Tackling Innovation in Climate Change Research
Patti Kristjanson + Christine Jost
Science Domain 6 + CCAFS
20 May 2014
ICR...
Climate Change – A Wicked Problem
Wicked problems – complex,
uncertain, ever-evolving,
multiplicity of stakeholders
and pe...
Innovation
"An innovation is something original, new, and important in
whatever field that breaks in to a market or societ...
Researching Innovation in the Context of
Climate Change
Main Question: How do we achieve large-scale
smallholder agricultu...
Focus on Partners
Research prioritization, design, implementation and
evaluation with and by partners
– Problem focused
– ...
Evidence-based and forward-looking climate
and agriculture strategies and policies
Strategy: Work with experts (Oxford Uni...
The CCAFS Scenarios Program
Research Question: Can a participatory approach be used to develop regional
socio-economic sce...
The CCAFS Scenarios Program
Lessons Learned: Explorative scenarios and normative back-casting methods have a
steep learnin...
Innovative Communication
Strategy: Work with an established private sector ICT company that
reaches millions of farmers (M...
Shamba Shape-up
Key Findings:
– >3 million weekly viewers
– 8 CG CC technologies
highlighted in season 4
– Proportion view...
Shamba Shape-up
Lessons: When presented in a creative format, dissemination of CSA
information via television can reach a ...
Research Communication
Strategy: Use ICT to bring people
together to interact with, use and
improve K2A findings
– 5 video...
Farmer-led Innovation
Strategy: Embedding research in development processes and
strengthening capacities to innovate and a...
Key findings re: Farmer-led innovation
• Greater food and nutrition security - through higher yields, better
storage and i...
Key Lesson re: Farmer-led innovation
So we have some evidence that farmer-led processes of
research and innovation in agri...
Climate Change and Social Learning
“If research is genuinely to result in beneficial changes in behaviour, policies
and in...
Participatory Action Research (PAR)
“PAR in agriculture is a methodology that embraces iterative cycles of co-
inquiry by ...
Socially Inclusive Research and Development
for Climate Change and Food Security
Initial Strategy: Work with FAO, experien...
Key findings in implementing these new
gender-CC tools in 3 countries/regions
• Women are constrained in adopting climate-...
Socially Inclusive Research and Development
for Climate Change and Food Security
New Research Question: Can the capacity o...
Gender and Social Differentiation
Our theory of change: We will have more of an impact if we target and
successfully reach...
Surveys: How do we understand CC in dynamic systems?
Perceptions Driving Changes in Smallholder Agriculture in Africa and ...
Grappling with food security
• Dependent variable: # of
food deficit months
• Variables: Credit, cash
source, education, H...
Predictive models of land and soil health
were developed by the ICRAF GeoScience
Lab (landscapesportal.org), based on
glob...
Larger size bubble indicates
more diverse land management
Biophysical constraints often limit management options;
bringing...
Big Challenges
Researching innovation is a new science; we are still
learning how and why to do this research
• Where and ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Tackling Innovation in Climate Change Research, presentation by Chris Jost and Patti Kristjanson CCAFS

2,940 views

Published on

Summary of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) work on Linking Knowledge with Action. This research theme aims to identify ways to catalyze action from knowledge about long-term adaptation, climate risk management and low emissions agriculture so that we can achieve this global vision as quickly as possible.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,940
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,170
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • CC has been described as a wicked problem because it’s really complex.
    This complexity can be described in multiple ways: big number of stakeholders, multiplicity of views, difficult to describe, challenge to research, uncertainties, urgency…
    The point is, this kind of problem needs a different research approach if we have any hope of solving it.
    In terms of CC, ag. and food security, science can no longer be linear with experts providing stakeholders with information and solutions.
    Science must work from a collective platform for learning and adapting to a wicked problem.
  • We knew we’d be asked for a definition of innovation, and yes we consulted our good friend Wikipedia!
    In a research context, Spielman et al. provides a systems framework where innovation is embedded…
    The point is that innovation is more than creating something new or improving something.
    It is a change in institutions that allows for a process leading to changes in behavior that supports wide-spread long-term impact.
    With institution defined as….
  • The various CCAFS themes are looking at questions such as the urgency of CC in agriculture., CSA technologies and practices, farmer-led mitigation, and addressing current risks.
    In the K2A research theme, our main research question is: How do we achieve large-scale smallholder agricultural development in the urgent context of climate change?
