Scaling up climate_services


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Scaling up climate_services

  1. 1. Scaling up Climate Services for Farmers > Mission Possible Lessons from Africa and South Asia Dr. Arame Tall CCAFS Climate Services- Global coordinator, Champion
  2. 2. 2 Climate Services 101: Premise: Information is Power
  3. 3. 3 Climate services: Information is Power
  4. 4. 4 _and_tables.shtml Projections of precipitation change at the end of the 21st century
  5. 5. 5 Droughts are affecting greater land area, especially in the semi- arid subtropics – areas that are already vulnerable to large variability in precipitation from year to year Source: Bates et al 2008
  6. 6. 6 “A global perspective on African climate” in Climatic Change [Giannini, Biasutti, Held and Sobel] Uncertainty Remains Large Climate change > Exacerbation of current climate variability
  7. 7. 7 How to support adaptation under uncertainty? • A solution: improve decision-making under uncertainty • Equip farmers and policy makers with climate information, early warnings and forecasts to guide decision-making under uncertainty • Strengthen preparedness at timescales of the week > season > years
  8. 8. 8 Access to relevant climate information can empower farmers to anticipate and confront climate- related risks and opportunities Why Climate Services for Farmers?
  9. 9. Long Before the Season Historical Climate Data sans sequence seches (10 jours dans 21) gfedcb Premiere date pour le semi gfedcb 2010 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 13 Jul 28 Jun 13 Jun 29 May 14 May 29 Apr Seasonal Forecasts from During the Season Short-term Forecast & Warnings Just Before the Season Seasonal Forecast & revise planning Participatory Planning Shortly After the Season Review weather, production, forecasts & process
  10. 10. 10 Salience: tailoring content, scale, format, lead-time to farm decision- making Legitimacy: giving farmers an effective voice in design and delivery Access: providing timely access to remote rural communities with marginal infrastructure Equity: ensuring that women, poor, socially marginalized benefit Integration: climate services as part of a larger package of extension support Challenges to realizing the potential of climate services for farmers
  11. 11. 11 18 Good Practice Cases from Africa to South Asia Involving farmers through rain gauges in Mali’s 30-year Agromet advisory program Delivering tailored 5 day agro-met advisories for 3+ million farmers in India’s Integra -ted Agromet Advisory Service Program Cell-phone based information service delivery in Uganda Grameen Foundation’s “Community Knowledge Workers” Project More at: scalingup.iri. Farmer Seasonal Forecast Training in Wote, Kenya Lushoto: Co-producing climate services with farmers CIMMYT: Assessing Farmers’ Information Needs in the Indo- Gangetic Plains of India Kaffrine: Putting downscaled climate forecasts into farmers’ hands
  12. 12. 12 Everyone has a role to Play in Linking Information to Action Credit: ArameTall, CCAFS Final end users (farmers, pastoralists, vulnerable communities) National-level end users (rural development planners, policy makers, seed distributors, fertilizer industry, private sector) Communicators and boundary organizations (media, agricultural extension, NGOs, CBOs) National Agricultural Research and Extension National Hydro- Meteorological Services Production of downscaled forecasts Value-addition of climate information –> production of agromet advisory Two-way communication of climate information and advisory services Building the national chain for climate servicesFig. 1: Different stakeholders and roles in climate service production, tailoring and communication
  13. 13. 13 Global Regional National Fig. 2: Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) national consultation Workshops in Burkina, Niger and Mali (July-Sep. 2012) Bringing stakeholders together in Selingue, Mali to agree on a Roadmap for delivering climate services for End- users. More at: ational_workshops The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS): promoting coordinated national frameworks
  14. 14. 14 • Co-production of climate services • Bridging the gap between climate, agricultural research and farmers • Scalable communications channels to reach “the last mile” • Continuous assessment to improve the quality of service • Target the needs of the most vulnerable Climate services in action: learning from practice
  15. 15. 15 5 steps for scaling up climate services for millions of farmers
  16. 16. 16 • Doing this at scale > efficient mechanisms to engage legitimate farmer representatives, and to capture and map farmers’ evolving needs • One tool is Participatory Action Research > identify farmer adaptation needs, engage communities, capture local innovation #1: Involve farmers in the co- production of climate services
  17. 17. 17 • Dialogue between NMS, NARES, and farmers/farmer representatives •NMS can produce raw weather and climate information; NARES can translate this information into advice and support for farmers • Stengthen capacity of meteorological service to tailor climate information to end-user needs #2: Establish partnerships that bridge the gap between climate, agricultural research, and farmers
