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Strengthening Farmer Adaptive
Capacity through Farms of the Future
Approach in Nyando, western Kenya
Philip Kimeli
CCAFS E...
Background
 East Africa climate is rapidly changing
 Precipitation projection shows an increase in rainfall amounts
and ...
Climate Analogues
 Climate Analogues - sites that experience conditions with
statistical similarity, in terms of current ...
Farms of the Future Approach (FotF)
 The climate-analogue tool is used to connect farmers to their
possible future climat...
Nyando is one of the
CCAFS research sites
Research collaboration
amongst researchers,
local partners and
farmers
Evalua...
 Nyando is characterized by humid to sub-humid climate
 Subsistence farming - mixed rain fed crop-livestock farming
syst...
FotF Process
7
Climate modelling
Planning workshop with
AIS and farmers
Learning journey Farmers and
AIS stakeholders
Part...
Identifying Nyando climate spatial
analogues sites
 Using rainfall and temperatures
variables & socio-economic factors
 ...
The Learning Journey
9
 8 days
 16 farmers (7 men and 9 women)
 7 Agricultural Innovations Stakeholders
Climate Resilient Innovations
farmers learned
 Soil and water management
Terraces, water harvesting structures, Zai pits...
Climate Resilient Innovations
farmers learned
Livestock interventions
 Resilient breed (small ruminants) & feed manageme...
Farmer Reflections and Lessons
Learned…1
 Farmers explored future scenarios - encouraging forward-
thinking as they prepa...
Farmer Reflections and Lessons
Learned…2
 Social and cultural practices hinder adaptation - Access
to & control over reso...
Challenges
 Climate modeling and projections have inherent
uncertainties
 Women had to seek consent from husbands to par...
Conclusions
 Farms of the Future Approach can enable farmers to learn
and begin to read the world differently
 It helps ...
8 March 2016
Thank you
16
To learn more about the tool and methodology, you can visit our
homepage:
http://www.ccafs-analo...
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Strengthening Farmer Adaptive Capacity through Farms of the Future Approach in Nyando, western Kenya

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This is a presentation for CCAFS East Africa by Philip Kimeli at the Symposium on Climate Change Adaptation in Africa 2016 "Fostering African Resilience and Capacity to Adapt" in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 21st-23rd February 2016

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Strengthening Farmer Adaptive Capacity through Farms of the Future Approach in Nyando, western Kenya