    A classic approach in tackling this K2A mandate in the CGIAR would be ‘research into use’, in which experts create research outputs, and the K2A team would bridge the gap between output and the large world of beneficiaries. Cash (2006) called this the loading dock approach to disseminating research outputs – put the output on the loading doc and the plethera of beneficiaries would back up their trucks, load up and take it away to use it.
    Instead, the K2A theme is taking a ‘research in development’ approach, where development impacts serve as the measure of success or failure, and research is done development partners supported by the research partner.
    Note the clear difference between research in development, and ‘research for development’, where there is a conceptual linear differentiation between the research and next-user communities in which the researchers are seen as developing solutions to problems and the partners are expected to take these outputs and disseminate them.
  • The research in development places priority on identifying high potential partners with innovative ideas to address development priorities, and supporting them in the design, implementation and evaluation of research on their innovations.
    This gives us the flexibility to consult with partners and do research on problems that our partners and the communities they work with have identified as being the highest priority for climate change, agriculture and food security.
    The research takes place in development contexts, allowing for the documentation of findings in real time.
    And because our partners own the research process, the mechanisms are already in place to scale-up successes – the loading doc has been eliminated.
    Our partners are doing research in 4 key areas: policy, communication and extension, gender and social differentiation, and research design
  • Case Study Approach: 100 case studies of farmer-led innovation supported by CSOs were identified by issuing a general call (crowdsourcing), doing a Web search on selected keywords, and a scan of selected literature and direct contact with individuals who could provide relevant information; 11 studied in depth
    Case studies: most involved techniques related to land improvement, soil and water conservation, crop production, and crop and animal protection.
    Few examples of techniques for storing and processing produce and for livestock husbandry, or innovations related to social, institutional and organisational aspects

    Criteria to choose case studies:
    Research process is/was participatory by design and co-managed by smallholders
    Case not likely to be picked up in a review of cases in mainstream (“formal”) research
    Could include intervention of bilateral project implemented with local and/or international NGOs
    Interventions by CSOs, including both NGOs and farmer organisations, or organisations with a mixture of CSO programmes and advisory/consultancy work (e.g. ITDG/Practical Action)
    Involving not just a single farmer’s own experimentation but some kind of structured interaction with others in (action) research, including community-based groups
    Availability of some documented evidence of impact
    Intervention happened several years ago or has been going on for at least a couple of years so that some impacts might be visible.
  • Evidence of greater food and nutrition security through higher yields, better storage and increased crop diversity
    In most cases, the farmer-led innovations allowed farmers to accumulate savings and to invest in assets
    Most of the interventions involved reduced use of chemical inputs
    Community-level impacts were rarely mentioned
    Experimentation, especially with introduced technologies, tended to bring more benefits to medium and better-off farmers than to poorer households, especially women-headed ones.
  • It turns out that a social learning approach (working with a large group with the same goal) may bet the best way to address this tough question.
  • It is difficult in research to conceptualize longitudinal studies that capture iterative cycles of co-learning and refinement, and to publish results from citizen scientists; this is what we need to be doing in our research sites, like FTA’s ‘learning landscapes’
  • Chris
  • Chris
  • Chris
  • We need to carefully define such research. The big data survey is an important friend of the research community, as it allows us to control for bias and confounders, and identify large-scale trends.
    But in researching innovation, we often need to start by testing a small idea and then challenging successful pilots at a large scale using combined methods that provide an evaluation of impact as well as descriptive information about how and why that impact happened.
  • Researching innovation is a new science
    We are still learning how and why to do this research
  • Tackling Innovation in Climate Change Research, presentation by Chris Jost and Patti Kristjanson CCAFS

    1. 1. Tackling Innovation in Climate Change Research Patti Kristjanson + Christine Jost Science Domain 6 + CCAFS 20 May 2014 ICRAF Research Seminar Nairobi
    2. 2. Climate Change – A Wicked Problem Wicked problems – complex, uncertain, ever-evolving, multiplicity of stakeholders and perspectives Need to move beyond expert approach – evaluation and advice To consultative processes – collective understanding and response CCAFS. 2013. Unlocking the potential of social learning for climate change and food security: Wicked problems and non-traditional solutions. http://hdl.handle.net/10568/27781
    3. 3. Innovation "An innovation is something original, new, and important in whatever field that breaks in to a market or society”. (Wikepedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation#cite_ref-1, accessed 20 May 2014) “[An innovation systems] framework embeds technological change within a larger, more complex system of interactions among diverse actors, organizational cultures and practices, learning behaviors and cycles, and rules and norms. (Spielman et al. Technology in Society, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2009.10.004) A process If you’re not living on the edge, you’re taking up too much space.
