What kind of financing systems will enable climate smart agriculture? What is needed to increase mitigation and adaptation financing links to agricultural systems?
KNOWLEDGE GAPS 2 How can REDD systems be designed to be compatible with country dev. objectives/ capacity? What are the changes in cropping, livestock, forestry and fishery systems and policies needed for adaptation? What are the implications for mitigation of changes to achieve food security from agricultural systems?
KNOWLEDGE GAPS 3 Where are synergies between food security, adaptation and mitigation in smallholder agriculture? What institutions and policies are needed at international, national and local levels to capture potential synergies?