  18. 18. 18 Courtesy: J. Hansen, CCAFS/IRI
  19. 19. 19 Salient communication channels to reach most vulnerable:  SMS & voice messages in local languages  Forecast bulletin boards in strategic outposts across village (India/Kaffrine)  Community relays/boundary organizations > NGOs, CBOs, social networks (India/across)  At water boreholes (women in Kaffrine)  Rural radios, media professionals (Mali)  School children (Uganda) #3: Exploit scaleable communications channels to reach ‘the last mile’ Credit: Francesco Fiondella, IRI Credit: Arame Tall, CCAFS
  20. 20. 20 #4: Continuously assess to improve the quality of service delivery • Assess and reassess quality of services from the outset of projects • Fosters legitimacy and accountability through a formal mechanism to capture farmers’ voices and feedback • Informs improvement and tailoring of services to fit farmers’ needs • Provides evidence of costs and benefits of services for future investment
  21. 21. 21 Assessment Objectives: 1.To inform design of new climate services and projects; 2.To identify current gaps, and improve project effectiveness and service delivery for farmers; 3.To assess impact of provided services on farmers, and demonstrate project impact with a dollar value (towards outcome reporting). Testing an innovative M&E tool to assess climate services in India, Kenya, and Senegal
  22. 22. 22 • Place specificity of farmers’ needs • Proactively target the specific climate service needs of women and other underserved groups • Ensure their representation in institutional and governance arrangements #5: Target the most vulnerable Above: Soxna Ndao, Dioly village, stating: ‘We women, need information on when the rainy season will stop, as men plant for us later in the season’. Credit: A. Tall Left: Women Farmers in Amtrar, Himachal Pradesh (India), surveyed for their feedback on India’s AAS program. Credit: A. Tall, CCAFS
  23. 23. 23 Pulling the pieces together GFCS in Tanzania, Malawi: Reach ~10 M farmers + pastoralists in Tanzania, Malawi Addressing bottlenecks: National framework for Climate Services Capacity of NHMS to provide farmer-relevant information Evaluating impact by 2016 Training NGOs and agricultural extension
  24. 24. 24 1. Identifying good practice 2. Upscaling climate services to millions of farmers • Incentivizing legal and institutional frameworks • for climate services at the national level • Leveraging strong partnerships between NHMS and NARES • Training boundary organizations / media for wide communication 3. Developing methods for assessing livelihood impact: making the case for climate services CCAFS Strategy to scale up climate services for millions of farmers
  25. 25. 25 • Examples surveyed by CCAFS prove that it is today Mission Possible to reach millions of farmers with salient and downscaled climate information and advisory services relevant to support their decision-making under an uncertain climate. • It is time to scale up this approach for many other farmers to have access and benefit from available climate information and advisory services. • The time is right for climate services. Photo: Farmer in Ouelessebougou village, happy beneficiary of Mali’s 30 year old Agromet advisory program. Credit: A. Tall Reaching farmers with climate services at scale > Mission Possible
  26. 26. 26 • RQ1: Measuring Impact: Does tailored climate information and advisory services build farmers’ resilience? If so, HOW and UNDER WHICH CIRCUMSTANCES? (long term ex-ante experiments demonstrating use and value) • RQ2: Gender and Equity considerations in the design of Climate Services for Farmers: What added-value when female farmers and other marginalized groups are targeted in service delivery? • RQ3: Enabling Institutional Framework: Which methods to broker effective partnership between NHMS and NARES at national/regional levels for production and delivery of tailored climate services for farmers and food security decision-makers? • RQ4: Delivery at Scale: How to deliver information services at scale to reach millions of farmers? ICT-based technology and capacity building needs to impact at scale • RQ5: Climate Services in support of Livestock / Fishing Livelihoods CCAFS Climate Services Research 2015-2020
  27. 27. 27 New Partnership Opportunities • Secure a Client for our Research Outputs – Research Into Use  GFCS Programme in East Africa  Emerging bilateral partnership opportunities WMO, USAID (Rwanda, Africa), World Bank (Myanmar, Sahel) Stay Tuned….! • We can:  Inform Project design with CCAFS cutting-edge science  Broker introduction to relevant national stakeholders from research and agriculture in CCAFS priority countries  Bridge Connections with global partners on Climate Services  Organize joint knowledge events for development partners (Brownbags, Report Launch events)  Conduct Joint research in CCAFS pilot sites For more information, contact: Jim Hansen, CCAFS Program Leader, Arame Tall, Climate Services Coordinator,