    4. 4. Researching Innovation in the Context of Climate Change Main Question: How do we achieve large-scale smallholder agricultural development in the urgent context of climate change? Knowledge to action approaches • Research into use – the loading dock (Cash et al. Science, Technology & Human Values, 2006, 31(4), doi: 10.1177/0162243906287547) • Research in development – research done in development contexts with development partners
    5. 5. Focus on Partners Research prioritization, design, implementation and evaluation with and by partners – Problem focused – Flexible – Consultative – Timely discovery – Established scaling mechanisms – Ownership Our Research: Policy, communication, capacity, gender and social differentiation
    6. 6. Evidence-based and forward-looking climate and agriculture strategies and policies Strategy: Work with experts (Oxford University) in the field to develop a CCAFS Scenarios Program – Supports national and regional climate change strategies and policies using mixed qualitative/quantitative socio-economic scenarios in 5 CCAFS regions (LA, WA, EA, SA, SEA) Jumpstarts stakeholders when processes aren’t available for agriculture and food security planning in a changing climate Encourages champions to use scenarios in promoting planning for climate change Engages new partners in policy processes Chaudhury, M., J. Vervoort, P. Kristjanson, P. Ericksen, and A. Ainslie. 2012. Reg. Env. Change, DOI 10.1007/s10113-012-0350-1
    7. 7. The CCAFS Scenarios Program Research Question: Can a participatory approach be used to develop regional socio-economic scenarios for use in climate change and agriculture planning, and will stakeholders use them? Approach: Participatory qualitative scenarios quantified with IMPACT and Globiom (partial equilibrium market models), then backcasting Key Findings: – Focus on regional stakeholders and priority setting processes has ensured suitability of scenarios in specific regional contexts – 24 initiatives taken forward by participants – Champions: • ECOWAS/CCAFS West Africa • KARI East Africa • LEAD Pakistan • ASEAN • Private sector and media in Southeast Asia Vervoot et al. Global Environ. Change (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.03.001 Carey C. 2014. The CCAFS Regional Scenarios Programme: External Evaluation Report on Progress Towards Programme Outcomes. Copenhagen, Denmark. http://hdl.handle.net/10568/34994
    8. 8. The CCAFS Scenarios Program Lessons Learned: Explorative scenarios and normative back-casting methods have a steep learning curve, requiring facilitation and capacity building over the longer-term New question: How can multi-stakeholder-generated, qualitative/quantitative scenarios be used to improve decision-making for better food security, rural livelihoods and environments under conditions of climatic and socio-economic change? – Bounded, partner-led regional case studies in 5 regions 2014-2015 – Pre-defined policy objective – Consensus indicators Challenges – Policy strategy and planning is a dynamic process with too many variables for controlled research – Documenting how a case was implemented is as important as evaluating indicators of success
    9. 9. Innovative Communication Strategy: Work with an established private sector ICT company that reaches millions of farmers (Mediae) to disseminate CSA information. Research Question: At what scale can agriculture research and development stakeholders reach smallholder farmers with CSA technologies and practices using ICT-based platforms, and what is the impact in terms of adoption and adaptation? Approach: 2 new methods to disseminating information – Television to reach farmers with CSA information – Multiple platforms for K2A dissemination
    10. 10. Shamba Shape-up Key Findings: – >3 million weekly viewers – 8 CG CC technologies highlighted in season 4 – Proportion viewers learning something new 89% – Proportion changing >1 farming practice 46% Median net soil fertility benefit for Kenya: 13,746,233 US D Makeover style TV show in EA (Swahili + English) The Mediae Company – SSU series 2+3 KAPs Report. Dec 2013 ACAR – SSU Series 1 Development Benefit and Systematic Impact Report. Sep 2013
    11. 11. Shamba Shape-up Lessons: When presented in a creative format, dissemination of CSA information via television can reach a wide audience. New questions: – What is the impact in terms of adoption and adaptation? – Is a video-based product restricted to television, or can its use be by other partners using different platforms? – What would be the reach and impact in other regions with other ICT-based platforms? 2015 objectives: – Expand the reach of CSA content from the widely successful television program Shamba Shape-up into other extension platforms in EA. – Identify ICT-based dissemination and extension opportunities in other CCAFS regions that have the potential to bring CSA information to millions of smallholder farmers per region. – Develop a robust M+E system to measure the impact of ICT-based mass dissemination of CSA technologies and practices on adoption and adaptation.