  1. 1. Strengthening Farmer Adaptive Capacity through Farms of the Future Approach in Nyando, western Kenya Philip Kimeli CCAFS East Africa 1
  2. 2. Background  East Africa climate is rapidly changing  Precipitation projection shows an increase in rainfall amounts and variability (leading to floods, droughts, landslides)  Average annual temperature will rise by between 1°C and 5°C, typically 1°C by 2020s and 4°C by 2100.  Impacts of these changes - increased crop failures, pest and disease outbreaks, water scarcity, livestock losses etc  Farmers are already adapting to changing climate - marginal changes and not transformational In order to strengthen adaptive capacity and encourage transformative changes, farmers need to understand what their future climate is likely to be. 2
  3. 3. Climate Analogues  Climate Analogues - sites that experience conditions with statistical similarity, in terms of current or future climate  Key variables - rainfall and temperature (30 years data). Other variables - soils, crops and socioeconomic  The analogue locates a site whose climate today is similar to the given future of a place of interest (i.e. where can we find today the future climate of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia?)  By 2100, there will be 30% novel climates under climate change, implying there are 70% of already existing climates sites!  Practical application of analogues is through the Farms of the Future (FotF) approach 3
  4. 4. Farms of the Future Approach (FotF)  The climate-analogue tool is used to connect farmers to their possible future climates through farmer-to-farmer learning exchanges…FotF  Objectives of the FotF approach:  Build on farmer-to-farmer exchanges to analogue sites to improve adaptive capacity and support knowledge exchange, including technology transfer.  Improve understanding of local practices and available tools and resources to enable transformative change Piloted in Lushoto (Tanzania) and Nyando (Kenya). 4
  5. 5. Nyando is one of the CCAFS research sites Research collaboration amongst researchers, local partners and farmers Evaluate and maximize synergies across a portfolio of climate- smart agricultural interventions Case Study: Nyando, Western Kenya 5
  6. 6.  Nyando is characterized by humid to sub-humid climate  Subsistence farming - mixed rain fed crop-livestock farming systems  Low and erratic rainfall (900-1200mm annually)  Small farm sizes (averaging <1 ha)  High poverty rates  High rate of HIV / AIDS  Food insecurity (hungry 4mnths/yr) Biophysical & Social Characteristics of Nyando 6
  7. 7. FotF Process 7 Climate modelling Planning workshop with AIS and farmers Learning journey Farmers and AIS stakeholders Participatory evaluation of learning journey & feedback sessions  Identify possible climate analogue sites/ learning opportunities  Share the lessons by showing their films to community  Facilitate farmer / stakeholder learning  Documentation (video & photography)  Learning journey & documentation of the lessons learned
  8. 8. Identifying Nyando climate spatial analogues sites  Using rainfall and temperatures variables & socio-economic factors  Different seasons (MAM, OND and all year), several analogues maps were generated (9 maps)  Engagement with AIS to identify the best analogue map that is representative of Nyando future climate  The analogue sites identified were mainly semi-arid areas of western Kenya  This formed the farmer learning journey 8
  9. 9. The Learning Journey 9  8 days  16 farmers (7 men and 9 women)  7 Agricultural Innovations Stakeholders
  10. 10. Climate Resilient Innovations farmers learned  Soil and water management Terraces, water harvesting structures, Zai pits  Agricultural and farm mechanization (tools and equipment) Maize sheller, boom sprayer machine mounted with planter carrying seed and fertilizer (minimum tillage)  Agro processing and value additions Solar drier, Groundnut roaster, peanut butter machine 10
  11. 11. Climate Resilient Innovations farmers learned Livestock interventions  Resilient breed (small ruminants) & feed management  Crop diversification and management  Resilient crop varieties (groundnuts, sorghum)  Better agronomic practices  Agro-forestry Integration of fruit trees  Institutional innovations  Community banks & SACCOs 11
  12. 12. Farmer Reflections and Lessons Learned…1  Farmers explored future scenarios - encouraging forward- thinking as they prepare for their future climate.  Motivation to act, articulate demand for technical and financial support – SACCO, community bank, engagement of local govt and NGOs  Access to finance for risk management 12
  13. 13. Farmer Reflections and Lessons Learned…2  Social and cultural practices hinder adaptation - Access to & control over resources is critical for equitable adaptation  Adaptive capacity requires innovation - The ability and willingness to innovate is included as a key part of the adaptive capacity framework  Collective action & changes in decision-making to build resilience - The increased uncertainties created by a changing climate requires coordinated action 13
  14. 14. Challenges  Climate modeling and projections have inherent uncertainties  Women had to seek consent from husbands to participate in learning journey and also to implement the innovations learned.  Implementing the innovations is a challenge due to lack of technical expertise  Innovation require initial high investment capital and demands for intensive training i.e. bee keeping 14
  15. 15. Conclusions  Farms of the Future Approach can enable farmers to learn and begin to read the world differently  It helps farmers think critically about their future and encourage them to start acting  The learning journey enabled farmers and AIS to better envision how their site-specific agricultural future might look  It facilitated exchange of knowledge through which strategies and farming information can be shared  Strengthening adaptive capacity will also require institutional support, extensive capacity building, structural and policy changes 15
  16. 16. 8 March 2016 Thank you 16 To learn more about the tool and methodology, you can visit our homepage: http://www.ccafs-analogues.org/tool/ http://www.ccafs-climate.org/data/

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