    12. 12. Research Communication Strategy: Use ICT to bring people together to interact with, use and improve K2A findings – 5 videos in 2013 – 1 white board teaching tool – 18 bogs (4,541 UPV) in 2013 – K2A Website (5,729 UPV in 2013) – 5 learning notes – 3 policy briefs – Presentations – Workshops – Storyfy – 2011-2013 Research Publications – 12 journal/book articles, 8 working papers Online Communities – Climate change social learning and communication: http://ccsl.wikispaces.com/Sandbox – CCAFS Impact Pathways and Theory of Change Resource Site: http://ccafs-ip-toc- cd.wikispaces.com/ – CCAFS working Group on impact pathways and M&E for results-based management GoogleGroup – Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change Research Network: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?mostRecent =&trk=&gid=6657402 – CGIAR Gender and Agricultural Research Network CCAFS page: https://sites.google.com/a/cgxchange.org/ge nder-ag-research-network/ccafs-gender-and- climate-change – CCAFS Gender Researchers Google Group Lessons Learnt: We are reaching people, but we don’t have indicators of outcomes Research Question: Are we enabling outcomes with our various communication platforms?
    13. 13. Farmer-led Innovation Strategy: Embedding research in development processes and strengthening capacities to innovate and adapt • e.g. CG partnership with PROLINNOVA – an NGO-led international network that promotes local innovation processes Research question: have farmer-led processes of research and innovation in agriculture and NRM led to improvements in rural livelihoods? – Photo: IFPRI
    14. 14. Key findings re: Farmer-led innovation • Greater food and nutrition security - through higher yields, better storage and increased crop diversity • In most cases, farmers accumulating savings and investing in assets • Higher agrobiodiversity and a reduction in use of chemical inputs in many cases But, • Community-level impacts were rarely mentioned • Experimentation, especially with introduced technologies, tended to bring more benefits to medium and better-off farmers than to poorer households, especially women-headed ones • Institutionalizing the approach (e.g. in extension) remains a big challenge Wettasinha et al. 2014, PROLINNOVA with AAS and CCAFS
    15. 15. Key Lesson re: Farmer-led innovation So we have some evidence that farmer-led processes of research and innovation in agriculture and NRM led to improvements in rural livelihoods. But the key lesson is that: Innovations are often location-specific and cannot be scaled up easily; it’s the approach of farmer-led experimentation that can be scaled out. So, our new research question becomes: ‘How do we make this work at scale?’ And, we can only explore this with partners like PROLINNOVA, local governments or NGO’s that are supporting this approach on the ground with communities! Photo: V.Atakos
    16. 16. Climate Change and Social Learning “If research is genuinely to result in beneficial changes in behaviour, policies and institutions, research outputs need to be much better informed by and engaged with the processes through which individuals, communities and societies learn and adapt their behaviour in the face of change” Research question: Under what conditions are social learning approaches effective, replicable and/or scalable, and sustainable? Approach: crowdsourcing a large number of case studies that use the same conceptual framework Kristjanson et al. Nature Climate Change 4, 5–7 (2014) doi:10.1038/nclimate2080 http://ccsl.wikispaces.com/ Photo: Cgiarclimate
    17. 17. Participatory Action Research (PAR) “PAR in agriculture is a methodology that embraces iterative cycles of co- inquiry by communities and experts to test potential solutions to problems in realistic local settings” While there has been lots of ‘participatory’ research going on, its been largely diagnostic in nature; what’s new and needed is a longitudinal approach analyzing the adoption of continually improving solutions to a community’s most pressing agricultural problems. Jost, C. 2014. ‘Socially Inclusive Research and Development for Climate Change and Food Security: A practitioners guide, forthcoming, CCAFS. Photo: Cgiarclimate
    18. 18. Socially Inclusive Research and Development for Climate Change and Food Security Initial Strategy: Work with FAO, experienced in using participatory approaches for understanding issues of gender, climate change, ag and food security, to refine/target these tools to address CCAFS initial priority gender research questions, concerning: – Male and female awareness and adoption of CSA practices – Women and men sharing adaptation strategies in climate analogue villages – Male and female access and use of climate information Training guide, available in 3 languages, has been downloaded over 10,000 times http://hdl.handle.net/10568/21790 Photo: WORLD BANK
    19. 19. Key findings in implementing these new gender-CC tools in 3 countries/regions • Women are constrained in adopting climate-smart ag practices (lack of cash, assets, access to information, cultural norms, labour issues, low literacy, etc.) • CSA research needs to focus on modification of technologies and practices to overcome constraints, and catalyze gender-targeted institutional change • Participatory approaches are a powerful tool for understanding institutional aspects governing control over, access to, and use of resources & changes over time • Descriptive/diagnostic research alone is not sufficient for catalyzing gender transformation • Through development partnerships, we can begin to shift our focus to PAR-based exploration of adaptation options Chaudhury et al, CCAFS WP19 http://ccafs.cgiar.org/publications/
    20. 20. Socially Inclusive Research and Development for Climate Change and Food Security New Research Question: Can the capacity of stakeholders to implement gender-responsive and socially-sensitive climate change, agriculture and food security programs be increased by using participatory action research? Our Approach: – Help stakeholders use participatory approaches to gather information to design socially inclusive programs on CC, ag and food security – Co-develop, taking a social learning approach, a tool that allows a user to select tools appropriate to their needs in the areas of: Co- production of Knowledge, Climate Resilient Agriculture, Climate Information Systems, Mitigation, and Knowledge Synthesis – Partnerships (CARE, WeEffect) to field test guide – Partner-led training programs based on individual needs – Companion Manuals in development: • Gender and climate change PAR • Gender and climate change project development and M+E
    21. 21. Gender and Social Differentiation Our theory of change: We will have more of an impact if we target and successfully reach women • IFPRI-ILRI-ICRAF-CIAT intra-hh gender CC study in 4 countries • Key finding: Women are much less likely to be aware of ‘climate smart’ agricultural practices, but when they are aware, they are just as likely to adopt them • New research question: how best do we target climate smart practices and knowledge to women? • Large N survey? Photo: World Development Movement.
    22. 22. Surveys: How do we understand CC in dynamic systems? Perceptions Driving Changes in Smallholder Agriculture in Africa and Asia* Key Findings: – Markets most important driver of changes to ag. practices, followed by climate – Markets most important livestock practices change, then diseases then climate – Main response to market drivers: crop management changes – Main response to climate drivers: land management changes – EA farmers: Most adaptive, focusing on productivity, most responsive to climate drivers • Machakos most adaptive site • Borana least adaptive site – SA farmers: Less adaptive, focusing on intensification, almost non-responsive to climate drivers • Bagerhat least adaptive site, only site where climate drives change rather than markets – WA farmers: Least adaptive, focusing on land management, low responsiveness to climate drivers • Lawra-Jirpa most adaptive site • Segou least adaptive site *Analysis of CCAFS HH baseline, Jost et al. in process
    23. 23. Grappling with food security • Dependent variable: # of food deficit months • Variables: Credit, cash source, education, HHSIZE, HHnonworkers, information, land, production, ProdDiversity, site, transport, innovativeness, soil, water • These variables explained 40% of variation Graphic from: Kristjanson et al., 2012 Food Sec. (2012) 4:381–397 DOI 10.1007/s12571-012-0194-z Using the CCAFS Baseline Survey
    24. 24. Predictive models of land and soil health were developed by the ICRAF GeoScience Lab (landscapesportal.org), based on global LDSF datasets. Extracting SOC and erosion values from MODIS imagery using HH coordinates. Strong relationship between SOC and erosion. Source: Winowiecki, Vågen et al, in process Soil and land health
    25. 25. Larger size bubble indicates more diverse land management Biophysical constraints often limit management options; bringing together the socioeconomic data and LDSF information will help us better understand behavioural change Land Health and Diversity of Farmer Management Practices Source: Winowiecki, Vågen et al, in process
    26. 26. Big Challenges Researching innovation is a new science; we are still learning how and why to do this research • Where and when are large N studies called for; building on existing K critical to make sure we are asking the right questions • Are we asking the right questions? The question must drive the research approach(es) • Outcomes are place specific – our research/sentinel sites are key • Keeping a focus on enabling action

    ×